GLRX2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GLRX2
Description: glutaredoxin 2
Alias: CGI-133, GRX2, glutaredoxin 2, bA101E13.1 (GRX2 glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) 2), glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) 2
Species: human
Products:     GLRX2

Top Publications

  1. Hoff K, Culler S, Nguyen P, McGuire R, Silberg J, Smolke C. In vivo fluorescent detection of Fe-S clusters coordinated by human GRX2. Chem Biol. 2009;16:1299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..of 2Fe2S clusters that is based upon the complementation of Venus fluorescent protein fragments via human glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2) coordination of a 2Fe2S cluster...
  2. Richter F, Gao F, Medvedeva V, Lee P, Bove N, Fleming S, et al. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;69:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes...
  3. Ye J, Nadar S, Li J, Rosen B. Structure of Escherichia coli Grx2 in complex with glutathione: a dual-function hybrid of glutaredoxin and glutathione S-transferase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2014;70:1907-13 pubmed publisher
    The structure of glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) from Escherichia coli co-crystallized with glutathione (GSH) was solved at 1.60 Å resolution...
  4. Wu K, Cui J, Liu J, Lu H, Zhong X, Klaassen C. RNA-Seq provides new insights on the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant components during mouse liver development. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019;134:335-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative splicing of several antioxidant genes, such as Keap1, Glrx2, Gpx3, and Txnrd1, were also detected by RNA-Seq...
  5. Wu H, Yu Y, David L, Ho Y, Lou M. Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) gene deletion induces early onset of age-dependent cataracts in mice. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:36125-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is an isozyme of glutaredoxin1 (thioltransferase) present in the mitochondria and nucleus with disulfide reductase and peroxidase activities, and it controls thiol/disulfide balance in cells...
  6. Romero J, Holubiec M, Tornatore T, Rivière S, Hanschmann E, Kölliker Frers R, et al. Neuronal Damage Induced by Perinatal Asphyxia Is Attenuated by Postinjury Glutaredoxin-2 Administration. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:4162465 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed the neuroprotective effects of postinjury, exogenous administration of Grx2 and Trx1 in a neonatal hypoxia/ischemia model...
  7. Herrero E, Belli G, Casa C. Structural and functional diversity of glutaredoxins in yeast. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2010;11:659-68 pubmed
    ..Some dithiol glutaredoxins such as human Grx2 form dimers bridged by one iron-sulfur cluster, which acts as a sensor of oxidative stress, therefore regulating ..
  8. Upadhyaya B, Tian X, Wu H, Lou M. Expression and distribution of thiol-regulating enzyme glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2) in porcine ocular tissues. Exp Eye Res. 2015;130:58-65 pubmed publisher
    Glutaredoxin2 (Grx2) is a mitochondrial isozyme of the cytosolic glutaredoxin1 (thioltransferase or TTase)...
  9. Ouyang Y, Peng Y, Li J, Holmgren A, Lu J. Modulation of thiol-dependent redox system by metal ions via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Metallomics. 2018;10:218-228 pubmed publisher
    ..Iron ions participate in regulating Grx2 activity via iron-sulfur cluster formation...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Stefani M, Sturlese M, Manta B, Löhr F, Mammi S, Comini M, et al. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignment of the cytosolic dithiol glutaredoxin 1 from the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Biomol NMR Assign. 2016;10:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of trypanosomatids encodes for two class I (dithiolic) Grxs named 2-C-Grx1 and 2-C-Grx2. Both proteins were shown to efficiently reduce different disulfides at the expenses of T(SH)2 using a mechanism ..
  2. Real J, Ferreira L, Esteves G, Koyama F, Dias M, Bezerra Neto J, et al. Exosomes from patients with septic shock convey miRNAs related to inflammation and cell cycle regulation: new signaling pathways in sepsis?. Crit Care. 2018;22:68 pubmed publisher
    ..6-fold; SOD2, 2.2-fold) and redox-responsive genes (FOXM1, 21-fold; SELS, 16-fold; GLRX2, 3.4-fold). The expression of myeloperoxidase mRNA remained elevated after 7 days (65-fold)...
