GLRX

Summary

Gene Symbol: GLRX
Description: glutaredoxin
Alias: GRX, GRX1, glutaredoxin-1, TTase-1, thioltransferase, thioltransferase-1
Species: human
Products:     GLRX

Top Publications

  1. Padilla C, Martínez Galisteo E, Barcena J, Spyrou G, Holmgren A. Purification from placenta, amino acid sequence, structure comparisons and cDNA cloning of human glutaredoxin. Eur J Biochem. 1995;227:27-34 pubmed
    ..A cDNA that encodes the entire glutaredoxin gene (grx) and flanking sequences was isolated from a human spleen cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA (0...
  2. Lundberg M, Johansson C, Chandra J, Enoksson M, Jacobsson G, Ljung J, et al. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26269-75 pubmed
    ..glutaredoxin, named glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2), which is 34% identical to the previously known cytosolic 12-kDa human Grx1. The human Grx2 sequence contains three characteristic regions of the glutaredoxin family: the dithiol/disulfide ..
  3. Lundberg M, Fernandes A, Kumar S, Holmgren A. Cellular and plasma levels of human glutaredoxin 1 and 2 detected by sensitive ELISA systems. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:801-9 pubmed
    ..Mammalian cells contain at least two dithiol glutaredoxins, the well-characterized cytoplasmic (12kDa) Grx1 and the recently identified (18kDa) Grx2 with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms...
  4. Peltoniemi M, Kaarteenaho Wiik R, Saily M, Sormunen R, Paakko P, Holmgren A, et al. Expression of glutaredoxin is highly cell specific in human lung and is decreased by transforming growth factor-beta in vitro and in interstitial lung diseases in vivo. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:1000-7 pubmed
    ..The ultrastructural localization of Grx1 was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy...
  5. Abu El Zahab H, Hamza R, Montaser M, El Mahdi M, Al Harthi W. Antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antigenotoxic, and hepatic ameliorative effects of L-carnitine and selenium on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and alterations in liver cell structure in male mice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;173:419-428 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF-α] levels, as well as the antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [GRx], glutathione-S-transferase [GST] and catalase [CAT], were examined...
  6. Bakir E, Younis N, Mohamed M, El Semary N. Cyanobacteria as Nanogold Factories: Chemical and Anti-Myocardial Infarction Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Lyngbya majuscula. Mar Drugs. 2018;16: pubmed publisher
    ..It also reduces heart tissue content of glutathione peroxidase (GRx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the arterial pressure indices of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic ..
  7. Kim H, Kim J, Kim P, Won E, Lee Y. Response of antioxidant enzymes to Cd and Pb exposure in water flea Daphnia magna: Differential metal and age - Specific patterns. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;209:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, antioxidant enzyme - coding genes (three GST isoforms, glutaredoxin [GRx], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and thioredoxin [TRx]), and stress-response proteins (heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70] ..
  8. Ouyang Y, Peng Y, Li J, Holmgren A, Lu J. Modulation of thiol-dependent redox system by metal ions via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Metallomics. 2018;10:218-228 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that metal ions are major players in regulating the Trx and Grx systems-mediated cellular redox processes and thus, provide an opportunity to understand the functions of metal ..
  9. Ryu E, Kim D, Shin M, Jo H, Park J, Cho S, et al. PEP‑1‑glutaredoxin 1 protects against hippocampal neuronal cell damage from oxidative stress via regulation of MAPK and apoptotic signaling pathways. Mol Med Rep. 2018;18:2216-2228 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress is known to be a primary risk factor for neuronal diseases. Glutaredoxin (GLRX)‑1, a redox‑regulator of the thioredoxin superfamily, is known to exhibit an important role in cell survival via various cellular ..

More Information

Publications128 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kheradmand E, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A, Zare M. Neuroprotective effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on recognition memory impairment and the elevated oxygen stress in rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;97:1096-1101 pubmed publisher
    ..on neurobehavioral activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and catalase (CAT) enzymes activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampal area of ..
  2. Motaghinejad M, Motevalian M, Shabab B. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats. Neurosci Lett. 2016;619:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities...
