Gene Symbol: GITR
Description: TNF receptor superfamily member 18
Alias: AITR, CD357, GITR, GITR-D, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18, TNF receptor superfamily activation-inducible protein, activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein
Species: human
Products:     GITR

Top Publications

  1. Esparza E, Arch R. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor, a costimulatory receptor on naive and activated T cells, uses TNF receptor-associated factor 2 in a novel fashion as an inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation. J Immunol. 2005;174:7875-82 pubmed
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR (GITR) has been implicated as an essential regulator of immune responses to self tissues and pathogens...
  2. Bianchini R, Bistoni O, Alunno A, Petrillo M, Ronchetti S, Sportoletti P, et al. CD4(+) CD25(low) GITR(+) cells: a novel human CD4(+) T-cell population with regulatory activity. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related (GITR) protein has been suggested to regulate Treg activity in mice...
  3. Nocentini G, Giunchi L, Ronchetti S, Krausz L, Bartoli A, Moraca R, et al. A new member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family inhibits T cell receptor-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6216-21 pubmed
    ..murine T cell hybridoma (3DO) cells by the differential display technique, we have cloned a new gene, GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene) encoding a new member of the tumor ..
  4. Baltz K, Krusch M, Bringmann A, Brossart P, Mayer F, Kloss M, et al. Cancer immunoediting by GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein) ligand in humans: NK cell/tumor cell interactions. FASEB J. 2007;21:2442-54 pubmed
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein (GITR) has been shown to stimulate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in mice. However, the functional relevance of GITR and its ligand (GITRL) for non-T cells has yet to be fully explored...
  5. Buechele C, Baessler T, Wirths S, Schmohl J, Schmiedel B, Salih H. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) ligand modulates cytokine release and NK cell reactivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Leukemia. 2012;26:991-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..The TNF receptor family member glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) stimulates anti-tumor immunity in mice, but available data indicate that GITR may mediate different effects in ..
  6. Shimizu J, Yamazaki S, Takahashi T, Ishida Y, Sakaguchi S. Stimulation of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells through GITR breaks immunological self-tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:135-42 pubmed
    ..We show here that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR, also known as TNFRSF18)--a member of the tumor necrosis factor-nerve growth factor (TNF-NGF) receptor gene ..
  7. Liu B, Li Z, Mahesh S, Pantanelli S, Hwang F, Siu W, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor negatively regulates activation of human primary natural killer (NK) cells by blocking proliferative signals and increasing NK cell apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8202-10 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), found constitutively expressed on human primary natural killer (NK) cells at low levels was up-regulated upon stimulation by either Toll-like receptor ligand or NK cell growth ..
  8. Ronchetti S, Nocentini G, Riccardi C, Pandolfi P. Role of GITR in activation response of T lymphocytes. Blood. 2002;100:350-2 pubmed
    In this study, we describe the generation and characterization of mice in which GITR gene (TNFRSF18 [tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 18]), a member of the TNFRSF expressed mainly on T lymphocytes, has been ablated (GITR(-/-) ..
  9. Huang P, Shih Y, Tseng Y, Ko T, Fu Y, Lin Y. Xenograft of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly as a potential therapy for rat pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;54:45-58 pubmed publisher
    ..and released cytokines, including FGF-6, amphiregulin, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factors receptor (GITR), MIP-3β, and osteoprotegerin...

More Information

Publications117 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mallikarjunappa S, Sargolzaei M, Brito L, Meade K, Karrow N, Pant S. Short communication: Uncovering quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Holstein cattle using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism panel. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:7280-7286 pubmed publisher
    ..Further functional validation of these genes is now warranted to investigate their roles in regulating the immune response and, consequently, cattle resistance to MAP infection. ..
  2. Yang K, Blanco D, Neale G, Vogel P, Avila J, Clish C, et al. Homeostatic control of metabolic and functional fitness of Treg cells by LKB1 signalling. Nature. 2017;548:602-606 pubmed publisher
    ..of immune regulatory molecules including the negative co-receptor PD-1 and the TNF receptor superfamily proteins GITR and OX40...
  3. Rai G, Das S, Ansari M, Singh P, Gupta N, Sharma S, et al. Phenotypic and functional profile of Th17 and Treg cells in allergic fungal sinusitis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018;57:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Though, lower percentages of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells with elevated expression of GITR were patent. Transcription factor ROR?t mRNA was upregulated, whereas FoxP3 mRNA was downregulated in AFRS patients...
