Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: GJC1
Description: gap junction protein gamma 1
Alias: CX45, GJA7, gap junction gamma-1 protein, CTC-296K1.4, connexin-45, gap junction alpha-7 protein, gap junction protein, gamma 1, 45kDa
- McArthur L, Chilton L, Smith G, Nicklin S. Electrical consequences of cardiac myocyte: fibroblast coupling. Biochem Soc Trans. 2015;43:513-8 pubmed publisher..Cx) proteins make up one gap junction channel, of which there are three main subtypes in the heart; Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. In the cardiac myocyte, gap junctions are present mainly at the intercalated discs between neighbouring myocytes, ..
- Kofron C, Kim T, King M, Xie A, Feng F, Park E, et al. Gq-activated fibroblasts induce cardiomyocyte action potential prolongation and automaticity in a three-dimensional microtissue environment. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H810-H827 pubmed publisher..activation in CFs also depolarized RMPCF from -33 to -20 mV and increased connexin 43 and connexin 45 expression...
- Cea L, Puebla C, Cisterna B, Escamilla R, Vargas A, Frank M, et al. Fast skeletal myofibers of mdx mouse, model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, express connexin hemichannels that lead to apoptosis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73:2583-99 pubmed publisher..three connexins (39, 43 and 45) and high sarcolemma permeability, which was absent in myofibers of mdx Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl):Myo-Cre mice (deficient in skeletal muscle Cx43/Cx45 expression)...
- Sun J, Zhu X, Dong T, Zhang X, Liu Q, Li S, et al. An "up, no change, or down" system: Time-dependent expression of mRNAs in contused skeletal muscle of rats used for wound age estimation. Forensic Sci Int. 2017;272:104-110 pubmed publisher..Levels of PUM2, TAB2, GJC1, and CHRNA1 mRNAs were detected in contused muscle using real-time PCR...
- Nishii K, Seki A, Kumai M, Morimoto S, Miwa T, Hagiwara N, et al. Connexin45 contributes to global cardiovascular development by establishing myocardial impulse propagation. Mech Dev. 2016;140:41-52 pubmed publisher..Here, we examined mouse embryos with a region-specific deletion of Cx45 in the myocardium (CA-Cre; Cx45(flox/flox)) or endothelium (Tie2-Cre; Cx45(flox/flox))...
- Cisterna B, Vargas A, Puebla C, Saez J. Connexin hemichannels explain the ionic imbalance and lead to atrophy in denervated skeletal muscles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:2168-2176 pubmed publisher..hemichannels formed by connexins (Cx HCs) in denervation-induced atrophy, skeletal myofibers deficient in Cx43 and Cx45 expression (Cx43fl/flCx45fl/fl:Myo-Cre mice) and control (Cx43fl/flCx45fl/flZeng O, Li F, Li Y, Li L, Xiao T, Chu C, et al. Effect of Novel Gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide on renal fibrosis and connexins expression in diabetic rats. Bioengineered. 2016;7:314-320 pubmed..01), while the expressions of CX40,CX43, CX45, MMP-1 and MMP-2 were obviously deceased (P < 0.01)...Swayne L, Bennett S. Connexins and pannexins in neuronal development and adult neurogenesis. BMC Cell Biol. 2016;17 Suppl 1:10 pubmed publisher..communication in the regulation of the birth and development of neurons, specifically Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx36, Cx43, Cx45, Panx1, and Panx2...Shinohara D, Matsushita S, Yamamoto T, Inaba H, Kuwaki K, Shimada A, et al. Reduction of c-kit positive cardiac stem cells in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Cardiol. 2017;69:712-718 pubmed publisher..Progression of remodeling in LA tissue was observed in AF patients. The number of c-kit positive cells cultured from LA appendages was reduced in AF patients, suggesting impairments in self-renewal. ..Shu C, Huang W, Zeng Z, He Y, Luo B, Liu H, et al. Connexin 43 is involved in the sympathetic atrial fibrillation in canine and canine atrial myocytes. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017;18:3-9 pubmed publisher..05. Silencing Cx43 in cells by siRNA could also efficiently reduce Cx43 expression. The relative levels of Cx45 mRNA were decreased by 73% compared with unaffected cells...TalaverÃ³n R, FernÃ¡ndez P, Escamilla R, Pastor A, Matarredona E, SÃ¡ez J. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:411 pubmed publisher..cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1)...Nishii K, Kobayashi Y, Shibata Y. Absence of connexin43 and connexin45 does not disturb pre- and peri-implantation development. Zygote. 2016;24:457-64 pubmed publisher..In this study, we eliminated connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45), major gap junctional proteins in the pre- and peri-implantation embryo...Feng Y, Luo S, Tong S, Zhong L, Zhang C, Yang P, et al. Electric-Pulse Current Stimulation Increases If Current in mShox2 Genetically Modified Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Cardiology. 2015;132:49-57 pubmed publisher..We then evaluated the expression of pacemaker-related genes, such as Nkx2.5, Tbx3, HCN4, Cx43 and Cx45, by means of qRT-PCR and Western blotting...RimkutÄ— L, Jotautis V, Marandykina A, SveikatienÄ— R, AntanaviÄiÅ«tÄ— I, Skeberdis V. The role of neural connexins in HeLa cell mobility and intercellular communication through tunneling tubes. BMC Cell Biol. 2016;17:3 pubmed publisher..Therefore, we examined the impact of Cxs expressed in the nervous system (Cx36, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47) on: 1) cell mobility; 2) formation and properties of TTs; and 3) transfer of siRNA between remote cells ..SÃ¡ez J, Cisterna B, Vargas A, Cardozo C. Regulation of pannexin and connexin channels and their functional role in skeletal muscles. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015;72:2929-35 pubmed publisher..The absence of Cx43 and Cx45 is sufficient to drastically reduce denervation atrophy...Brown T, Krogh Madsen T, Christini D. Illuminating Myocyte-Fibroblast Homotypic and Heterotypic Gap Junction Dynamics Using Dynamic Clamp. Biophys J. 2016;111:785-797 pubmed publisher..In the heart, three major connexin (Cx) isoforms, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45, form GJ channels in cell-type-specific combinations...Mondal A, Appadurai D, Akoum N, Sachse F, Moreno A. Computational simulations of asymmetric fluxes of large molecules through gap junction channel pores. J Theor Biol. 2017;412:61-73 pubmed publisher..channels, where we observed a molecular charge-independent preferential flux of large fluorescent molecules in the Cx45 to Cx43 direction...Cea L, Balboa E, Puebla C, Vargas A, Cisterna B, Escamilla R, et al. Dexamethasone-induced muscular atrophy is mediated by functional expression of connexin-based hemichannels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1891-9 pubmed publisher..Cx HCs) in muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on control (Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl)) and Cx43/Cx45 expression-deficient (Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl):Myo-Cre) skeletal myofibers...Desplantez T. Cardiac Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45 co-assembling: involvement of connexins epitopes in formation of hemichannels and Gap junction channels. BMC Cell Biol. 2017;18:3 pubmed publisher..Studies mostly focused cardiac connexins Cx43 and Cx40 expressed in myocytes, while Cx45 and Cx30...Seki A, Ishikawa T, Daumy X, Mishima H, Barc J, Sasaki R, et al. Progressive Atrial Conduction Defects Associated With Bone Malformation Caused by a Connexin-45 Mutation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70:358-370 pubmed publisher..The authors identified a connexin-45 (Cx45) mutation (p...Ke Q, Li L, Yao X, Lai X, Cai B, Chen H, et al. Enhanced generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of Connexin 45. Sci Rep. 2017;7:458 pubmed publisher..that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) contained functional gap junctions partially contributed by Connexin 45 (CX45)...Feng Y, Luo S, Yang P, Song Z. Electric pulse current stimulation increases electrophysiological properties of If current reconstructed in mHCN4-transfected canine mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Ther Med. 2016;11:1323-1329 pubmed..324±41, P<0.05). In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HCN4, connexin 43 (Cx43) and Cx45 were upregulated in group B compared with group A, as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase ..Mezzano V, Liang Y, Wright A, Lyon R, Pfeiffer E, Song M, et al. Desmosomal junctions are necessary for adult sinus node function. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;111:274-86 pubmed publisher..DSP csKO SAN exhibited migrating lead pacemaker sites associated with connexin 45 loss...Freeburg S, Engelbrecht E, Powell W. Subfunctionalization of Paralogous Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors from the Frog Xenopus Laevis: Distinct Target Genes and Differential Responses to Specific Agonists in a Single Cell Type. Toxicol Sci. 2017;155:337-347 pubmed publisher..repressor (AHRR), spectrin repeat-containing nuclear envelope protein 1 (SYNE-1), and gap junction protein gamma 1 (GJC1), were regulated solely by AHR1?...Merrifield P, Laird D. Connexins in skeletal muscle development and disease. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016;50:67-73 pubmed publisher..While the 21 member multi-gene family of connexins are ubiquitously found in humans, only Cx39, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 have been documented in developing myoblasts and injured adult skeletal muscle while healthy adult skeletal muscle ..Mazrouei S, Sharifpanah F, Bekhite M, Figulla H, Sauer H, Wartenberg M. Cardiomyogenesis of embryonic stem cells upon purinergic receptor activation by ADP and ATP. Purinergic Signal. 2015;11:491-506 pubmed publisher..Cardiac-specific genes showed enhanced expression of Î±-MHC, MLC2v, Î±-actinin, connexin 45 (Cx45), and HCN4, on both gene and protein levels upon ADP/ATP treatment, indicating increased cardiomyogenesis ..Dominguez A, Salazar Z, Arenas E, Betancourt M, Ducolomb Y, González Márquez H, et al. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on viability, maturation and gap junctional intercellular communication of porcine oocytes in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro. 2016;35:93-9 pubmed publisher..the inhibitory effect of PFOS on GJIC was not due to an alteration on the expression of connexin genes Cx43, Cx45 and Cx60...Trease A, Capuccino J, Contreras J, Harris A, Sorgen P. Intramolecular signaling in a cardiac connexin: Role of cytoplasmic domain dimerization. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017;111:69-80 pubmed publisher..heart, the spatio-temporal regulation and distinct functional properties of the three dominant connexins (Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40) suggests non-redundant physiological roles for each isoform...Ismail F, Moinfar Z, Prochnow N, Dambach H, Hinkerohe D, Haase C, et al. Dexamethasone and levetiracetam reduce hetero-cellular gap-junctional coupling between F98 glioma cells and glial cells in vitro. J Neurooncol. 2017;131:469-476 pubmed publisher..The expression of four types of connexins (Cxs), including Cx32, Cx36, Cx43 and Cx45, and microglial phenotypes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry...Kilarski W, Dupont E, Coppen S, Yeh H, Vozzi C, Gourdie R, et al. Identification of two further gap-junctional proteins, connexin40 and connexin45, in human myometrial smooth muscle cells at term. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:1-8 pubmedDyszkiewicz Konwińska M, Bryja A, Jopek K, Budna J, Bukowska D, Antosik P, et al. Expression of connexins in porcine buccal pouch mucosa cells during real-time long-term cell proliferation in vitro: a primary culture approach. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017;31:567-577 pubmedIn this study we investigated the expression of connexins Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 mRNAs during real-time cellular proliferation in vitro. The oral mucosa cells were isolated from 80 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts...Tsai M, Lan K, Huang K, Huang F, Kung F, Chang S. Significance of mRNA levels of connexin37, connexin43, and connexin45 in luteinized granulosa cells of controlled hyperstimulated follicles. Fertil Steril. 2003;80:1437-43 pubmed..The luteinized granulosa cells from the large follicles are relatively quiescent in the connexin mRNA expression. In addition to the volume, the mRNA levels of cx43 may serve as a marker to predict the outcome of oocytes. ..Chanson M, Scerri I, Suter S. Defective regulation of gap junctional coupling in cystic fibrosis pancreatic duct cells. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1677-84 pubmed..Both cell lines expressed connexin45 (Cx45), as evidenced by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and dual patch-clamp recording...Sheldon R, Mashayamombe C, Shi S, Garfield R, Shmygol A, Blanks A, et al. Alterations in gap junction connexin43/connexin45 ratio mediate a transition from quiescence to excitation in a mathematical model of the myometrium. J R Soc Interface. 2014;11:20140726 pubmed..Our results support the hypothesis that as labour approaches, connexin45 is downregulated to allow action potentials to spread more readily through the myometrium. ..Petersen F, Rodrigo R, Richter M, Kostin S. The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant vitamins on atrial oxidative stress, nitrotyrosine residues, and connexins following extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;433:27-40 pubmed publisher..stress are involved in the development of an arrhythmogenic substrate by their effect on connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45) abundance and distribution pattern...Liu L, Pertsemlidis A, Ding L, Story M, Steinberg M, Sebastiani P, et al. Original Research: A case-control genome-wide association study identifies genetic modifiers of fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016;241:706-18 pubmed publisher..In addition, we identified SNPs in the SPARC, GJC1, EFTUD2 and JAZF1 genes as novel candidates associated with HbF levels...Kanter H, Saffitz J, Beyer E. Molecular cloning of two human cardiac gap junction proteins, connexin40 and connexin45. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1994;26:861-8 pubmed..and genomic cloning to isolate DNA encoding the gap junction proteins human connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin45 (Cx45)...Cea L, Bevilacqua J, Arriagada C, Cardenas A, Bigot A, Mouly V, et al. The absence of dysferlin induces the expression of functional connexin-based hemichannels in human myotubes. BMC Cell Biol. 2016;17 Suppl 1:15 pubmed publisher..1, Cx43 and Cx45)...Laing J, Koval M, Steinberg T. Association with ZO-1 correlates with plasma membrane partitioning in truncated connexin45 mutants. J Membr Biol. 2005;207:45-53 pubmed..known connexin-interacting protein in osteoblastic cells, associates with the carboxyl termini of both Cx43 and Cx45. To learn more about the role of the cormexin-ZO-1 interaction, we analyzed connexin trafficking and function in ..Vozzi C, Dupont E, Coppen S, Yeh H, Severs N. Chamber-related differences in connexin expression in the human heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999;31:991-1003 pubmed..Three additional connexin isoforms, Cx40, Cx45 and Cx37, of distinctive functional capacities in vitro, are expressed in cardiovascular cells, but our knowledge ..WÃ¶rsdÃ¶rfer P, Bosen F, Gebhardt M, Russ N, Zimmermann K, Komla Kessie D, et al. Abrogation of Gap Junctional Communication in ES Cells Results in a Disruption of Primitive Endoderm Formation in Embryoid Bodies. Stem Cells. 2017;35:859-871 pubmed publisher..Connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx45 are co-expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, form gap junctions and are considered to exhibit adhesive function ..Li X, Simard J. Connexin45 gap junction channels in rat cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1890-8 pubmed..Here, we report data consistent with identification of Cx45. Immunofluorescence using anti-human Cx45 and anti-mouse Cx45 antibodies revealed labeling between alpha-actin-..Kausalya P, Reichert M, Hunziker W. Connexin45 directly binds to ZO-1 and localizes to the tight junction region in epithelial MDCK cells. FEBS Lett. 2001;505:92-6 pubmed..b>Cx45 interacts with the PDZ domains of ZO-1 and ZO-3, but not ZO-2, via a short C-terminal PDZ binding motif (SVWI)...Donahue H, Li Z, Zhou Z, Yellowley C. Differentiation of human fetal osteoblastic cells and gap junctional intercellular communication. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;278:C315-22 pubmed..We found that hFOB 1.19 cells express abundant connexin 43 (Cx43) protein and mRNA. In contrast, Cx45 mRNA was expressed to a lesser degree, and Cx26 and Cx32 mRNA were not detected. Culturing hFOB 1. 