  3. Li C, Zhang M, Li M, Zhang Q, Qian Y, Wang R. Effect of dietary alanyl-glutamine dipeptide against chronic ammonia stress induced hyperammonemia in the juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;213:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..and glutathione peroxidase activities declined), and induce down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and GRX) genes transcription...
  4. Abdel Hamid N, Mahmoud T, Abass S, El Shishtawy M. Expression of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma-Relevance for prognostic and diagnostic evaluation. Pathophysiology. 2018;25:433-438 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to investigate whether the expression of thioredoxin (Trx) and glutaredoxin (Grx) is helpful for HCC diagnosis in an experimental model...
  5. Si M, Zhang L, Chaudhry M, Ding W, Xu Y, Chen C, et al. Corynebacterium glutamicum methionine sulfoxide reductase A uses both mycoredoxin and thioredoxin for regeneration and oxidative stress resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:2781-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and the second molecule of mycothiol, similarly to the glutathione/glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase (GSH/Grx/GR) system...
  6. Gupta A, Pandey T, Kumar B, Tripathi T. Preferential regeneration of thioredoxin from parasitic flatworm Fasciola gigantica using glutathione system. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;81:983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Trx system is much less as compared to the GSH system, suggesting that FgTrx1 could be acting as glutaredoxin (Grx). DNA nicking and hydroperoxide assay suggests that it protects the DNA from radical-induced oxidative damage...
  7. Hernán Gómez Llambí H, Cao G, Donato M, Suárez D, Ottaviano G, Müller A, et al. Left ventricular hypertrophy does not prevent heart failure in experimental hypertension. Int J Cardiol. 2017;238:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1), peroxyredoxin 2 (Prx-2), glutaredoxin 3 (Grx-3), caspase-3 and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was determined...
  8. Cook G, Poole R. Oxidase and periplasmic cytochrome assembly in Escherichia coli K-12: CydDC and CcmAB are not required for haem-membrane association. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 2):527-36 pubmed
    ..Cytochrome d levels were unaffected by mutations in trxB (encoding thioredoxin reductase), trxA (thioredoxin), or grx (glutaredoxin), suggesting that the CydDC transporter does not export these components of reducing pathways for ..
  9. Virreira Winter S, Zychlinsky A. The bacterial pigment pyocyanin inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome through intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:4893-4900 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging of the fluorescent glutathione redox potential sensor Grx1-roGFP2 indicated that PCN provokes cytosolic and nuclear but not mitochondrial redox changes...
  10. Xie Y, Kole S, Precht P, Pazin M, Bernier M. S-glutathionylation impairs signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation and signaling. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..a cell-free system, diamide induced glutathionylation of STAT3, which was decreased upon addition of glutaredoxin (GRX)-1, a deglutathionylation enzyme, or the reducing agent, dithiothreitol...
  11. Li S, Sun Y, Qi X, Shi Y, Gao H, Wu Q, et al. Protective effect and mechanism of glutaredoxin 1 on coronary arteries endothelial cells damage induced by high glucose. Biomed Mater Eng. 2014;24:3897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing evidence demonstrates that glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles ..
  12. Xu R, Yuan Z, Yang L, Li L, Li D, Lv C. Inhibition of NAMPT decreases cell growth and enhances susceptibility to oxidative stress. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:1767-1773 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of antioxidant proteins GRX1 and catalase, and DNA-repair proteins PCNA and PARP1 contributed to the enhanced susceptibility of FK866-treated ..
  13. Borkham Kamphorst E, Alexi P, Tihaa L, Haas U, Weiskirchen R. Platelet-derived growth factor-D modulates extracellular matrix homeostasis and remodeling through TIMP-1 induction and attenuation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activities. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We here investigated the molecular mechanism of PDGF-D involvement in liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, the GRX mouse cell line was stimulated with PDGF-D and evaluated for fibrotic markers and PDGF-D signaling pathways in ..
  14. Ibañez Cabellos J, Seco Cervera M, Pérez Machado G, García Gimenez J, Pallardo F. Characterization of the antioxidant systems in different complementation groups of Dyskeratosis Congenita. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;75 Suppl 1:S34 pubmed publisher
    ..we have evaluated the levels of DKC1, NOP10, TINF2 levels of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD, MnSOD, Catalase, Gpx1, Grx1 and Trx1) by RT- qPCR and Western blotting...
