ghrelin

Summary

Gene Symbol: ghrelin
Description: ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide
Alias: MTLRP, appetite-regulating hormone, In2c-preproghrelin, ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand, ghrelin/obestatin preprohormone, ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, growth hormone-releasing peptide, motilin-related peptide, prepro-appetite regulatory hormone, preproghrelin
Species: human
Products:     ghrelin

Top Publications

  1. Ozgen I, Aydin M, Guven A, Aliyazicioglu Y. Characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome and relationship with ghrelin in adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we evaluated the characteristics of this disease and its relationship with ghrelin in adolescence. A prospective case control study was designed...
  2. Chopin L, Walpole C, Seim I, Cunningham P, Murray R, Whiteside E, et al. Ghrelin and cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;340:65-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that was originally isolated from the stomach as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)...
  3. Tsolakis A, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M, Falkmer S, Waldum H, Saras J, et al. Obestatin/ghrelin cells in normal mucosa and endocrine tumours of the stomach. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;160:941-9 pubmed publisher
    Obestatin and ghrelin are derived from the same gene and co-expressed in the same endocrine cells. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2), a marker for enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, is considered to be expressed in ghrelin cells...
  4. Gahete M, Rubio A, Cordoba Chacon J, Gracia Navarro F, Kineman R, Avila J, et al. Expression of the ghrelin and neurotensin systems is altered in the temporal lobe of Alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:819-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin and neurotensin (NTS) are neuroendocrine peptides that exert opposite effects on food intake and energy homeostasis, but share comparable actions in improving memory and learning...
  5. Zub Pokrowiecka A, Rembiasz K, Konturek P, Budzynski A, Konturek S, Winiarski M, et al. Ghrelin and gastrin in advanced gastric cancer before and after gastrectomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:449-58 pubmed publisher
    To investigate plasma ghrelin, gastrin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) expression in advanced gastric cancer (GC) before and after resection...
  6. Hara M, Nishi Y, Yamashita Y, Yoh J, Takahashi S, Nagamitsu S, et al. Ghrelin levels are reduced in Rett syndrome patients with eating difficulties. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:899-902 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in growth hormone secretion, interdigestive motility, and feeding behavior...
  7. Wilasco M, Goldani H, Dornelles C, Maurer R, Kieling C, Porowski M, et al. Ghrelin, leptin and insulin in healthy children: Relationship with anthropometry, gender, and age distribution. Regul Pept. 2012;173:21-6 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to establish the relationship between total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, leptin, and insulin with anthropometry, gender, and age distribution in healthy children...
  8. Pacifico L, Poggiogalle E, Costantino F, Anania C, Ferraro F, Chiarelli F, et al. Acylated and nonacylated ghrelin levels and their associations with insulin resistance in obese and normal weight children with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:861-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin, a peptide mainly derived from the stomach, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake, energy metabolism, and storage, as well as in insulin sensitivity...
  9. Gibbons C, Caudwell P, Finlayson G, Webb D, Hellstrom P, Naslund E, et al. Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was first to compare the postprandial profiles of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) after isoenergetic meals differing in fat and carbohydrate ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Subasinghage A, Green B, Flatt P, Irwin N, Hewage C. Metabolic and structural properties of human obestatin {1-23} and two fragment peptides. Peptides. 2010;31:1697-705 pubmed publisher
    Obestatin is a peptide produced in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach and co-localizes with ghrelin on the periphery of pancreatic islets...
  2. Landgren S, Jerlhag E, Hallman J, Oreland L, Lissner L, Strandhagen E, et al. Genetic variation of the ghrelin signaling system in females with severe alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1519-24 pubmed publisher
    Central ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding effects of alcohol in mice...
  3. Hubacek J, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Adamkova V. Variants within the ghrelin gene--association with HDL-cholesterol, but not with body mass index. Folia Biol (Praha). 2007;53:202-6 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a hormone which influences eating habits, the amount of food ingested and the body's energy balance. We examined whether genetic variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with BMI, WHR and plasma lipid levels...
  4. Seim I, Walpole C, Amorim L, Josh P, Herington A, Chopin L. The expanding roles of the ghrelin-gene derived peptide obestatin in health and disease. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;340:111-7 pubmed publisher
    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid, ghrelin gene-derived peptide hormone produced in the stomach and a range of other tissues throughout the body...