  4. Wei R, Hu Y, Dong F, Xu X, Hu A, Gao G. Hepatoma cell-derived leptin downregulates the immunosuppressive function of regulatory T-cells to enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ T-cells. Immunol Cell Biol. 2016;94:388-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin inhibited Treg activation and function in vitro, demonstrated by lower expression of TGF-?, IL-10, CTLA4 and GITR in Tregs, as wells weaker suppression of CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and production of cytotoxic mediators...
  5. BADAWI A, Arora P, Brenner D. Biologic Markers of Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis in Human: A Systematic Review. Infect Dis Ther. 2019;8:5-22 pubmed publisher
    ..g., CD4+ T cells, GITR receptors, OX40 receptors, IL-4+CD4+Th2 cells, IL-17+CD4+ T cells) and ..
  6. Li H, Chen H, Liu W, Jia X, Zhang J, Ma C, et al. Prostaglandin E2 restrains human Treg cell differentiation via E prostanoid receptor 2-protein kinase A signaling. Immunol Lett. 2017;191:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR), as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-10 by Treg cells via EP2 receptors and cAMP/PKA signaling...
  7. Bagley S, Hwang W, Brem S, Linette G, O Rourke D, Desai A. RNA-seq for identification of therapeutically targetable determinants of immune activation in human glioblastoma. J Neurooncol. 2019;141:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..003), CD137 (p = 0.042), VEGF-A (p < 0.001), CTLA4 (p = 0.028), CD40 (p = 0.023), GITR (p = 0.020), IL6 (p = 0.02), and OX40 (p < 0.001)...
  8. Rosenzwajg M, Churlaud G, Mallone R, Six A, Dérian N, Chaara W, et al. Low-dose interleukin-2 fosters a dose-dependent regulatory T cell tuned milieu in T1D patients. J Autoimmun. 2015;58:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Tregs expressed enhanced levels of activation markers, including CD25, GITR, CTLA-4 and basal pSTAT5, and retained a 20-fold higher sensitivity to IL-2 than Teff and NK cells...
  9. Chen W, Hu X, Yan M, Zhang W, Mao X, Shu Y. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells promote the inhibitory activation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via PD-L1. Atherosclerosis. 2016;244:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..were shown to upregulate the immune phenotypic markers of Tregs, such as glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 protein (PD-1)...
  10. Rios Doria J, Harper J, Rothstein R, Wetzel L, Chesebrough J, MARRERO A, et al. Antibody-Drug Conjugates Bearing Pyrrolobenzodiazepine or Tubulysin Payloads Are Immunomodulatory and Synergize with Multiple Immunotherapies. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2686-2698 pubmed publisher
    ..Combinations of ADCs with immuno-oncology drugs, including PD-1 or PD-L1 antibodies, OX40 ligand, or GITR ligand fusion proteins, produced synergistic antitumor responses...
  11. Müller M, Herrath J, Malmström V. IL-1R1 is expressed on both Helios(+) and Helios(-) FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells in the rheumatic joint. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;182:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1R1 expression appears to define a tissue Treg cell phenotype together with the expression of CD25, glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related gene (GITR) and CTLA-4.
  12. Ramakrishna V, Sundarapandiyan K, Zhao B, Bylesjo M, Marsh H, Keler T. Characterization of the human T cell response to in vitro CD27 costimulation with varlilumab. J Immunother Cancer. 2015;3:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation was accompanied by upregulated cell surface expression of costimulatory [4-1BB, OX40, GITR and ICOS] and coinhibitory [PD-1] molecules...
  13. Holmström F, Chen M, Balasiddaiah A, Sallberg M, Ahlen G, Frelin L. Functional differences in hepatitis C virus nonstructural (NS) 3/4A- and 5A-specific T cell responses. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24991 pubmed publisher
    ..a high DNA dose, and was unlike NS3/4A dependent on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, but less influenced by CD25(+)/GITR(+) regulatory T cells...
  14. Lecendreux M, Churlaud G, Pitoiset F, Regnault A, Tran T, Liblau R, et al. Narcolepsy Type 1 Is Associated with a Systemic Increase and Activation of Regulatory T Cells and with a Systemic Activation of Global T Cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169836 pubmed publisher
    ..of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in NT1 patients were increased associated with an activated phenotype (increase in GITR and LAP expression), and of activated memory phenotype...
  15. Kaminska D, Kościelska Kasprzak K, Krajewska M, Chełmoński A, Jabłecki J, Zabińska M, et al. Immune activation- and regulation-related patterns in stable hand transplant recipients. Transpl Int. 2017;30:144-152 pubmed publisher
    ..HTx presented significantly increased expression of immunomodulatory genes (TNF, IL10, GITR, and PDCD1) compared to KTx and controls...