  15. Gutsche N, Thurow C, Zachgo S, Gatz C. Plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxins: functions in developmental processes and stress responses. Biol Chem. 2015;396:495-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent research on a land plant-specific class of GRX-like proteins, which are characterized by the conserved CC motif in the active centre...
  16. Shaikhali J, Davoine C, Brannstrom K, Rouhier N, Bygdell J, Bjorklund S, et al. Biochemical and redox characterization of the mediator complex and its associated transcription factor GeBPL, a GLABROUS1 enhancer binding protein. Biochem J. 2015;468:385-400 pubmed publisher
    ..intermolecular disulfide bonds that are reduced in vitro by the thioredoxin (TRX) and/or glutathione/glutaredoxin (GRX) systems...
  17. Viefhues A, Schlathoelter I, Simon A, Viaud M, Tudzynski P. Unraveling the Function of the Response Regulator BcSkn7 in the Stress Signaling Network of Botrytis cinerea. Eukaryot Cell. 2015;14:636-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A yeast-one-hybrid (Y1H) approach proved direct binding to the promoters of gsh1 and grx1 by Bap1 and of glr1 by BcSkn7...
  18. Liao X, Yang F, Li H, So P, Yao Z, Xia W, et al. Targeting the Thioredoxin Reductase-Thioredoxin System from Staphylococcus aureus by Silver Ions. Inorg Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..for the survival of the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, which lacks a natural glutathione/glutaredoxin (Grx) system...
  19. Gupta A, Sripa B, Tripathi T. Purification and characterization of two-domain glutaredoxin in the parasitic helminth Fasciola gigantica. Parasitol Int. 2017;66:432-435 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first report on the presence of Grx in platyhelminthic parasites and provides a starting point for further characterization of the redox network in ..
  20. Han J, Weisbrod R, Shao D, Watanabe Y, Yin X, Bachschmid M, et al. The redox mechanism for vascular barrier dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders: Glutathionylation of Rac1 in endothelial cells. Redox Biol. 2016;9:306-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, transgenic overexpression of human Glrx-1 in ApoE-/- mice fed the Western diet attenuated endothelial protein S-glutathionylation, actin ..
  21. Valek L, Kanngießer M, Häussler A, Agarwal N, Lillig C, Tegeder I. Redoxins in peripheral neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;89:581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression and localization of Glrx, Txn and Txnrd proteins was not affected by sciatic nerve injury but peroxiredoxins were upregulated in the DRGs, ..
  22. Polansky O, Seidlerova Z, Faldynova M, Sisak F, Rychlik I. Protein expression in the liver and blood serum in chickens in response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018;205:10-16 pubmed publisher
    ..MT4, MT3, PTGDS, GLRX and TGM4, though highly inducible in the liver, did not increase in the serum...
  23. Dubey A, Kumar N, Kumar A, Ansari M, Ranjan R, Gautam A, et al. Over-expression of CarMT gene modulates the physiological performance and antioxidant defense system to provide tolerance against drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;171:54-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant (APX, GPX, POD, GR, GRX, GST, CAT, MDHAR, ASc and GSH) levels were also enhanced in transgenic lines to provide tolerance...
  24. Masaldan S, Clatworthy S, Gamell C, Smith Z, Francis P, Denoyer D, et al. Copper accumulation in senescent cells: Interplay between copper transporters and impaired autophagy. Redox Biol. 2018;16:322-331 pubmed publisher
    ..antioxidant defence reflected by elevated levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1)...
  25. Matern S, Peskan Berghoefer T, Gromes R, Kiesel R, Rausch T. Imposed glutathione-mediated redox switch modulates the tobacco wound-induced protein kinase and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase activation state and impacts on defence against Pseudomonas syringae. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:1935-50 pubmed publisher
    ..and transgenic high-glutathione lines (HGL) were transformed with the cytosol-targeted sensor GRX1-roGFP2 to monitor the cytosolic redox state...
