Gene Symbol: GH
Description: growth hormone 1
Alias: GH-N, GHB5, GHN, IGHD1B, hGH-N, somatotropin, growth hormone B5, pituitary growth hormone
Species: human
Products:     GH

Top Publications

  1. Ren Z, Cai Q, Shu X, Cai H, Cheng J, Wen W, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the human growth hormone-1 gene (GH1) and the risk of breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2004;101:251-7 pubmed
    ..The results of the current study suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the proximal promoter region and in the fourth intron of the GH1 gene are unrelated to breast carcinoma risk in Chinese women. ..
  2. Vivenza D, Guazzarotti L, Godi M, Frasca D, di Natale B, Momigliano Richiardi P, et al. A novel deletion in the GH1 gene including the IVS3 branch site responsible for autosomal dominant isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:980-6 pubmed
    The majority of mutations responsible for isolated GH type II deficiency (IGHD II) lead to dominant negative deleteriously increased levels of the GH1 exon 3 skipped transcripts...
  3. de Vos A, Ultsch M, Kossiakoff A. Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: crystal structure of the complex. Science. 1992;255:306-12 pubmed
    ..The relative extents of the contact areas support a sequential mechanism for dimerization that may be crucial for signal transduction. ..
  4. Ryther R, Flynt A, Harris B, Phillips J, Patton J. GH1 splicing is regulated by multiple enhancers whose mutation produces a dominant-negative GH isoform that can be degraded by allele-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Endocrinology. 2004;145:2988-96 pubmed
    The majority of mutations that cause isolated GH deficiency type II affect splicing of GH1 transcripts, leading to the production of a dominant-negative GH isoform...
  5. Leung D, Spencer S, Cachianes G, Hammonds R, Collins C, Henzel W, et al. Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: purification, cloning and expression. Nature. 1987;330:537-43 pubmed
    ..The complete amino-acid sequences derived from complementary DNA clones encoding the putative human and rabbit growth hormone receptors are not similar to other known proteins, demonstrating a new class of transmembrane receptors. ..
  6. Trujillo M, Sakagashira M, Eberhardt N. The human growth hormone gene contains a silencer embedded within an Alu repeat in the 3'-flanking region. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2559-75 pubmed
    ..The human (h) GH locus contains 44 complete and four partial Alu elements...
  7. Ho Y, Liebhaber S, Cooke N. The role of the hGH locus control region in somatotrope restriction of hGH-N gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:877-84 pubmed publisher
    Expression of mammalian GH is normally restricted to somatotropes and somatolactotropes (somatotrope lineages) in the anterior pituitary. The basis for this restriction remains incompletely understood...
  8. Cogan J, Prince M, Lekhakula S, Bundey S, Futrakul A, McCarthy E, et al. A novel mechanism of aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in humans. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:909-12 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we have detected mutations in IVS3 of the human growth hormone (GH) gene that affect a putative, homologous consensus sequence and which also perturb splicing...
  9. Takahashi I, Takahashi T, Komatsu M, Sato T, Takada G. An exonic mutation of the GH-1 gene causing familial isolated growth hormone deficiency type II. Clin Genet. 2002;61:222-5 pubmed
    A heterozygous base change was identified in exon 3 of the growth hormone (GH)-1 gene in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant GH deficiency...

More Information


  1. Dennison E, Syddall H, Rodriguez S, Voropanov A, Day I, Cooper C. Polymorphism in the growth hormone gene, weight in infancy, and adult bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4898-903 pubmed
    ..We examined associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human GH (GH1) gene and weight in infancy, adult bone mass and bone loss rates, and circulating GH profiles...
  2. Takahashi Y, Shirono H, Arisaka O, Takahashi K, Yagi T, Koga J, et al. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:1159-65 pubmed
    Short stature caused by biologically inactive growth hormone (GH) is characterized by lack of GH action despite high immunoassayable GH levels in serum and marked catch-up growth to exogenous GH administration...
  3. Outeiriño Blanco E, Garcia Buela J, Sangiao Alvarellos S, Pertega Diaz S, Martínez Ramonde T, Cordido F. Growth hormone, ghrelin and peptide YY secretion after oral glucose administration in healthy and obese women. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:580-6 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of the altered GH secretion in obesity is unclear. There is evidence that oral glucose (OG) administration initially decreases and subsequently stimulates GH secretion...