  16. Ding Y, Li J, Yang P, Luo B, Wu Q, Zajac A, et al. Interleukin-21 promotes germinal center reaction by skewing the follicular regulatory T cell to follicular helper T cell balance in autoimmune BXD2 mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:2601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant murine IL-21 suppressed FoxP3 and significantly reduced Tgfb1, Il2, and Gitr but enhanced Il21, Il6, Pd1, Cxcr5, and Icos expression in Tfr cells...
  17. Qiao Y, Pan Y, Ling W, Tian F, Chen Y, Zhang X, et al. The Yin and Yang of regulatory T cell and therapy progress in autoimmune disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2017;16:1058-1070 pubmed publisher
    ..a more specific marker than currently used other cell-surface markers (such as CD25, CD40L, CTLA-4, ICOS and GITR) in defining the naturally occurring CD4+ Tregs...
  18. Moitra S, Datta A, Mondal S, Hazra I, Faruk S, Das P, et al. Modulation of regulatory T cells by intranasal allergen immunotherapy in an experimental rat model of airway allergy. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;47:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..cells like Tr1 cells, Th3 cells, CTLA4+Treg cells, and also modulation of various Treg cell surface molecules like GITR, OX40, CD39 and CD73 by intranasal immunotherapy in the same animal model...
  19. Tang C, Welsh J, De Groot P, Massarelli E, Chang J, Hess K, et al. Ipilimumab with Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy: Phase I Results and Immunologic Correlates from Peripheral T Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:1388-1396 pubmed publisher
    ..greater T-cell activation, reflected as increases in the proportions of peripheral T cells expressing ICOS, GITR, and 4-1BB...
  20. Yan L, Fu R, Liu H, Wang H, Liu C, Wang T, et al. Abnormal quantity and function of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of patients with severe aplastic anemia. Cell Immunol. 2015;296:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of perforin in SAA was significantly increased than that in controls, while expression of CD39, CD73 and GITR in Tregs did not show any significant difference between the two groups...
  21. Asma G, Amal G, Raja M, Amine D, Mohammed C, Amel B. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:3727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are ..
  22. Yates K, Bi K, Haining W, Cantor H, Kim H. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals distinct genetic modules associated with Helios expression in intratumoral regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:2162-2167 pubmed publisher
    ..Tregs are most apparent in a Treg subpopulation with high affinity for self-antigens, as detected by both increased GITR/PD-1 expression and increased responsiveness to self-antigens...
  23. Liu J, Liu R, Gray P, Liu Z, Cui X, Li G, et al. Development of a luciferase reporter Jurkat cell line under the control of endogenous interleukin-2 promoter. J Immunol Methods. 2017;451:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We next expressed glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) in this cell line and observed dose-dependent IL-2 and luciferase responses to GITR agonist antibody...
  24. Ehrlich A, Pennington J, Tilton S, Wang X, Marshall N, Rohlman D, et al. AhR activation increases IL-2 production by alloreactive CD4+ T cells initiating the differentiation of mucosal-homing Tim3+ Lag3+ Tr1 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1989-2001 pubmed publisher
    ..for the early AhR-Tr1 activation phenotype previously characterized as CD25+ CTLA4+ GITR+ on day 2...
  25. Krishnamurthy B, Chee J, Jhala G, Trivedi P, Catterall T, Selck C, et al. BIM Deficiency Protects NOD Mice From Diabetes by Diverting Thymocytes to Regulatory T Cells. Diabetes. 2015;64:3229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of Nur77, CD5, GITR, and phosphorylated IκB-α in thymocytes from NODBim(-/-) mice suggest that autoreactive cells receiving ..
  26. Burugu S, Dancsok A, Nielsen T. Emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy. Semin Cancer Biol. 2018;52:39-52 pubmed publisher
    ..TIGIT], B7-H3, Inducible T-cell Co-stimulator [ICOS/ICOS-L], CD27/CD70, and Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor [GITR]; 2) macrophage markers: CD47/Signal-Regulatory Protein alpha [SIRPα] and Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase [IDO]; and 3)..
  27. Hung A, Garzon Muvdi T, Lim M. Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutic Targets in Glioblastoma. World Neurosurg. 2017;102:494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..examples include cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-?), checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, CD137, GITR, OX40), and growth/angiogenesis proteins (endoglin and EGFR)...
  28. Chowdhury B, Das S, Majumder S, Halder K, Ghosh S, Biswas S, et al. Immunomodulation of host-protective immune response by regulating Foxp3 expression and Treg function in Leishmania-infected BALB/c mice: critical role of IRF1. Pathog Dis. 2015;73:ftv063 pubmed publisher
    ..immune response due to reduced IL-10 and TGF-β production, along with marked decrease in CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) GITR(+) CTLA4(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) generation and activation...