  3. Branco V, Coppo L, Sola S, Lu J, Rodrigues C, Holmgren A, et al. Impaired cross-talk between the thioredoxin and glutathione systems is related to ASK-1 mediated apoptosis in neuronal cells exposed to mercury. Redox Biol. 2017;13:278-287 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, primary cerebellar neurons from mice depleted of mitochondrial Grx2 (mGrx2D) were used to examine the link between Grx activity and Trx function...
  4. Zhang L, Tang L, Ying S, Feng M. Regulative roles of glutathione reductase and four glutaredoxins in glutathione redox, antioxidant activity, and iron homeostasis of Beauveria bassiana. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:5907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized the Beauveria bassiana redox system comprising dithiol Grx1, monothiol Grx2-4, Grx-like Grx5, and Glr orthologue...
  5. Fidai I, Wachnowsky C, Cowan J. Glutathione-complexed [2Fe-2S] clusters function in Fe-S cluster storage and trafficking. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2016;21:887-901 pubmed publisher
    ..to acceptor proteins, such as human IscU, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Isa1, human and yeast glutaredoxins (human Grx2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grx3), and human ferredoxins...
  6. Ceccarini M, Codini M, Cataldi S, Vannini S, Lazzarini A, Floridi A, et al. Acid sphingomyelinase as target of Lycium Chinense: promising new action for cell health. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:183 pubmed
    ..Among 96 genes, Lycium Chinense berries up-regulate Glutaredoxin 2 and Ring Finger Protein 7 genes and proteins, able to protect cells from apoptosis...
  7. Tang W, Bentley A, Kritchevsky S, Harris T, Newman A, Bauer D, et al. Genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes, cigarette smoking, and longitudinal change in lung function. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;63:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Nominally significant evidence of association was observed for variants in SOD3 and GLRX2 in multiple analyses...
  8. Coppo L, Montano S, Padilla A, Holmgren A. Determination of glutaredoxin enzyme activity and protein S-glutathionylation using fluorescent eosin-glutathione. Anal Biochem. 2016;499:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This way of measuring Grx activity provided an ultrasensitive method that detected Grx1 and Grx2 at picomolar levels...
  9. Chalker J, Gardiner D, Kuksal N, Mailloux R. Characterization of the impact of glutaredoxin-2 (GRX2) deficiency on superoxide/hydrogen peroxide release from cardiac and liver mitochondria. Redox Biol. 2018;15:216-227 pubmed publisher
    ..release rates from cardiac and liver mitochondria isolated from mice deficient for glutaredoxin-2 (GRX2), a matrix-associated thiol oxidoreductase that facilitates the S-glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of ..
  10. Musunda B, Benítez D, Dirdjaja N, Comini M, Krauth Siegel R. Glutaredoxin-deficiency confers bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei with improved thermotolerance. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2015;204:93-105 pubmed publisher
    ..metabolism, African trypanosomes express two dithiol glutaredoxins (Grxs), a cytosolic Grx1 and a mitochondrial Grx2, with so far unknown biological functions...
  11. Ebersoll S, Musunda B, Schmenger T, Dirdjaja N, Bonilla M, Manta B, et al. A glutaredoxin in the mitochondrial intermembrane space has stage-specific functions in the thermo-tolerance and proliferation of African trypanosomes. Redox Biol. 2018;15:532-547 pubmed publisher
    Trypanosoma brucei glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is a dithiol glutaredoxin that is specifically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space...
  12. Codini M, Cataldi S, Lazzarini A, Tasegian A, Ceccarini M, Floridi A, et al. Why high cholesterol levels help hematological malignancies: role of nuclear lipid microdomains. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholesterol does not change GRX2 expression but it overexpresses SOD1, SOD2, CCS, PRDX1, GSR, GSS, CAT and PNKP...
  13. Holmgren A, Johansson C, Berndt C, Lönn M, Hudemann C, Lillig C. Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1375-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we give a brief overview of the human Trx and Grx systems. The main part focuses on our current knowledge about mitochondrial Grx2, which facilitates mitochondrial redox homoeostasis during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.
  14. Johansson C, Roos A, Montano S, Sengupta R, Filippakopoulos P, Guo K, et al. The crystal structure of human GLRX5: iron-sulfur cluster co-ordination, tetrameric assembly and monomer activity. Biochem J. 2011;433:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..two subunits co-ordinating the cluster are in a more extended conformation compared with iron-sulfur-bound human GLRX2, and the intersubunit interactions are more extensive and involve conserved residues among monothiol GLRXs...