  5. Gueorguiev M, Lecoeur C, Meyre D, Benzinou M, Mein C, Hinney A, et al. Association studies on ghrelin and ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:745-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and regulates energy homeostasis...
  6. Lodeiro M, Theodoropoulou M, Pardo M, Casanueva F, Camiña J. c-Src regulates Akt signaling in response to ghrelin via beta-arrestin signaling-independent and -dependent mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4686 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to identify the signaling mechanisms to ghrelin-stimulated activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt...
  7. Arai M, Matsumura T, Tsuchiya N, Sadakane C, Inami R, Suzuki T, et al. Rikkunshito improves the symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia, accompanied by an increase in the level of plasma ghrelin. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:62-6 pubmed publisher
    ..traditional Japanese medicine that is widely used for treating upper gastrointestinal symptoms and its effect on ghrelin is of great interest...
  8. Martos Moreno G, Barrios V, Martinez G, Hawkins F, Argente J. Acylated ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal obese children at diagnosis and after weight reduction: effect of oral glucose ingestion. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34:117-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin isoforms are involved in energy homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism...
  9. Ukkola O. Ghrelin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;340:26-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin is a peptide hormone from stomach with growth hormone releasing activity...
  10. Granata R, Isgaard J, Alloatti G, Ghigo E. Cardiovascular actions of the ghrelin gene-derived peptides and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011;236:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The GHS receptor (GHS-R) was subsequently cloned, and its endogenous ligand ghrelin was later isolated from the stomach...
  11. Soni A, Conroy M, Mackey R, Kuller L. Ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and insulin levels and concurrent and future weight change in overweight, postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2011;18:296-301 pubmed
    ..Peptides mediating energy homeostasis (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and insulin) may play an important role in the weight and body composition changes of ..
  12. Foster C, Barkan A, Kasa Vubu J, Jaffe C. Ghrelin concentrations reflect body mass index rather than feeding status in obese girls. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:731-4 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin stimulates both appetite and secretion of growth hormone (GH). We hypothesized that fasting should increase ghrelin, thereby increasing GH concentrations in obesity...
  13. Zhang Q, Huang W, Lv X, Yang Y. The association of ghrelin polymorphisms with coronary artery disease and ischemic chronic heart failure in an elderly Chinese population. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the association of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic heart failure (IHF) with polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene in elderly Chinese patients...
  14. Xu X, Jhun B, Ha C, Jin Z. Molecular mechanisms of ghrelin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin, a newly discovered gastric peptide, improves endothelial function and inhibits proatherogenic changes...
  15. Purtell L, Sze L, Loughnan G, Smith E, Herzog H, Sainsbury A, et al. In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome, elevated ghrelin levels are more consistent with hyperphagia than high PYY and GLP-1 levels. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that the intense hyperphagia could stem, in part, from impaired gut hormone signaling. Previous studies produced conflicting results, being confounded by differences in body composition between PWS and control subjects...
  16. Vartiainen J, Rajala U, Jokelainen J, Keinanen Kiukaanniemi S, Kesaniemi Y, Ukkola O. Serum ghrelin and the prediction of the development of impaired glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged subjects. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:496-500 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is a peptide hormone which has been shown to associate with obesity, hypertension and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in cross-sectional studies...
  17. Nass R, Farhy L, Liu J, Pezzoli S, Johnson M, Gaylinn B, et al. Age-dependent decline in acyl-ghrelin concentrations and reduced association of acyl-ghrelin and growth hormone in healthy older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:602-8 pubmed publisher
    Acyl-ghrelin is thought to have both orexigenic effects and to stimulate GH release. A possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an age-dependent decrease in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels...
  18. Rossi F, Castelli A, Bianco M, Bertone C, Brama M, Santiemma V. Ghrelin inhibits contraction and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells by cAMP/PKA pathway activation. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:97-104 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin (Ghr), the natural ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is principally produced by the stomach...
  19. Ukkola O, Pääkkö T, Kesaniemi Y. Ghrelin and its promoter variant associated with cardiac hypertrophy. J Hum Hypertens. 2012;26:452-7 pubmed publisher
    The roles of ghrelin, a peptide hormone that has a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis, in the cardiovascular system have not yet been unambiguously established...