  26. Bandyopadhyay S, Das S. Functional analysis of ars gene cluster of Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)) and identification of a proline residue essential for arsenate reductase activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:3235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Circular dichroism spectra analysis suggested Pro94 as an essential amino acid for enzyme catalytic activity as it is indispensable for optimum protein folding in P. indicus Grx-coupled ArsC.
  27. Singh A, Awasthi D, Dubey M, Nagarkoti S, Kumar A, Chandra T, et al. High oxidative stress adversely affects NFκB mediated induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human neutrophils: Implications in chronic myeloid leukemia. Nitric Oxide. 2016;58:28-41 pubmed publisher
    ..scavengers and molecular approaches, we identified that enhanced ROS generation via NOX2 and mitochondria, reduced Grx1/2 expression and GSH level associated with NFκB S-glutathionylation in PMNs from CML patients...
  28. Xiao Z, La Fontaine S, Bush A, Wedd A. Molecular Mechanisms of Glutaredoxin Enzymes: Versatile Hubs for Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Protein Thiols and Glutathione. J Mol Biol. 2019;431:158-177 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses specifically on these aspects in the context of recent developments that illuminate some of these uncertainties. ..
  29. Liu X, Ward K, Xavier C, Jann J, Clark A, Pang I, et al. The novel triterpenoid RTA 408 protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells against H2O2-induced cell injury via NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Redox Biol. 2016;8:98-109 pubmed publisher
    ..RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and increased the expression of its downstream genes, such as HO-1, NQO1, SOD2, catalase, Grx1, and Trx1...
  30. Bubb K, Kok C, Tang O, Rasko N, Birgisdottir A, Hansen T, et al. The NRF2 activator DH404 attenuates adverse ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction by modifying redox signalling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;108:585-594 pubmed publisher
    ..MI-induced eNOS glutathionylation was substantially ameliorated by DH404. An associated increase in glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) co-immunoprecipitation with eNOS without a change in expression was mechanistically intriguing...
  31. Bhattacharjee A, Yang H, Duffy M, Robinson E, Conrad Antoville A, Lu Y, et al. The Activity of Menkes Disease Protein ATP7A Is Essential for Redox Balance in Mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16644-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative imaging of live cells using GRX1-roGFP2 and HyPer sensors reveals highest glutathione oxidation and elevation of H2O2 in mitochondria, whereas the ..
  32. Rey P, Bécuwe N, Tourrette S, Rouhier N. Involvement of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin S14 in the maintenance of chlorophyll content. Plant Cell Environ. 2017;40:2319-2332 pubmed publisher
    ..Plants deficient in one GRX did not display any growth defect, whereas the growth of plants lacking both was slowed...
  33. Lopes F, Soares G, Gonçalves Rocha M, Pinto Basto J, Maciel P. Whole Gene Deletion of EBF3 Supporting Haploinsufficiency of This Gene as a Mechanism of Neurodevelopmental Disease. Front Genet. 2017;8:143 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient carries a de novo 600 Kb deletion at 10q26.3 affecting the MGMT, EBF3, and GLRX genes...
  34. Robitaille S, Mailloux R, Chan H. Methylmercury alters glutathione homeostasis by inhibiting glutaredoxin 1 and enhancing glutathione biosynthesis in cultured human astrocytoma cells. Toxicol Lett. 2016;256:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme involved in reversing protein S-glutathionylation and maintaining glutathione homeostasis, glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), was inhibited by ?50%. MeHg treatment also increased the S-glutathionylation of a high molecular weight protein...
  35. Hatori Y, Inouye S, Akagi R, Seyama T. Local redox environment beneath biological membranes probed by palmitoylated-roGFP. Redox Biol. 2018;14:679-685 pubmed publisher
    ..We utilized palmitoylated versions of cytosolic glutathione and hydrogen peroxide sensors (Grx1-roGFP2 and roGFP2-Orp1, respectively) and demonstrated a unique redox environment near biological membranes...
  36. Wang Q, Hou Y, Shi Y, Han X, Chen Q, Hu Z, et al. Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of glutaredoxin from Antarctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:246871 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a full-length Grx gene (PsGrx) with 270 nucleotides was isolated from Antarctic sea-ice bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. AN178...