  15. Davis D, Newcomb F, Starke D, Ott D, Mieyal J, Yarchoan R. Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) is detected within HIV-1 and can regulate the activity of glutathionylated HIV-1 protease in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25935-40 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate thioltransferase in the regulation and/or maintenance of protease activity in HIV-1 infected cells. ..
  16. GALLOGLY M, Starke D, Leonberg A, Ospina S, Mieyal J. Kinetic and mechanistic characterization and versatile catalytic properties of mammalian glutaredoxin 2: implications for intracellular roles. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian cells have two Grx isoforms: Grx1, localized to the cytosol and mitochondrial intermembrane space, and Grx2, localized primarily to the mitochondrial matrix [Pai, H. V., et al. (2007) Antioxid. Redox Signaling 9, 2027-2033]...
  17. Peltoniemi M, Kaarteenaho Wiik R, Saily M, Sormunen R, Paakko P, Holmgren A, et al. Expression of glutaredoxin is highly cell specific in human lung and is decreased by transforming growth factor-beta in vitro and in interstitial lung diseases in vivo. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:1000-7 pubmed
    ..Both Grx1 and Grx2 could be detected at the mRNA and protein level in cultured human lung cells, but only Grx1 was prominently ..
  18. Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:63-74 pubmed
    ..These include the inducible OxyR-regulated 10-kDa Grx1 or the highly abundant 24-kDa glutathione S-transferase-like Grx2 (with Grx3 it accounts for 1% of total protein)...
  19. Bräutigam L, Schütte L, Godoy J, Prozorovski T, Gellert M, Hauptmann G, et al. Vertebrate-specific glutaredoxin is essential for brain development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20532-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that embryonic brain development depends on the enzymatic activity of glutaredoxin 2. Zebrafish with silenced expression of glutaredoxin 2 lost virtually all types of neurons by apoptotic cell ..
  20. Mailloux R, Craig Ayre D, Christian S. Induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by GSH mediated S-glutathionylation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Redox Biol. 2016;8:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Inclusion of enzymatically active glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2) in reaction mixtures reversed the GSH-mediated amplification of O2(∙-)/H2O2 formation...
  21. Lundberg M, Holmgren A, Johansson M. Human glutaredoxin 2 affinity tag for recombinant peptide and protein purification. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;45:37-42 pubmed
    ..We have in the present study evaluated the possible use of the human glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) as an affinity tag for purification of heterologous proteins...
  22. Idelchik M, Begley U, Begley T, Melendez J. Mitochondrial ROS control of cancer. Semin Cancer Biol. 2017;47:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The mitochondrion's oxidant scavenging systems including SOD2, Grx2, GPrx, Trx and TrxR are key of the cellular redox tone...
  23. Sagemark J, Elgán T, Burglin T, Johansson C, Holmgren A, Berndt K. Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. Proteins. 2007;68:879-92 pubmed
    ..Three distinct groups were found: Grx1, Grx2, and Grx5, the latter representing a highly conserved group of monothiol glutaredoxins having a C-G-F-S active site ..
  24. Hoff K, Goodlitt R, Li R, Smolke C, Silberg J. Fluorescence detection of a protein-bound 2Fe2S cluster. Chembiochem. 2009;10:667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..biosensor is described for 2Fe2S clusters that is composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as illustrated here...
  25. Johansson C, Kavanagh K, Gileadi O, Oppermann U. Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3077-82 pubmed
    Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), which controls intracellular redox balance and apoptosis, exists in a dynamic equilibrium of enzymatically active monomers and quiescent dimers...
  26. Qi W, Cowan J. Mechanism of glutaredoxin-ISU [2Fe-2S] cluster exchange. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:4989-91 pubmed publisher
    Exchange of [2Fe-2S] centers between Grx2 and the cluster scaffold protein ISU, and characterization of two mutually exclusive Grx2 binding sites on ISU by isothermal titration calorimetry supports a direct link for Grx and glutathione ..