  20. Gahete M, C rdoba Chac n J, Hergueta Redondo M, Mart nez Fuentes A, Kineman R, Moreno Bueno G, et al. A novel human ghrelin variant (In1-ghrelin) and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase are overexpressed in breast cancer: potential pathophysiological relevance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23302 pubmed publisher
    The human ghrelin gene, which encodes the ghrelin and obestatin peptides, contains 5 exons (Ex), with Ex1-Ex4 encoding a 117 amino-acid (aa) preproprotein that is known to be processed to yield a 28-aa (ghrelin) and/or a 23-aa (obestatin)..
  21. Berthold H, Giannakidou E, Krone W, Mantzoros C, Gouni Berthold I. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;399:112-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is involved in several metabolic and cardiovascular processes. The Leu72Met polymorphism of its gene was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in some, but not all studies...
  22. Ujike H, Nomura A, Morita Y, Morio A, Okahisa Y, Kotaka T, et al. Multiple genetic factors in olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients: a cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1416-22 pubmed
    ..genes encoding dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), histamine, and adrenergic receptors, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ghrelin, adiponectin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2, were analyzed...
  23. Jürimäe J, Kums T, Jurimae T. Plasma ghrelin concentration is a signal of decreased fat free mass in healthy elderly females. Am J Hum Biol. 2009;21:404-6 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating ghrelin is associated with changes in different body composition parameters over a 12-month prospective study period in healthy older females. On 41 postmenopausal women (mean age: 71...
  24. Murphy G, Kamangar F, Dawsey S, Stanczyk F, Weinstein S, Taylor P, et al. The relationship between serum ghrelin and the risk of gastric and esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:1123-9 pubmed publisher
    Cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the oxyntic glands of the stomach, and under conditions of chronic inflammation and atrophy, ..
  25. Serra Prat M, Palomera E, Clave P, Puig Domingo M. Effect of age and frailty on ghrelin and cholecystokinin responses to a meal test. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1410-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are among the peripheral signals that regulate hunger and satiety. The objective was to assess whether ghrelin and CCK responses to a standard nutritional load are related to age and frailty...
  26. Seim I, Herington A, Chopin L. New insights into the molecular complexity of the ghrelin gene locus. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20:297-304 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is a multi-functional peptide hormone that affects a range of processes, including growth hormone and insulin release, appetite regulation, reproduction, and cancer cell proliferation...
  27. Murphy G, Kamangar F, Albanes D, Stanczyk F, Weinstein S, Taylor P, et al. Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gut. 2012;61:1533-7 pubmed
    ..b>Ghrelin, a hormone which, is also produced in the gastric fundic glands may be a marker of gastric atrophy, but its ..
  28. St Pierre D, Settanni F, Olivetti I, Gramaglia E, Tomelini M, Granata R, et al. Circulating obestatin levels in normal and Type 2 diabetic subjects. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:211-4 pubmed
    Obestatin has been discovered as a new product of the ghrelin gene...
  29. Baatar D, Patel K, Taub D. The effects of ghrelin on inflammation and the immune system. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;340:44-58 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced primarily by cells in the ..
  30. Seim I, Josh P, Cunningham P, Herington A, Chopin L. Ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors: recent findings and future challenges. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;340:3-9 pubmed publisher
    The ghrelin axis consists of the gene products of the ghrelin gene (GHRL), and their receptors, including the classical ghrelin receptor GHSR...
  31. Liao N, Xie Z, Huang J, Xie Z. Association between the ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism and type 2 diabetes risk: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2013;517:179-83 pubmed publisher
    Data on the association between the ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism and type 2 diabetes are conflicting. A meta-analysis was performed on this topic...
  32. Takahashi T, Ida T, Sato T, Nakashima Y, Nakamura Y, Tsuji A, et al. Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells requires prohormone processing protease and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, as well as n-octanoic acid. J Biochem. 2009;146:675-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin was originally isolated from rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor...
  33. Tang S, Jiang Q, Zhang Y, Zhu X, Shu G, Gao P, et al. Obestatin: its physicochemical characteristics and physiological functions. Peptides. 2008;29:639-45 pubmed publisher
    Obestatin, a novel 23 amino acid amidated peptide encoded by the same gene with ghrelin, was initially reported to reduce food intake, body weight gain, gastric emptying and suppress intestinal motility through an interaction with the ..