19 cells at 39...Kotsias B, Salim M, Peracchia L, Peracchia C. Interplay between cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and gap junction channels made of connexins 45, 40, 32 and 50 expressed in oocytes. J Membr Biol. 2006;214:1-8 pubmed..functional interaction between CFTR and gap junction channels, we coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes CFTR and either Cx45, Cx40, Cx32 or Cx50 and monitored junctional conductance (G (j)) and its sensitivity to transjunctional voltage (V (..Sohl G, Joussen A, Kociok N, Willecke K. Expression of connexin genes in the human retina. BMC Ophthalmol. 2010;10:27 pubmed publisher..helped to explore at least partially the expression pattern of the following human connexin genes GJD2 (hCx36), GJC1 (hCx45), GJA9 (hCx59) and GJA10 (hCx62) in the human retina...Heinrich M, Oberbach A, Schlichting N, Stolzenburg J, Neuhaus J. Cytokine effects on gap junction communication and connexin expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells and suburothelial myofibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20792 pubmed publisher..Connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx45 are the most important gap junction proteins in bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC) and suburothelial ..Brockmeyer P, Jung K, Perske C, Schliephake H, Hemmerlein B. Membrane connexin 43 acts as an independent prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2014;45:273-81 pubmed publisher..059). No correlation was found between the Cx26, Cx45 expression and OS...Shin M, Lee S, Son Y, Park Y, Jeong S, Kim E, et al. Lysophosphatidic Acid Accelerates Development of Porcine Embryos by Activating Formation of the Blastocoel. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher..Expression of Connexin 43 and gap junction and cell adhesion-related genes (GJC1 and CDH1, respectively) was also higher in LPA-treated compared to control embryos...Li J, Ke H, He Y, Wen L, Xu W, Wu Z, et al. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells modulated Cx43 and Cx45 expression in rats with myocardial infarction. Cytotechnology. 2018;70:225-234 pubmed publisher..is known about the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation on connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45) remodeling in the ischemic heart...Chu M, Novak S, Cover C, Wang A, Chinyere I, Juneman E, et al. Increased Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis Associated With Gap Junction Remodeling With Upregulation of RNA-Binding Protein FXR1. Circulation. 2018;137:605-618 pubmed publisher..FXR1 associates with intercalated discs, and integral gap junction proteins Cx43 (connexin 43), Cx45 (connexin 45), and ZO-1 (zonula occludens-1) were identified as novel mRNA targets of FXR1 by using a BioID proximity assay ..Kopanic J, Schlingmann B, Koval M, Lau A, Sorgen P, Su V. Degradation of gap junction connexins is regulated by the interaction with Cx43-interacting protein of 75 kDa (CIP75). Biochem J. 2015;466:571-85 pubmed publisher..We have discovered two additional connexins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin45 (Cx45), that interact with CIP75...Laing J, Manley Markowski R, Koval M, Civitelli R, Steinberg T. Connexin45 interacts with zonula occludens-1 in osteoblastic cells. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:209-12 pubmedConnexin43 (Cx43) and Cx45 are co-expressed in a number of different tissues...Kaba R, Coppen S, Dupont E, Skepper J, Elneil S, Haw M, et al. Comparison of connexin 43, 40 and 45 expression patterns in the developing human and mouse hearts. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:339-43 pubmed..In general, these dynamic changes of connexins 43, 40 and 45 during mouse cardiac development appear to be mirrored in the human. ..Xiang Q, Fan S, Li J, Tan C, Xiang J, Zhang Q, et al. [Expression of connexin43 and connexin45 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Ai Zheng. 