  4. Laron Z, Ginsberg S, Webb M. Nonalcoholic fatty liver in patients with Laron syndrome and GH gene deletion - preliminary report. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2008;18:434-8 pubmed publisher
    There is little information on the relationship between growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) deficiency or IGF-I treatment on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) a disorder linked to obesity and insulin resistance.
  5. DeNoto F, Moore D, Goodman H. Human growth hormone DNA sequence and mRNA structure: possible alternative splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981;9:3719-30 pubmed
    ..Comparison of sequences near the 5' end of the hGH mRNA with a similar region of the alpha subunit of the human glycoprotein hormones reveals an unexpected region of homology between these otherwise unrelated peptide hormones. ..
  6. Ryther R, McGuinness L, Phillips J, Moseley C, Magoulas C, Robinson I, et al. Disruption of exon definition produces a dominant-negative growth hormone isoform that causes somatotroph death and IGHD II. Hum Genet. 2003;113:140-8 pubmed
    ..5-kDa isoform in humans also cause a dose-dependent disruption of GH secretory vesicles when expressed in GC cells and transgenic mice...
  7. Alatzoglou K, Turton J, Kelberman D, Clayton P, Mehta A, Buchanan C, et al. Expanding the spectrum of mutations in GH1 and GHRHR: genetic screening in a large cohort of patients with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3191-9 pubmed publisher
    It is estimated that 3-30% of cases with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) have a genetic etiology, with a number of mutations being reported in GH1 and GHRHR...
  8. Ho Y, Elefant F, Cooke N, Liebhaber S. A defined locus control region determinant links chromatin domain acetylation with long-range gene activation. Mol Cell. 2002;9:291-302 pubmed
    ..These data support a model for long-range gene activation via LCR-mediated targeting and extensive spreading of core histone acetylation. ..
  9. Lewis U, Bonewald L, Lewis L. The 20,000-dalton variant of human growth hormone: location of the amino acid deletions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980;92:511-6 pubmed
  10. Horan M, Newsway V, Yasmin -, Lewis M, Easter T, Rees D, et al. Genetic variation at the growth hormone (GH1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) loci as a risk factor for hypertension and stroke. Hum Genet. 2006;119:527-40 pubmed
    An increased prevalence of both hypertension and cerebrovascular stroke is apparent in growth hormone (GH) deficiency whilst hypertension is a frequent complication in acromegaly...
  11. Yoo E, Cooke N, Liebhaber S. An RNA-independent linkage of noncoding transcription to long-range enhancer function. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2020-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data extend our understanding of the relationship of long-range enhancer activity to enhancer-dependent noncoding transcription and establish a model that may be of general relevance to additional mammalian loci. ..
  12. Takahashi Y, Kaji H, Okimura Y, Goji K, Abe H, Chihara K. Brief report: short stature caused by a mutant growth hormone. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:432-6 pubmed
  13. Rosenfeld R, Hwa V. The growth hormone cascade and its role in mammalian growth. Horm Res. 2009;71 Suppl 2:36-40 pubmed publisher
    The myriad actions of growth hormone (GH) are still incompletely understood, despite decades of research...
  14. Petkovic V, Godi M, Pandey A, Lochmatter D, Buchanan C, Dattani M, et al. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency type II: a novel GH-1 gene mutation (GH-R178H) affecting secretion and action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:731-9 pubmed publisher
    Main features of the autosomal dominant form of GH deficiency (IGHD II) include markedly reduced secretion of GH combined with low concentrations of IGF-I leading to short stature. A female patient presented with short stature (height -6...
  15. Goddard A, Covello R, Luoh S, Clackson T, Attie K, Gesundheit N, et al. Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. The Growth Hormone Insensitivity Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1093-8 pubmed
    Short stature in children who are not deficient in growth hormone (GH) is probably caused by a variety of defects...
  16. Adkins R, Campese C, Vaidya R, Boyd T. Association between fetal growth restriction and polymorphisms at sites -1 and +3 of pituitary growth hormone: a case-control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2005;5:2 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing was used to identify 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene (GH1) at which all subjects were genotyped...
  17. Millar D, Lewis M, Horan M, Newsway V, Easter T, Gregory J, et al. Novel mutations of the growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene disclosed by modulation of the clinical selection criteria for individuals with short stature. Hum Mutat. 2003;21:424-40 pubmed
    ..Molecular modeling suggested that both K41R and T175A might compromise GH receptor binding...