  34. Dixit V, Yang H, Cooper Jenkins A, Giri B, Patel K, Taub D. Reduction of T cell-derived ghrelin enhances proinflammatory cytokine expression: implications for age-associated increases in inflammation. Blood. 2009;113:5202-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin (Grln) is a peptide hormone that is predominantly produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone (GH) release...
  35. Karaoglu A, Aydin S, Dagli A, Cummings D, Ozercan I, Canatan H, et al. Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;323:113-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptide hormones with opposing roles in the control of appetite: orexigenic and anorexigenic, respectively. Loss of appetite is a common, serious complication of many forms of malignancy...
  36. Landgren S, Jerlhag E, Zetterberg H, Gonzalez Quintela A, Campos J, Olofsson U, et al. Association of pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with heavy alcohol use and body mass. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:2054-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A), expressed in the hypothalamus as well as in important reward nodes such as the ventral tegmental area...
  37. Bennett N, Boyne M, Cooper R, Royal Thomas T, Bennett F, Luke A, et al. Impact of adiponectin and ghrelin on incident glucose intolerance and on weight change. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:408-14 pubmed publisher
    Adiponectin and ghrelin are associated with adiposity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. We sought to prospectively determine the interaction of adiponectin and ghrelin in the development of adiposity and hyperglycaemia...
  38. Rodriguez A, Gomez Ambrosi J, Catalan V, Rotellar F, Valenti V, Silva C, et al. The ghrelin O-acyltransferase-ghrelin system reduces TNF-?-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human visceral adipocytes. Diabetologia. 2012;55:3038-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the association between ghrelin isoforms (acylated and desacyl ghrelin) and TNF-? in obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, as well as ..
  39. Liu J, Liu J, Tian L, Liu J, Bing Y, Zhang J, et al. Association of ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. Gene. 2012;504:309-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphism of the preproghrelin, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes...
  40. Ledderose C, Kreth S, Beiras Fernandez A. Ghrelin, a novel peptide hormone in the regulation of energy balance and cardiovascular function. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2011;5:1-6 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, is a potent stimulator of growth hormone release, food intake and weight gain...
  41. Prudom C, Liu J, Patrie J, Gaylinn B, Foster Schubert K, Cummings D, et al. Comparison of competitive radioimmunoassays and two-site sandwich assays for the measurement and interpretation of plasma ghrelin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2351-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, is an orexigenic peptide hormone produced primarily by the stomach. Recent studies suggest significant differences in the specificity of currently available ghrelin assays...
  42. Outeiriño Blanco E, Garcia Buela J, Sangiao Alvarellos S, Pertega Diaz S, Martínez Ramonde T, Cordido F. Growth hormone, ghrelin and peptide YY secretion after oral glucose administration in healthy and obese women. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin is a peptide that displays strong growth hormone-releasing activity...
  43. le Roux C, Patterson M, Vincent R, Hunt C, Ghatei M, Bloom S. Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1068-71 pubmed
    Circulating levels of the gastric hormone ghrelin rise before and decrease after a meal. In normal-weight subjects, postprandial suppression of ghrelin is proportional to calories consumed...
  44. Hattori N, Saito T, Yagyu T, Jiang B, Kitagawa K, Inagaki C. GH, GH receptor, GH secretagogue receptor, and ghrelin expression in human T cells, B cells, and neutrophils. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4284-91 pubmed
    ..GH secretion from the anterior pituitary by synthetic GH secretagogues and that of its endogenous ligand, ghrelin, were also examined in these immune cells...
  45. Nedvidkova J, Krykorková I, Bartak V, Papezova H, Gold P, Alesci S, et al. Loss of meal-induced decrease in plasma ghrelin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1678-82 pubmed
    Studies have shown that ghrelin plays a major role in energy homeostasis and modulation of feeding behavior. However, little is known about the influence of food consumption on plasma ghrelin levels in humans...
  46. Dzaja A, Dalal M, Himmerich H, Uhr M, Pollmächer T, Schuld A. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E963-7 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to promote slow-wave sleep (SWS, non-REM sleep stages 3 and 4)...
  47. Li W, Gavrila D, Liu X, Wang L, Gunnlaugsson S, Stoll L, et al. Ghrelin inhibits proinflammatory responses and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells. Circulation. 2004;109:2221-6 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide that has been shown to improve cachexia in heart failure and cancer and to ameliorate the hemodynamic and metabolic disturbances in septic shock...