  29. Yang B, Hagemann S, Mamareli P, Lauer U, Hoffmann U, Beckstette M, et al. Foxp3(+) T cells expressing RORγt represent a stable regulatory T-cell effector lineage with enhanced suppressive capacity during intestinal inflammation. Mucosal Immunol. 2016;9:444-57 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells were significantly demethylated at Treg-specific epigenetic signature genes such as Foxp3, Ctla-4, Gitr, Eos, and Helios, suggesting that these cells have a stable regulatory rather than inflammatory function...
  30. Ng S, Leno Durán E, Samanta D, Almo S, Strominger J. Genetically modified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that produce IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116:2634-2639 pubmed publisher
    ..and production of IL-10 by these Tregs was costimulated by activation of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR) (expressed at high levels by these cells) through its ligand GITRL...
  31. Rodríguez Perea A, Montoya C, Olek S, Chougnet C, Velilla P. Statins increase the frequency of circulating CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in healthy individuals. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:762506 pubmed publisher
    ..values; however, TGF-β and FOXP3 mRNA levels remained high, accompanied by increased percentages of CTLA-4- and GITR-expressing Treg. Treg Ki-67 expression was decreased upon statin treatment...
  32. Qian X, Hu C, Han S, Lin Z, Xiao W, Ding Y, et al. NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ T cells suppress DSS-induced colitis in mice through production of TGF-?. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:1431-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..NK1.1- CD4+ NKG2D+ cells did not expressed Foxp3, CD223 (LAG-3) and GITR. The subpopulation was distinct from NK1...
  33. Presa M, Chen Y, Grier A, Leiter E, Brehm M, Greiner D, et al. The Presence and Preferential Activation of Regulatory T Cells Diminish Adoptive Transfer of Autoimmune Diabetes by Polyclonal Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) T Cell Effectors into NSG versus NOD-scid Mice. J Immunol. 2015;195:3011-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This enhanced suppressor activity was associated with higher levels of Treg GITR expression in the presence of NSG than NOD-scid APC...
  34. Zamorina S, Shirshev S. Oligopeptides of Chorionic Gonadotropin β-Subunit in Induction of T Cell Differentiation into Treg and Th17. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015;160:72-5 pubmed publisher
    ..gonadotropin and oligopeptides promoted CD4(+) cell differentiation into functionally active Treg (FOXP3(+)GITR(+) and FOXP3(+)CTLA-4(+)), while chorionic gonadotropin and AQGV additionally stimulated IL-10 production by these ..
  35. Vilgelm A, Johnson D, Richmond A. Combinatorial approach to cancer immunotherapy: strength in numbers. J Leukoc Biol. 2016;100:275-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of T cells, such as TIM-3, LAG-3, TIGIT, and BTLA, and agonists of T cell costimulatory receptors 4-1BB, OX40, and GITR, as well as agents that promote cancer cell recognition by the immune system, such as tumor vaccines, IDO ..
  36. Turato W, Sales Campos H, Braga C, Cunha S, Silvah J, Da Silva J, et al. The impact of intestinal resection on the immune function of short bowel syndrome patients. Hum Immunol. 2016;77:1202-1208 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4+CD25-, CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes nor in the expression of FoxP3 or GITR. Nevertheless, SBS-patients showed higher frequency of the regulatory T cell population CD4+CD25+
  37. Lutsiak M, Tagaya Y, Adams A, Schlom J, Sabzevari H. Tumor-induced impairment of TCR signaling results in compromised functionality of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:5871-81 pubmed
    ..apoptosis, leads to an intratumoral accumulation of Treg cells with a unique phenotype: CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)GITR(high)CD27(low)CD62L(-)...
  38. Chien C, Chiang B. Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells. J Biomed Sci. 2017;24:86 pubmed publisher
    ..Treg-of-B cells express LAG3, ICOS, GITR, OX40, PD1, and CTLA4 and secrete IL-10...
  39. Marin Acevedo J, Dholaria B, Soyano A, Knutson K, Chumsri S, Lou Y. Next generation of immune checkpoint therapy in cancer: new developments and challenges. J Hematol Oncol. 2018;11:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, agonists of stimulatory checkpoint pathways such as OX40, ICOS, GITR, 4-1BB, CD40, or molecules targeting tumor microenvironment components like IDO or TLR are under investigation...