  37. Nagarkoti S, Dubey M, Awasthi D, Kumar V, Chandra T, Kumar S, et al. S-Glutathionylation of p47phox sustains superoxide generation in activated neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018;1865:444-454 pubmed publisher
    ..a subunit of NOX2, p47phox gets glutathionylated to sustain ROS generation along with a decrease in catalase, Grx-1 activity and change in GSH/GSSG ratio...
  38. Panieri E, Millia C, Santoro M. Real-time quantification of subcellular H2O2 and glutathione redox potential in living cardiovascular tissues. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;109:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..By generating novel transgenic (Tg) zebrafish lines that express compartment-specific Rogfp2-Orp1 and Grx1-Rogfp2 sensors we analyzed cytosolic, mitochondrial, and the nuclear redox state of endothelial cells and ..
  39. Stojkov D, Amini P, Oberson K, Sokollik C, Duppenthaler A, Simon H, et al. ROS and glutathionylation balance cytoskeletal dynamics in neutrophil extracellular trap formation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:4073-4090 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, neutrophils deficient in glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), an enzyme required for deglutathionylation of actin and tubulin, are unable to polymerize either ..
  40. Mercer S, Burke R. Evidence for a role for the putative Drosophila hGRX1 orthologue in copper homeostasis. Biometals. 2016;29:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Human GRX1 (hGRX1) has also been shown to play an integral role in copper homeostasis by regulating the redox activity of the ..
  41. Zhang L, Tang L, Ying S, Feng M. Regulative roles of glutathione reductase and four glutaredoxins in glutathione redox, antioxidant activity, and iron homeostasis of Beauveria bassiana. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:5907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized the Beauveria bassiana redox system comprising dithiol Grx1, monothiol Grx2-4, Grx-like Grx5, and Glr orthologue...
  42. Kumar Dubey A, Kumar N, Ranjan R, Gautam A, Pande V, Sanyal I, et al. Application of glycine reduces arsenic accumulation and toxicity in Oryza sativa L. by reducing the expression of silicon transporter genes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;148:410-417 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the expression of three GRX and two GST gene isoforms were found to be significantly increased with glycine application...
  43. Ebersoll S, Musunda B, Schmenger T, Dirdjaja N, Bonilla M, Manta B, et al. A glutaredoxin in the mitochondrial intermembrane space has stage-specific functions in the thermo-tolerance and proliferation of African trypanosomes. Redox Biol. 2018;15:532-547 pubmed publisher
    ..Bloodstream form parasites lacking Grx2 or both, Grx2 and the cytosolic Grx1, are viable in vitro and infectious to mice suggesting that neither oxidoreductase is needed for survival or ..
  44. Li F, Ma X, Cui X, Li J, Wang Z. Recombinant buckwheat glutaredoxin intake increases lifespan and stress resistance via hsf-1 upregulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Gerontol. 2018;104:86-97 pubmed publisher
    Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a polypeptide with low molecular weight, which has been extracted from buckwheat and has been suggested to have multiple functions revolving around oxidative stress responses and cell signaling...
  45. Chi C, Tang Y, Zhang J, Dai Y, Abdalla M, Chen Y, et al. Structural and Biochemical Insights into the Multiple Functions of Yeast Grx3. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:1235-1248 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we solved the crystal structures of the Trx domain (Grx3Trx) and Grx domain (Grx3Grx) of Grx3 in addition to the solution structure of Fra2...
  46. Stefani M, Sturlese M, Manta B, Löhr F, Mammi S, Comini M, et al. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignment of the cytosolic dithiol glutaredoxin 1 from the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Biomol NMR Assign. 2016;10:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome of trypanosomatids encodes for two class I (dithiolic) Grxs named 2-C-Grx1 and 2-C-Grx2...
  47. Garmash E, Velegzhaninov I, Grabelnych O, Borovik O, Silina E, Voinikov V, et al. Expression profiles of genes for mitochondrial respiratory energy-dissipating systems and antioxidant enzymes in wheat leaves during de-etiolation. J Plant Physiol. 2017;215:110-121 pubmed publisher
    ..patterns of the respiratory genes and several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, Cu-ZnSOD, t-APX, GR, and GRX) were quite similar...