2002;21:593-6 pubmed..The expressions of Cx43 and Cx45 in the biopsies of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) and chronic nasopharyngitis tissues were determined by using the ..Valiunas V, Doronin S, Valiuniene L, Potapova I, Zuckerman J, Walcott B, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells make cardiac connexins and form functional gap junctions. J Physiol. 2004;555:617-26 pubmed..The staining patterns for Cx45 rather were typified by granular cytoplasmic staining...Rackauskas M, Kreuzberg M, Pranevicius M, Willecke K, Verselis V, Bukauskas F. Gating properties of heterotypic gap junction channels formed of connexins 40, 43, and 45. Biophys J. 2007;92:1952-65 pubmed..properties of heterotypic gap junction (GJ) channels assembled between cells expressing wild-type Cx40, Cx43, or Cx45 and their fusion forms tagged with color variants of green fluorescent protein...Kurtz L, Madsen K, Kurt B, Jensen B, Walter S, Banas B, et al. High-level connexin expression in the human juxtaglomerular apparatus. Nephron Physiol. 2010;116:p1-8 pubmed publisher..These gap junctions are formed by cell-specific expression patterns of the vascular connexins Cx37, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. In order to obtain a first indication if gap junctions might play a similar important functional role in the ..Ouyang X, Yan D, Aslan I, Du L, Tekin M, Liu X. Mutation screening of the GJA7 (Cx45) gene in a large international series of probands with nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:333-6 pubmed publisher..Cx45 is another gap junction protein, coded by the GJA7 gene...Desplantez T, Halliday D, Dupont E, Severs N, Weingart R. Influence of v5/6-His tag on the properties of gap junction channels composed of connexin43, connexin40 or connexin45. J Membr Biol. 2011;240:139-50 pubmed publisher..or connexin45 and connexins fused with a V5/6-His tag to the carboxyl terminus (CT) domain (Cx43-tag, Cx40-tag, Cx45-tag) were used to study connexin expression and the electrical properties of gap junction channels...Kléber A, Rudy Y. Basic mechanisms of cardiac impulse propagation and associated arrhythmias. Physiol Rev. 2004;84:431-88 pubmed..This review attempts to synthesize results from computer simulations and experimental preparations to define mechanisms and biophysical principles that govern normal and abnormal conduction in the heart. ..del Castillo F, Cohen Salmon M, Charollais A, Caille D, Lampe P, Chavrier P, et al. Consortin, a trans-Golgi network cargo receptor for the plasma membrane targeting and recycling of connexins. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:262-75 pubmed publisher..Sequence accession numbers. GenBank: Human CNST cDNA, NM_152609; mouse Cnst cDNA, NM_146105. ..Ye W, Yue B, Aoyama H, Kim N, Cameron J, Chen H, et al. Junctional delay, frequency, and direction-dependent uncoupling of human heterotypic Cx45/Cx43 gap junction channels. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017;111:17-26 pubmed publisher..Connexin40 (Cx40) and Cx43 are the dominant connexins in atrial myocytes, while Cx45 is mostly expressed in the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes which directly connect nodal cells with ..Sirnes S, Honne H, Ahmed D, Danielsen S, Rognum T, Meling G, et al. DNA methylation analyses of the connexin gene family reveal silencing of GJC1 (Connexin45) by promoter hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Epigenetics. 2011;6:602-9 pubmed..Expression of six (GJA1, GJA9, GJB1, GJB2, GJC1 and GJD3) connexin genes was detected in normal colonic tissue samples...Zou J, Salarian M, Chen Y, Zhuo Y, Brown N, Hepler J, et al. Direct visualization of interaction between calmodulin and connexin45. Biochem J. 2017;474:4035-4051 pubmed publisher..Here, we report the first direct interaction of CaM with Cx45 (connexin45) of ?-family in living cells under physiological conditions by monitoring bioluminescence resonance ..Sun Y, Yang Y, Gong X, Wang X, Li R, Tan H, et al. Novel germline GJA5/connexin40 mutations associated with lone atrial fibrillation impair gap junctional intercellular communication. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:603-9 pubmed publisher..This study is the first to demonstrate that the germline familial mutations in Cx40 impair the gap junctions through different mechanisms, which may predispose the mutant carriers to AF. ..