  40. Schuster M, Plaza Sirvent C, Matthies A, Heise U, Jeron A, Bruder D, et al. c-REL and I?BNS Govern Common and Independent Steps of Regulatory T Cell Development from Novel CD122-Expressing Pre-Precursors. J Immunol. 2017;199:920-930 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that CD4+GITR+CD122+CD25-Foxp3- cells represent a Treg pre-precursor population, ..
  41. Ma Y, Lei H, Tan J, Xuan L, Wu X, Liu Q. Characterization of ?? regulatory T cells from peripheral blood in patients with multiple myeloma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;480:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly in MM patients compared to healthy donors, while the expression levels of Foxp3, CD25, CTLA4, GITR, GATA3 and Tbet in MM patients and healthy donors showed no significant difference...
  42. Alahgholi Hajibehzad M, Oflazer P, Aysal F, Durmuş H, Gülşen Parman Y, Marx A, et al. Regulatory function of CD4+CD25++ T cells in patients with myasthenia gravis is associated with phenotypic changes and STAT5 signaling: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates the suppressor activity. J Neuroimmunol. 2015;281:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GITR was decreased on CD4(+)CD25(++) of all patients...
  43. Sprouse M, Shevchenko I, Scavuzzo M, Joseph F, Lee T, Blum S, et al. Cutting Edge: Low-Affinity TCRs Support Regulatory T Cell Function in Autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2018;200:909-914 pubmed publisher
    ..high-affinity cells preferentially upregulated the TCR-dependent Treg functional mediators IL-10, TIGIT, GITR, and CTLA4, whereas low-affinity cells displayed increased transcripts for Areg and Ebi3, suggesting ..
  44. Knee D, Hewes B, Brogdon J. Rationale for anti-GITR cancer immunotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2016;67:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In preclinical tumour models, modulation of the Glucocorticoid induced TNF receptor (GITR)/GITR ligand (GITRL) axis suggests this pathway may provide the desired biological outcome of inhibiting Treg ..
  45. Kim Y, Shin S, Choi B, Oh H, Kim C, Lee S, et al. Authentic GITR Signaling Fails To Induce Tumor Regression unless Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Are Depleted. J Immunol. 2015;195:4721-9 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, CD357) is expressed on effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells...
  46. Bakheet S, Attia S, Alwetaid M, Ansari M, Zoheir K, Nadeem A, et al. ?-1,3-Glucan reverses aflatoxin B1-mediated suppression of immune responses in mice. Life Sci. 2016;152:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..o, once daily) for 7days resulted in a decrease in the percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD4(+), GITR(+), CD8(+), TCR ?(+), CD3(+), Foxp3(+), CD4(+)Foxp3(+), and CD127(+)) as compared to an normal control (NC)...
  47. Ma J, Feng D, Wei Y, Tian J, Tang X, Rui K, et al. Blockade of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor-Related Protein Signaling Ameliorates Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Modulating Follicular Helper T Cells. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1559-67 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but the role of GITRL/GITR signaling ..
  48. Leyland R, Watkins A, Mulgrew K, Holoweckyj N, Bamber L, Tigue N, et al. A Novel Murine GITR Ligand Fusion Protein Induces Antitumor Activity as a Monotherapy That Is Further Enhanced in Combination with an OX40 Agonist. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:3416-3427 pubmed publisher
    b>Purpose: To generate and characterize a murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) designed to maximize valency and the potential to agonize the GITR receptor for cancer immunotherapy...
  49. Kim I, Kim B, Koh C, Seok J, Park J, Shin K, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9-producing helper T cells. Nat Med. 2015;21:1010-7 pubmed publisher
    T cell stimulation via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) elicits antitumor activity in various tumor models; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear...
  50. Arce Sillas A, Álvarez Luquín D, Cárdenas G, Casanova Hernández D, Fragoso G, Hernández M, et al. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016;183:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells...
  51. Costa F, Mota C, Santiago F, Silva M, Ferreira M, Fonseca D, et al. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152622 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various ..
  52. Alexander C, Tygrett L, Boyden A, Wolniak K, Legge K, Waldschmidt T. T regulatory cells participate in the control of germinal centre reactions. Immunology. 2011;133:452-68 pubmed publisher
    ..immunized mice were treated with an anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) to disrupt Treg-cell activity...
  53. Brunn N, Mauze S, Gu D, Wiswell D, Ueda R, Hodges D, et al. The Role of Anti-Drug Antibodies in the Pharmacokinetics, Disposition, Target Engagement, and Efficacy of a GITR Agonist Monoclonal Antibody in Mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;356:574-86 pubmed publisher
    ..DTA-1, an agonist monoclonal antibody against GITR, is a highly effective anti-tumor treatment in preclinical models...