  48. Jawad R, D Souza M, Selenius L, Lundgren M, Danielsson O, Nowak G, et al. Morphological alterations and redox changes associated with hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. World J Hepatol. 2017;9:1261-1269 pubmed publisher
    ..For further validation of redox protein status, immunogold staining was performed for the isoforms GRX1 and TRX1...
  49. Liu Y, Mi Y, Zhang J, Li Q, Chen L. Illumina-based transcriptomic profiling of Panax notoginseng in response to arsenic stress. Bot Stud. 2016;57:13 pubmed publisher
    ..to hormone metabolism (ethylene, ABA, cytokinin) and genes related to arsenic accumulation (HXT, NRAMP, MT and GRX) were differentially expressed...
  50. Musunda B, Benítez D, Dirdjaja N, Comini M, Krauth Siegel R. Glutaredoxin-deficiency confers bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei with improved thermotolerance. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2015;204:93-105 pubmed publisher
    ..trypanothione-based thiol metabolism, African trypanosomes express two dithiol glutaredoxins (Grxs), a cytosolic Grx1 and a mitochondrial Grx2, with so far unknown biological functions...
  51. Huang L, Li N, Thurow C, Wirtz M, Hell R, Gatz C. Ectopically expressed glutaredoxin ROXY19 negatively regulates the detoxification pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2016;16:200 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of the related GRX ROXY18/GRXS13 also led to increased susceptibility to TIBA, indicating potential functional redundancy of members ..
  52. Haas D, Lai D, Sharma S, Then J, Kho A, Flockhart D, et al. Steroid Pathway Genes and Neonatal Respiratory Distress After Betamethasone Use in Anticipated Preterm Birth. Reprod Sci. 2016;23:680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-nine (53.4%) babies developed RDS. Maternal SNPs in the centromeric protein E (CENPE), GLRX, CD9, and AURKA genes provided evidence of association with RDS (P < .01)...
  53. Qi X, Xu A, Gao Y, Shi Y, Sun X, Xu J, et al. Cardiac damage and dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by Grx1. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    b>Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) has been found to be an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme closely related to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases caused by oxidative stress...
  54. Li X, Li X, Shang Q, Gao Z, Hao F, Guo H, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could reverse the severity of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) via oxidative stress modulation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;108:32-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that FMT caused an improvement in the histopathology and symptoms of NEC in WT mice, but not Grx1-/- mice...
  55. Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot J. Glutaredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin from poplar: protein-protein interaction and catalytic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13609-14 pubmed
    Recently, a poplar phloem peroxiredoxin (Prx) was found to accept both glutaredoxin (Grx) and thioredoxin (Trx) as proton donors...
  56. Dai X, Li Y, Sun X, Cai K, Mao Q, Xia H. Generation of Domain-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human Glutaredoxin3. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2016;35:285-292 pubmed publisher
    ..4?kDa protein, possesses an N-terminal Trx homology domain followed by two tandem repeats of Grx domains...
  57. Matsui R, Watanabe Y, Murdoch C. Redox regulation of ischemic limb neovascularization - What we have learned from animal studies. Redox Biol. 2017;12:1011-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is an enzyme which catalyzes reversal of GSH adducts, and does not scavenge oxidants itself...
  58. Peskin A, Pace P, Behring J, Paton L, Soethoudt M, Bachschmid M, et al. Glutathionylation of the Active Site Cysteines of Peroxiredoxin 2 and Recycling by Glutaredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3053-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutathionylation was reversed by glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), and GSH plus Grx1 was able to support the peroxidase activity of Prx2...
  59. Coppo L, Montano S, Padilla A, Holmgren A. Determination of glutaredoxin enzyme activity and protein S-glutathionylation using fluorescent eosin-glutathione. Anal Biochem. 2016;499:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian glutaredoxins are present in the cytosol/nucleus as Grx1 or in mitochondria as Grx2a...
  60. Zhang S, Shen Z, Liu X, Li Z, Zhang Q, Liu X. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;75:107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5...
  61. Denardin C, Martins L, Parisi M, Vieira M, Terra S, Barbé Tuana F, et al. Autophagy induced by purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract triggered a cooperative effect on inducing the hepatic stellate cell death. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2017;33:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..purple pitanga extract induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle arrest, and death by apoptosis and necrosis in GRX cells, a well-established activated HSC line...