  27. Lysell J, Stjernholm Vladic Y, Ciarlo N, Holmgren A, Sahlin L. Immunohistochemical determination of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin distribution in the human cervix, and possible relation to cervical ripening. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2003;17:303-10 pubmed
    ..In mammals, isoenzymes of Trx and Grx are found in the cytoplasm (Trx1 and Grx1) or in mitochondria (Trx2 and Grx2). Trx and Grx play a role in cellular defence against oxidative stress and in redox regulation of cellular function...
  28. Kim S, Jung H, Choi H, Lim C. Glutaredoxin 2a, a mitochondrial isoform, plays a protective role in a human cell line under serum deprivation. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Grx2a plays proliferative and anti-apoptotic roles under serum deprivation. ..
  29. Collinson E, Wheeler G, Garrido E, Avery A, Avery S, Grant C. The yeast glutaredoxins are active as glutathione peroxidases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16712-7 pubmed
    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two glutaredoxins, encoded by GRX1 and GRX2, which are active as glutathione-dependent oxidoreductases...
  30. Gladyshev V, Liu A, Novoselov S, Krysan K, Sun Q, Kryukov V, et al. Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30374-80 pubmed
    ..We now report identification and characterization of a second mammalian Grx, designated Grx2. Grx2 exhibited 36% identity with Grx1 and had a disulfide active center containing the Cys-Ser-Tyr-Cys motif...
  31. Romero J, Hanschmann E, Gellert M, Eitner S, Holubiec M, Blanco Calvo E, et al. Thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to maintain the phenotype and integrity of neurons following perinatal asphyxia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:1274-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, Grx2 and Trx1 showed distinct changes during tissue recovery following hypoxia/ischemia and reoxygenation...
  32. Fidai I, Wachnowsky C, Cowan J. Mapping cellular Fe-S cluster uptake and exchange reactions - divergent pathways for iron-sulfur cluster delivery to human ferredoxins. Metallomics. 2016;8:1283-1293 pubmed
    ..The results reveal rapid and quantitative transfer to both ferredoxins from several donor proteins (IscU, Isa1, Grx2, and Grx3)...
  33. Lillig C, Lönn M, Enoksson M, Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13227-32 pubmed
    ..The recently discovered mitochondrial and nuclear Grx (Grx2) differs from the more abundant cytosolic Grx (Grx1) by its higher affinity toward S-glutathionylated proteins and ..
  34. Fernando M, Lechner J, Löfgren S, Gladyshev V, Lou M. Mitochondrial thioltransferase (glutaredoxin 2) has GSH-dependent and thioredoxin reductase-dependent peroxidase activities in vitro and in lens epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2006;20:2645-7 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial Grx2 is a recent discovery, but its function is largely unknown...
  35. Berndt C, Hudemann C, Hanschmann E, Axelsson R, Holmgren A, Lillig C. How does iron-sulfur cluster coordination regulate the activity of human glutaredoxin 2?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9:151-7 pubmed
    Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin (Grx2) was described as the first iron-sulfur protein from the thioredoxin superfamily of proteins...
  36. Lee D, Kaur D, Chinta S, Rajagopalan S, Andersen J. A disruption in iron-sulfur center biogenesis via inhibition of mitochondrial dithiol glutaredoxin 2 may contribute to mitochondrial and cellular iron dysregulation in mammalian glutathione-depleted dopaminergic cells: implications for Parkinson's di. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:2083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Among its various functions in the cell, glutathione acts as a substrate for the mitochondrial enzyme glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2). Grx2 is involved in glutathionylation of protein cysteine sulfhydryl residues in the mitochondria...
  37. Karunakaran S, Saeed U, Ramakrishnan S, Koumar R, Ravindranath V. Constitutive expression and functional characterization of mitochondrial glutaredoxin (Grx2) in mouse and human brain. Brain Res. 2007;1185:8-17 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial glutaredoxin (Grx2), a glutathione-dependent thiol disulfide oxidoreductase helps maintain redox homeostasis in the mitochondria...
  38. Kanaan G, Ichim B, Gharibeh L, Maharsy W, Patten D, Xuan J, et al. Glutaredoxin-2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and energetics in mice, and protects against human cardiac pathologies. Redox Biol. 2018;14:509-521 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2), a mitochondrial glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase, is central to glutathione homeostasis and mitochondrial redox, which is crucial in highly metabolic tissues like the heart...