  54. Sukumar S, Wilson D, Yu Y, Wong J, Naravula S, Ermakov G, et al. Characterization of MK-4166, a Clinical Agonistic Antibody That Targets Human GITR and Inhibits the Generation and Suppressive Effects of T Regulatory Cells. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4378-4388 pubmed publisher
    b>GITR is a T-cell costimulatory receptor that enhances cellular and humoral immunity...
  55. Suchard M, Mayne E, Green V, Shalekoff S, Donninger S, Stevens W, et al. FOXP3 expression is upregulated in CD4T cells in progressive HIV-1 infection and is a marker of disease severity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11762 pubmed publisher
    ..qRT-PCR and by flow cytometry in HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls together with expression of CD25, GITR and CTLA-4...
  56. Kawano M, Tanaka K, Itonaga I, Iwasaki T, Miyazaki M, Ikeda S, et al. Dendritic cells combined with anti-GITR antibody produce antitumor effects in osteosarcoma. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:1995-2001 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of dendritic cells and agonist anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (anti-GITR) antibodies were investigated with respect to enhancement of the systemic immune response, elimination of ..
  57. Blanquiceth Y, Rodríguez Perea A, Tabares Guevara J, Correa L, Sánchez M, Ramirez Pineda J, et al. Increase of Frequency and Modulation of Phenotype of Regulatory T Cells by Atorvastatin Is Associated with Decreased Lung Inflammatory Cell Infiltration in a Murine Model of Acute Allergic Asthma. Front Immunol. 2016;7:620 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment, ATV increased the percentage of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR+) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1+) Tregs in the lung, without enhancing their suppressive activity, but ..
  58. Tigue N, Bamber L, Andrews J, Ireland S, Hair J, Carter E, et al. MEDI1873, a potent, stabilized hexameric agonist of human GITR with regulatory T-cell targeting potential. Oncoimmunology. 2017;6:e1280645 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) is part of a system of signals involved in controlling T-cell activation...
  59. Sanmamed M, Pastor F, Rodriguez A, Perez Gracia J, Rodriguez Ruiz M, Jure Kunkel M, et al. Agonists of Co-stimulation in Cancer Immunotherapy Directed Against CD137, OX40, GITR, CD27, CD28, and ICOS. Semin Oncol. 2015;42:640-55 pubmed publisher
    ..such as CD28 or CD27 and others whose expression is induced upon recent previous antigen priming, ie, CD137, GITR, OX40, and ICOS...
  60. Meiler S, Smeets E, Winkels H, Shami A, Pascutti M, Nolte M, et al. Constitutive GITR Activation Reduces Atherosclerosis by Promoting Regulatory CD4+ T-Cell Responses-Brief Report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1748-52 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is expressed on CD4(+) effector memory T cells and regulatory T cells; however, its role on these functionally opposing cell types in atherosclerosis is ..
  61. Gonçalves Lopes R, Lima N, Carvalho K, Scopel K, Kallas E, Ferreira M. Surface expression of inhibitory (CTLA-4) and stimulatory (OX40) receptors by CD4+ regulatory T cell subsets circulating in human malaria. Microbes Infect. 2016;18:639-648 pubmed publisher
    ..We found an increased proportion of CD4+ T cells expressing CTLA-4, OX40, GITR, TNFRII, and CD69 in acute-phase single-species infections with Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, or both...
  62. Schmohl J, Nuebling T, Wild J, Kroell T, Kanz L, Salih H, et al. Expression of 4-1BB and its ligand on blasts correlates with prognosis of patients with AML. J Investig Med. 2016;64:1252-1260 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the clinical relevance of 4-1BBL, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and ligand (GITRL), CD80, and CD86 in case of expression on AML blasts...
  63. Wang W, Ji G, Chen Y, Wang J, Sun J, Tang G, et al. Changes in DNA Methylation of Glucocorticoid-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor and Its Ligand in Liver Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2017;49:1824-1833 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) play a key role in dominant immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells...
  64. Moore T, Gonzaga L, Mather J, Messer R, Hasenkrug K. B Cell Requirement for Robust Regulatory T Cell Responses to Friend Retrovirus Infection. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..B cells promote Treg activation and proliferation through a glucocorticoid-induced receptor superfamily member 18 (GITR) ligand-dependent mechanism. Thus, B cells play paradoxically opposing roles during FV infection...