  62. Petry S, Sharifpanah F, Sauer H, Linn T. Differential expression of islet glutaredoxin 1 and 5 with high reactive oxygen species production in a mouse model of diabesity. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176267 pubmed publisher
    ..There is evidence suggesting that the glutaredoxin (Grx) system exerts a protective role for pancreatic islets, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
  63. Nolin J, Tully J, Hoffman S, Guala A, van der Velden J, Poynter M, et al. The glutaredoxin/S-glutathionylation axis regulates interleukin-17A-induced proinflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells in association with S-glutathionylation of nuclear factor κB family proteins. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;73:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Under physiological conditions, the enzyme glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) acts to deglutathionylate NF-κB proteins, which restores functional activity...
  64. Netto L, de Oliveira M, Tairum C, da Silva Neto J. Conferring specificity in redox pathways by enzymatic thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. Free Radic Res. 2016;50:206-45 pubmed
    ..Glutaredoxin (Grx) enzymes also contain the Trx fold, but they do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Trx...
  65. Tamayo E, Benabdellah K, Ferrol N. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149606 pubmed publisher
    ..the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified...
  66. Watanabe Y, Murdoch C, Sano S, Ido Y, Bachschmid M, Cohen R, et al. Glutathione adducts induced by ischemia and deletion of glutaredoxin-1 stabilize HIF-1α and improve limb revascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:6011-6 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of glutathione (GSH) generates GSH-protein adducts that are specifically reversed by the cytosolic thioltransferase, glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx)...
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    ..These data indicate that the promoter region of the isolated glutaredoxin gene is functional. ..
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    To study how the expression of thioltransferase (TTase), a critical thiol repair and dethiolating enzyme, is regulated in human lens epithelial cells under oxidative stress...
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    Glutaredoxin (GRx, thioltransferase) is implicated in cellular redox regulation, and it is known for specific and efficient catalysis of reduction of protein-S-S-glutathione-mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) because of its remarkably low ..
  70. Lancel S, Zhang J, Evangelista A, Trucillo M, Tong X, Siwik D, et al. Nitroxyl activates SERCA in cardiac myocytes via glutathiolation of cysteine 674. Circ Res. 2009;104:720-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HNO increases the maximal activation of SERCA via S-glutathiolation at cysteine 674...
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    b>Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) belongs to the oxidoreductase family and is a component of the endogenous antioxidant defense system. However, its physiological function remains largely unknown...
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    ..or G30), the in vitro effects of glucose on cytosolic oxidative stress using probes sensing glutathione oxidation (GRX1-roGFP2), thiol oxidation (roGFP1) or H2O2 (roGFP2-Orp1), on β-cell stimulus-secretion ..
  73. Mohring F, Rahbari M, Zechmann B, Rahlfs S, Przyborski J, Meyer A, et al. Determination of glutathione redox potential and pH value in subcellular compartments of malaria parasites. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;104:104-117 pubmed publisher
    ..of drug action, we targeted the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor roGFP2 coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (roGFP2-hGrx1) as well as the ratiometric pH sensor pHluorin to the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of P...
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    ..GSH) is the most commonly used assay to analyze the presence and properties of enzymatically active glutaredoxins (Grx), a family of central redox proteins in eukaryotes and glutathione-utilizing prokaryotes...
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    ..The selenoprotein thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a hybrid enzyme in which a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain is linked to a thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)...
  76. Park J, Levine M. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of alternatively spliced glutaredoxin 1 cDNA and its genomic gene: chromosomal localization, mrna stability, and origin of pseudogenes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10427-34 pubmed
    Alternatively spliced human glutaredoxin (Grx1(as)) cDNA was isolated from a neutrophil cDNA library, using a (32)P-labeled human glutaredoxin (Grx1) cDNA probe under non-stringent conditions...
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    ..Glutathionylation was reversed after addition of superoxide dismutase. Glutaredoxin 1, which catalyzes deglutathionylation, coimmunoprecipitated with beta(1) subunit and, when included in patch ..