  39. Johansson C, Lillig C, Holmgren A. Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7537-43 pubmed
    ..Recently a second human glutaredoxin (Grx2), which is targeted to either mitochondria or the nucleus, was cloned...
  40. GALLOGLY M, Starke D, Mieyal J. Mechanistic and kinetic details of catalysis of thiol-disulfide exchange by glutaredoxins and potential mechanisms of regulation. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:1059-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of the deglutathionylation reaction catalyzed by prototypical dithiol glutaredoxins, especially human Grx1 and Grx2. Grx-catalyzed protein deglutathionylation proceeds by a nucleophilic, double-displacement mechanism in which rate ..
  41. Fernandes A, Capitanio A, Selenius M, Brodin O, Rundlöf A, Björnstedt M. Expression profiles of thioredoxin family proteins in human lung cancer tissue: correlation with proliferation and differentiation. Histopathology. 2009;55:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..2,3,5, glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) and glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) was examined by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections from 42 cases of non-small cell lung ..
  42. Morgan B, Ezerina D, Amoako T, Riemer J, Seedorf M, Dick T. Multiple glutathione disulfide removal pathways mediate cytosolic redox homeostasis. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Applying these insights, we identify Trx2 and Grx2 as efficient backup systems to glutathione reductase for cytosolic GSSG reduction.
  43. O Brien M, Chalker J, Slade L, Gardiner D, Mailloux R. Protein S-glutathionylation alters superoxide/hydrogen peroxide emission from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;106:302-314 pubmed publisher
    ..Thiol oxidoreductase glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2) reversed these effects confirming that Pdh is a target for S-glutathionylation...
  44. Lepka K, Volbracht K, Bill E, Schneider R, Ríos N, Hildebrandt T, et al. Iron-sulfur glutaredoxin 2 protects oligodendrocytes against damage induced by nitric oxide release from activated microglia. Glia. 2017;65:1521-1534 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide biochemical and biophysical evidence that the oxidoreductase glutaredoxin 2 inhibits peroxynitrite formation by transforming nitric oxide into dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron-complexes...
  45. Yegorova S, Yegorov O, Lou M. Thioredoxin induced antioxidant gene expressions in human lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:783-92 pubmed
    ..MnSOD), thioltranferase 1 (TTase 1) or glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), mitochondrial thioltransferase (TTase 2) or glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), and thioredoxin peroxidase IV (Prx IV)...
  46. Wu H, Xing K, Lou M. Glutaredoxin 2 prevents H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis by protecting complex I activity in the mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1705-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) belongs to the oxidoreductase family and is an isozyme of glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) present in the mitochondria, however its function is not well understood...
  47. Lillig C, Berndt C, Vergnolle O, Lönn M, Hudemann C, Bill E, et al. Characterization of human glutaredoxin 2 as iron-sulfur protein: a possible role as redox sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8168-73 pubmed
    Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is a glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase (active site: Cys-Ser-Tyr-Cys) that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress...
  48. Bomfim M, Andrade G, Del Collado M, Sangalli J, Fontes P, Nogueira M, et al. Antioxidant responses and deregulation of epigenetic writers and erasers link oxidative stress and DNA methylation in bovine blastocysts. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..under high oxygen partial pressure possessed elevated ROS abundance and exhibited increased expression of CAT, GLRX2, KEAP1, NFR2, PRDX1, PRDX3, SOD1, TXN, and TXNRD1, versus reduced levels of the oxidative stress-related bta-miR-..
  49. Diotte N, Xiong Y, Gao J, Chua B, Ho Y. Attenuation of doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury by mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:427-38 pubmed publisher
    ..a role in DOX-induced myocardial injury using a line of transgenic mice expressing the human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Glrx2), a thiotransferase catalyzing the reduction as well as formation of protein-glutathione mixed ..
  50. Hashemy S, Johansson C, Berndt C, Lillig C, Holmgren A. Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14428-36 pubmed
    ..Human Grx1 and Grx2 contain Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys and Cys-Ser-Tyr-Cys active sites and have three and two additional structural Cys residues, ..
  51. Zhang H, Du Y, Zhang X, Lu J, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxin 2 reduces both thioredoxin 2 and thioredoxin 1 and protects cells from apoptosis induced by auranofin and 4-hydroxynonenal. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;21:669-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we characterized the mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) system as a backup for the mitochondrial TrxR...