  48. Grinspoon S, Miller K, Herzog D, Grieco K, Klibanski A. Effects of estrogen and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on ghrelin secretion in severe undernutrition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:3988-93 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a nutritionally regulated gut peptide that increases with fasting and chronic undernutrition and decreases with food intake. Sex steroid levels change in chronic undernutrition and might signal changes in ghrelin...
  49. Tawadros N, Salamonsen L, Dimitriadis E, Chen C. Facilitation of decidualization by locally produced ghrelin in the human endometrium. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:483-9 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin acting via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) stimulates GH secretion from pituitary glands. Both ligand and receptor are present in the pituitary, hypothalamus and many peripheral tissues including the uterus...
  50. Fontenot E, Devente J, Seidel E. Obestatin and ghrelin in obese and in pregnant women. Peptides. 2007;28:1937-44 pubmed
    ..peptides in female human omental fat: the incretins, GIP and GLP-1, the orexigenic peptides PYY-Y1 and -Y2 and ghrelin, and the anorexigenic peptide obestatin...
  51. Hosoda H, Kojima M, Mizushima T, Shimizu S, Kangawa K. Structural divergence of human ghrelin. Identification of multiple ghrelin-derived molecules produced by post-translational processing. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:64-70 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin, a novel 28-amino acid peptide with an n-octanoyl modification at Ser(3), was isolated from rat stomach and found to be an endogenous ligand for the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...
  52. Skibola D, Smith M, Bracci P, Hubbard A, Agana L, Chi S, et al. Polymorphisms in ghrelin and neuropeptide Y genes are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1251-6 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms in the ghrelin (GHRL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes were examined in the same population-based case-control study of NHL to ..
  53. Choe Y, Song S, Paik K, Oh Y, Chu S, Yeo S, et al. Increased density of ghrelin-expressing cells in the gastric fundus and body in Prader-Willi syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:5441-5 pubmed
    The levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone secreted by oxyntic cells in the digestive tract, are elevated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and GH deficiency (GHD) patients...
  54. Ando T, Ichimaru Y, Konjiki F, Shoji M, Komaki G. Variations in the preproghrelin gene correlate with higher body mass index, fat mass, and body dissatisfaction in young Japanese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:25-32 pubmed
    ..The purpose was to determine whether any preproghrelin gene variants are associated with anthropometric measures, circulating ghrelin, lipid concentrations, insulin ..
  55. Zhao H, Liu G, Wang Q, Ding L, Cai H, Jiang H, et al. Effect of ghrelin on human endothelial cells apoptosis induced by high glucose. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:677-81 pubmed
    ..Our research shows that ghrelin attenuates high glucose-induced apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304)...
  56. Korbonits M, Bustin S, Kojima M, Jordan S, Adams E, Lowe D, et al. The expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin in normal and abnormal human pituitary and other neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:881-7 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor. It was originally isolated from the stomach, but has also been shown to be present in the rat hypothalamus...
  57. Zhang J, Ren P, Avsian Kretchmer O, Luo C, Rauch R, Klein C, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake. Science. 2005;310:996-9 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin, a circulating appetite-inducing hormone, is derived from a prohormone by posttranslational processing...
  58. Pemberton C, Wimalasena P, Yandle T, Soule S, Richards M. C-terminal pro-ghrelin peptides are present in the human circulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:567-73 pubmed
    ..evidence for the existence in human plasma of peptides derived from the 66 carboxyl-terminal amino acids of pro-ghrelin (C-ghrelin)...
  59. Holst B, Cygankiewicz A, Jensen T, Ankersen M, Schwartz T. High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor--identification of a potent inverse agonist. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2201-10 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a GH-releasing peptide that also has an important role as an orexigenic hormone-stimulating food intake...
  60. Cortelazzi D, Cappiello V, Morpurgo P, Ronzoni S, Nobile De Santis M, Cetin I, et al. Circulating levels of ghrelin in human fetuses. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;149:111-6 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a GH secretagog isolated recently from rat stomach and involved in the stimulation of food intake and adiposity in rodents and humans...
  61. Beaumont N, Skinner V, Tan T, Ramesh B, Byrne D, MacColl G, et al. Ghrelin can bind to a species of high density lipoprotein associated with paraoxonase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8877-80 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin is a 28-residue peptide hormone that is principally released from the stomach during fasting and prior to eating...