  79. Barrett W, DeGnore J, Konig S, Fales H, Keng Y, Zhang Z, et al. Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215. Biochemistry. 1999;38:6699-705 pubmed
    ..In addition, inactivated PTP1B is reactivated enzymatically by the glutathione-specific dethiolase enzyme thioltransferase (glutaredoxin), indicating that the inactivated form of the phosphatase is a glutathionyl mixed disulfide...
  80. Balijepalli S, Boyd M, Ravindranath V. Human brain thioltransferase: constitutive expression and localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;85:123-32 pubmed
    b>Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) is a member of the family of thiol-disulfide oxido-reductases that maintain the sulfhydryl homeostasis in cells by catalyzing thiol-disulfide interchange reactions...
  81. Song J, Rhee J, Suntharalingam M, Walsh S, Spitz D, Lee Y. Role of glutaredoxin in metabolic oxidative stress. Glutaredoxin as a sensor of oxidative stress mediated by H2O2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46566-75 pubmed
    Epitope-tagged glutaredoxin (GRX) was utilized to determine the role of GRX in oxidative stress-induced signaling and cytotoxicity in glucose-deprived human cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR and DU-145)...
  82. Song J, Lee Y. Differential role of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin in metabolic oxidative stress-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Biochem J. 2003;373:845-53 pubmed
    Redox-sensing molecules such as thioredoxin (TRX) and glutaredoxin (GRX) bind to apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and suppress its activation...
  83. Peltoniemi M, Rytilä P, Harju T, Soini Y, Salmenkivi K, Ruddock L, et al. Modulation of glutaredoxin in the lung and sputum of cigarette smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Res. 2006;7:133 pubmed
    ..b>Grx1 was expressed mainly in alveolar macrophages...
  84. Padilla C, Spyrou G, Holmgren A. High-level expression of fully active human glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in E. coli and characterization of Cys7 to Ser mutant protein. FEBS Lett. 1996;378:69-73 pubmed
    Glutaredoxin (Grx) (12 kDa) is a hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase and also a general GSH-disulfide reductase of importance for redox regulation...
  85. Kanda M, Ihara Y, Murata H, Urata Y, Kono T, Yodoi J, et al. Glutaredoxin modulates platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell signaling by regulating the redox status of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28518-28 pubmed
    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in various cellular functions, including the redox-dependent regulation of certain integral proteins...
  86. Kuipers I, Louis R, Manise M, Dentener M, Irvin C, Janssen Heininger Y, et al. Increased glutaredoxin-1 and decreased protein S-glutathionylation in sputum of asthmatics. Eur Respir J. 2013;41:469-72 pubmed publisher
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    ..of MAPK were all significantly increased accompanied by a shift of the thiolic redox state of Akt1, Trx1 and Grx1 to more oxidized...
  88. Shao D, Han J, Hou X, Fry J, Behring J, Seta F, et al. Glutaredoxin-1 Deficiency Causes Fatty Liver and Dyslipidemia by Inhibiting Sirtuin-1. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;27:313-327 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx) is a small thioltransferase that removes protein GSH adducts without having direct antioxidant properties...
  89. Papov V, Gravina S, Mieyal J, Biemann K. The primary structure and properties of thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) from human red blood cells. Protein Sci. 1994;3:428-34 pubmed
    b>Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) was purified from human red blood cells essentially as described previously (Mieyal JJ et al., 1991a, Biochemistry 30:6088-6097)...
  90. Padilla C, Bajalica S, Lagercrantz J, Holmgren A. The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14. Genomics. 1996;32:455-7 pubmed
    ..A cDNA encoding the human glutaredoxin gene (HGMW-approved symbol GLRX) has recently been isolated and cloned from a human fetal spleen cDNA library...
  91. Collinson E, Wheeler G, Garrido E, Avery A, Avery S, Grant C. The yeast glutaredoxins are active as glutathione peroxidases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16712-7 pubmed
    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two glutaredoxins, encoded by GRX1 and GRX2, which are active as glutathione-dependent oxidoreductases...
  92. Kuipers I, Guala A, Aesif S, Konings G, Bouwman F, Mariman E, et al. Cigarette smoke targets glutaredoxin 1, increasing s-glutathionylation and epithelial cell death. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..modification, known as S-glutathionylation, can be reversed under physiological conditions by the enzyme, glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1)...