  65. Arbour K, Naidoo J, Steele K, Ni A, Moreira A, Rekhtman N, et al. Expression of PD-L1 and other immunotherapeutic targets in thymic epithelial tumors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182665 pubmed publisher
    ..of membranous PD-L1 on tumor cells, CD3+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), co-stimulatory (CD137, GITR, ICOS), and co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3) were assessed semi-quantitatively using ..
  66. Nocentini G, Ronchetti S, Bartoli A, Spinicelli S, Delfino D, Brunetti L, et al. Identification of three novel mRNA splice variants of GITR. Cell Death Differ. 2000;7:408-10 pubmed
  67. Lahey T, Loisel S, Wieland Alter W. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein triggering enhances HIV-specific CD4+ T cell cytokine secretion and protects HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from apoptosis. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:43-9 pubmed
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family-related (GITR) protein triggering enhances murine antigen-specific T cell cytokine secretion by protecting T cells from apoptosis...
  68. von Rahden B, Kircher S, Kafka M, Stuermer L, Reiber C, Gattenlohner S, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR)-expression in tumor infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is associated with the pathogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinomas with and without Barrett's mucosa. Cancer Biomark. 2010;7:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related Receptor (GITR)-mediated inflammation of tumor infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) in the tumor microenvironment might play a role ..
  69. Van Der Werf N, Redpath S, Phythian Adams A, Azuma M, Allen J, Maizels R, et al. Th2 responses to helminth parasites can be therapeutically enhanced by, but are not dependent upon, GITR-GITR ligand costimulation in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:1411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling through the T cell costimulator glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) counteracts immune downregulation by augmenting effector T cell responses and abrogating suppression by Foxp3(+) ..
  70. Wang S, Li Y, Zhu F, Lin F, Luo X, Zhao B, et al. DNMT1 cooperates with MBD4 to inhibit the expression of Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein in human T cells. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:1929-1939 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is constitutively expressed in T regulatory (Treg) cells and regulates their suppressive function. We identified two methylated CpG islands in the Gitr locus...
  71. Gurney A, Marsters S, Huang R, Pitti R, Mark D, Baldwin D, et al. Identification of a new member of the tumor necrosis factor family and its receptor, a human ortholog of mouse GITR. Curr Biol. 1999;9:215-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified a new TNF-related ligand, designated human GITR ligand (hGITRL), and its human receptor (hGITR), an ortholog of the recently discovered murine glucocorticoid-..
  72. Kwon B, Yu K, Ni J, Yu G, Jang I, Kim Y, et al. Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:6056-61 pubmed
    ..TNFR) superfamily, 4-1BB, CD27, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) share a striking homology in the cytoplasmic domain...
  73. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal U, Mukhopadhaya A, Malashkevich V, DiLorenzo T, Brenowitz M, et al. Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19452-7 pubmed
    ..TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a recently identified member of the TNF family, binds to its receptor GITR on both effector and regulatory T cells and generates positive costimulatory signals implicated in a wide range of ..
  74. Yamagiwa T, Fukunishi S, Tachibana T, Okamura H, Yoshiya S, Kashiwamura S. Abrogation of Treg function deteriorates rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2012;22:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..expression was absent, while glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family-related protein (GITR), which transmits a signal that abrogates regulatory T cell functions, was elevated...
  75. Ghezeldasht S, Sadeghian H, Azarpazhooh M, Shamsian S, Rafatpanah H, Mahmoodi M, et al. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;182:1403-1414 pubmed publisher
    ..PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) ..
  76. Zhang Y, Mühlen S, Oates C, Pearson J, Hartland E. Identification of a Distinct Substrate-binding Domain in the Bacterial Cysteine Methyltransferase Effectors NleE and OspZ. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:20149-62 pubmed publisher
    ..studies, we found that a conserved region between amino acids 34 and 52 of NleE, in particular the motif (49)GITR(52), was critical for TAB2 and TAB3 binding...
  77. Kimman T, Banus S, Reijmerink N, Reimerink J, Stelma F, Koppelman G, et al. Association of interacting genes in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway and the antibody response to pertussis vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3665 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine tuning of interacting proteins in the TLR pathway appears important for the induction of an optimal vaccine response. ..
  78. Shrimali R, Ahmad S, Berrong Z, Okoev G, Matevosyan A, Razavi G, et al. Agonist anti-GITR antibody significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of Listeria monocytogenes-based immunotherapy. J Immunother Cancer. 2017;5:64 pubmed publisher
    ..combination with agonist antibody to glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) in TC-1 mouse tumor model...
  79. Ahmad S, Ansari M, Nadeem A, Zoheir K, Bakheet S, Al Shabanah O, et al. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin AG126 reduces activation of inflammatory cells and increases Foxp3+ regulatory T cells during pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Immunol. 2016;78:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..CD23+, CD80+, CD86+ CD122+, CD195+, TCR?+, and GITR+ cells in whole blood...