  52. Kalinina E, Chernov N, Saprin A. Involvement of thio-, peroxi-, and glutaredoxins in cellular redox-dependent processes. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1493-510 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxin, whose major isoforms in mammals are Grx1, Grx2, and Grx5, as well as thioredoxin, catalyzes S-glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of proteins to protect SH-..
  53. Godoy J, Oesteritz S, Hanschmann E, Ockenga W, Ackermann W, Lillig C. Segment-specific overexpression of redoxins after renal ischemia and reperfusion: protective roles of glutaredoxin 2, peroxiredoxin 3, and peroxiredoxin 6. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis revealed segment-specific alterations induced by the ischemic insult. Grx2, Prx3, and Prx6 were highly expressed in proximal tubule cells...
  54. Ferri A, Fiorenzo P, Nencini M, Cozzolino M, Pesaresi M, Valle C, et al. Glutaredoxin 2 prevents aggregation of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria and abolishes its toxicity. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4529-42 pubmed publisher
    ..mixed disulfides to protein thiols either in the cytoplasm and in the IMS (Grx1) or in the mitochondrial matrix (Grx2) as a tool for restoring a correct redox environment and preventing the aggregation of mutant SOD1...
  55. Lönn M, Hudemann C, Berndt C, Cherkasov V, Capani F, Holmgren A, et al. Expression pattern of human glutaredoxin 2 isoforms: identification and characterization of two testis/cancer cell-specific isoforms. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10:547-57 pubmed
    ..b>Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is a mitochondrial oxidoreductase suggested to play a critical role in protection against apoptotic ..
  56. Lundberg M, Johansson C, Chandra J, Enoksson M, Jacobsson G, Ljung J, et al. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26269-75 pubmed
    ..We have identified and cloned a novel 18-kDa human dithiol glutaredoxin, named glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2), which is 34% identical to the previously known cytosolic 12-kDa human Grx1...
  57. Mitra S, Elliott S. Oxidative disassembly of the [2Fe-2S] cluster of human Grx2 and redox regulation in the mitochondria. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3813-5 pubmed publisher
    Mitochondrial Grx2 is a new member of the thioredoxin superfamily that has been found to bind a [2Fe-2S] cluster in a novel coordination motif at the interface of a homodimer, where cluster binding occurs via a catalytic cysteine residue ..
  58. Su D, Zhang Q, Wang X, He P, Zhu Y, Zhao J, et al. Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:1292-304 pubmed publisher
    ..15%) difference. Antiapoptotic (BCL2, BCL2A1, PPARD, and RAF1), antioxidant (MT3, PRDX5, PRDX3, GPX4, GLRX2, and GSR), and proapoptotic (BAD, BNIP1, APAF1, BNIP3L, CASP7, CYCS, CASP1, and VDAC1) genes expressed at higher ..
  59. Lundberg M, Fernandes A, Kumar S, Holmgren A. Cellular and plasma levels of human glutaredoxin 1 and 2 detected by sensitive ELISA systems. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:801-9 pubmed
    ..two dithiol glutaredoxins, the well-characterized cytoplasmic (12kDa) Grx1 and the recently identified (18kDa) Grx2 with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms...
  60. Kulinsky V, Kolesnichenko L. Mitochondrial glutathione. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007;72:698-701 pubmed
    ..This review considers the peculiarity of functions of mitochondrial GSH and enzymes of its metabolism, especially glutathione peroxidase 4, glutaredoxin 2, and kappa-glutathione transferase.
  61. Enoksson M, Fernandes A, Prast S, Lillig C, Holmgren A, Orrenius S. Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:774-9 pubmed
    Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) catalyzes glutathione-dependent dithiol reaction mechanisms, reducing protein disulfides, and monothiol reactions, reducing mixed disulfides between proteins and GSH (de-/glutathionylation)...
  62. Hanschmann E, Lönn M, Schütte L, Funke M, Godoy J, Eitner S, et al. Both thioredoxin 2 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to the reduction of the mitochondrial 2-Cys peroxiredoxin Prx3. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx3) is not only substrate for thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), but can also be reduced by glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) via the dithiol reaction mechanism. Grx2 reduces Prx3 exhibiting catalytic constants (K(m), 23...