  80. Lu Z, Xu N, Zhou X, Gao G, Li L, Huang J, et al. Therapeutic immune monitoring of CD4+CD25+ T cells in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Oncol Lett. 2017;14:1363-1372 pubmed publisher
    ..of cytokines and other molecules [forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)] were also analyzed at 3 and 6 months following treatment ..
  81. Velavan T, Bechlars S, Huang X, Kremsner P, Kun J. Novel regulatory SNPs in the promoter region of the TNFRSF18 gene in a Gabonese population. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:418-20 pubmed publisher
    ..regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) gene by direct sequencing in a group of male Gabonese individuals exposed to a ..
  82. Scirka B, Szurek E, Pietrzak M, Rempala G, Kisielow P, Ignatowicz L, et al. Anti-GITR Antibody Treatment Increases TCR Repertoire Diversity of Regulatory but not Effector T Cells Engaged in the Immune Response Against B16 Melanoma. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2017;65:553-564 pubmed publisher
    Crosslinking of glucocorticoid-induced TNF family-related receptor (GITR) with agonist antibodies restores cancer immunity by enhancing effector T cell (Teff) responses while interfering with intra-tumor regulatory T cell (Treg) stability ..
  83. Pan Y, Li X, Sun J, Wang L, Chen Z, Li X, et al. [Effects of glucocorticoids on the expression of GTIR and apoptosis of the CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;44:215-20 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and apoptosis of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) T cells of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),and to analyze its clinical value...
  84. Gan X, Feng X, Gu L, Tan W, Sun X, Lv C, et al. Correlation of increased blood levels of GITR and GITRL with disease severity in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:340751 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the TNFR superfamily...
  85. Zhou Z, Song X, Berezov A, Zhang G, Li Y, Zhang H, et al. Human glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand regulates its signaling activity through multiple oligomerization states. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5465-70 pubmed publisher
    Ligation between glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) provides an undefined signal that renders CD4(+)CD25(-) effector T cells resistant to the inhibitory effects of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory ..
  86. Satoguina J, Adjobimey T, Arndts K, Hoch J, Oldenburg J, Layland L, et al. Tr1 and naturally occurring regulatory T cells induce IgG4 in B cells through GITR/GITR-L interaction, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Tr-TCC, we found that blocking glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) molecules selectively prevented IgG4 production as did neutralizing Ab to glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis ..
  87. Baessler T, Krusch M, Schmiedel B, Kloss M, Baltz K, Wacker A, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein ligand subverts immunosurveillance of acute myeloid leukemia in humans. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/TNF receptor (TNFR) family, and recently, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) was shown to stimulate antitumor immunity in mice...
  88. Wilde B, Dolff S, Cai X, Specker C, Becker J, Totsch M, et al. CD4+CD25+ T-cell populations expressing CD134 and GITR are associated with disease activity in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphocytes from peripheral blood were analysed by FACS for the expression of CD4, CD25, CD134 and GITR. Cytokine expression in these subsets was assessed too...
  89. Sun J, Yu N, Li X, Wang L, Pan Y, Li X, et al. Aberrant GITR expression on different T cell subsets and the regulation by glucocorticoid in systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Rheum Dis. 2016;19:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is expressed at low levels on resting responder T lymphocytes (Tresps) and is up-regulated on T regulatory cells (..
  90. Cho S, Kim J, Ryu H, Kim J, Kim H, Park J, et al. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamily in the Korean population. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:710-8 pubmed
    ..90, p < 0.001). The validated SNPs in the TNF-TNFR superfamily would be valuable for association studies with several immune-mediated human diseases. ..
  91. Beider K, Naor D, Voevoda V, Ostrovsky O, Bitner H, Rosenberg E, et al. Dissecting the mechanisms involved in anti-human T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG)-induced tolerance in the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplantation - potential implications for graft versus host disease. Oncotarget. 2017;8:90748-90765 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypic characterization revealed a significant increase in the expression of FoxP3, GITR, CD95, PD-1 and ICOS as well as the complement inhibitory molecules CD55, CD58 and CD59 on CD4+CD25+ T cells upon ..
  92. Nocentini G, Alunno A, Petrillo M, Bistoni O, Bartoloni E, Caterbi S, et al. Expansion of regulatory GITR+CD25 low/-CD4+ T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:444 pubmed publisher
    CD4+CD25 low/-GITR+ T lymphocytes expressing forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) and showing regulatory activity have been recently described in healthy donors...