  18. Horan M, Millar D, Hedderich J, Lewis G, Newsway V, Mo N, et al. Human growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene expression: complex haplotype-dependent influence of polymorphic variation in the proximal promoter and locus control region. Hum Mutat. 2003;21:408-23 pubmed
    ..The genetic basis of inter-individual differences in GH1 gene expression thus appears to be extremely complex. ..
  19. Fofanova O, Evgrafov O, Polyakov A, Poltaraus A, Peterkova V, Dedov I. A novel IVS2 -2A>T splicing mutation in the GH-1 gene in familial isolated growth hormone deficiency type II in the spectrum of other splicing mutations in the Russian population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:820-6 pubmed
    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, both in familial and sporadic cases...
  20. Jin H, Lanning N, Carter Su C. JAK2, but not Src family kinases, is required for STAT, ERK, and Akt signaling in response to growth hormone in preadipocytes and hepatoma cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1825-41 pubmed publisher
    Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a tyrosine kinase that associates with the GH receptor and is activated by GH, has been implicated as a key mediator of GH signaling...
  21. Wolf A, Millar D, Caliebe A, Horan M, Newsway V, Kumpf D, et al. A gene conversion hotspot in the human growth hormone (GH1) gene promoter. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..and African groups for GH1 having acted as an acceptor of gene conversion, with at least one of the four paralogous GH gene promoters serving as the donor (and specifically GH2 in the Britons and Spaniards)...
  22. Chen E, Liao Y, Smith D, Barrera Saldana H, Gelinas R, Seeburg P. The human growth hormone locus: nucleotide sequence, biology, and evolution. Genomics. 1989;4:479-97 pubmed
    ..This mutation results in a different splicing pattern and, hence, in a novel sequence of the hCS-L gene mRNA and the deduced polypeptide. ..
  23. Binder G, Ranke M. Screening for growth hormone (GH) gene splice-site mutations in sporadic cases with severe isolated GH deficiency using ectopic transcript analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:1247-52 pubmed
    We screened 10 children with sporadic severe isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) for GH-1 gene splice site mutations using ectopic transcript analysis. None had a history of birth trauma, congenital defects, thyroid disorders, or PRL deficiency...
  24. Cogan J, Phillips J, Sakati N, Frisch H, Schober E, Milner R. Heterogeneous growth hormone (GH) gene mutations in familial GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:1224-8 pubmed
    The GH1 genes of probands of two families with familial isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) were sequenced...
  25. Lewis M, Horan M, Millar D, Newsway V, Easter T, Fryklund L, et al. A novel dysfunctional growth hormone variant (Ile179Met) exhibits a decreased ability to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1068-75 pubmed
    ..The Ile179Met variant was shown to exhibit a similar degree of resistance to proteolysis as wild-type GH, indicating that the introduction of Met does not cause significant misfolding...
  26. Katsumata N, Matsuo S, Sato N, Tanaka T. A novel and de novo splice-donor site mutation in intron 3 of the GH-1 gene in a patient with isolated growth hormone deficiency. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11:378-83 pubmed
    Heterozygous mutations at the splice-donor site of inron 3 of the GH-1 gene are known to affect growth hormone (GH) mRNA splicing and cause isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), which is inherited in an autosomal dominant trait...
  27. Deladoey J, Stocker P, Mullis P. Autosomal dominant GH deficiency due to an Arg183His GH-1 gene mutation: clinical and molecular evidence of impaired regulated GH secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3941-7 pubmed
    G to A transition at position 6664 of the GH-1 gene results in the substitution of Arg183 by His (R183H) in human GH protein and causes a new form of autosomal dominant isolated GH deficiency (type II)...
  28. Fleetwood M, Ho Y, Cooke N, Liebhaber S. DNase I hypersensitive site II of the human growth hormone locus control region mediates an essential and distinct long-range enhancer function. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25454-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this "neutral" DNA context, HSII was required for the recruitment of HAT activity. These data establish HSII as a nonredundant component of the hGH LCR essential for establishment of robust levels of hGH-N gene expression. ..
  29. Bouhours Nouet N, Gatelais F, Boux de Casson F, Rouleau S, Coutant R. The insulin-like growth factor-I response to growth hormone is increased in prepubertal children with obesity and tall stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:629-35 pubmed
    ..stature [CTS; height > +2 SDS)] have normal-high serum IGF-I levels, associated with a low and broad range of GH secretion, respectively...
  30. Sherlock M, Toogood A. Aging and the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-I axis. Pituitary. 2007;10:189-203 pubmed
    Growth hormone release and IGF-I synthesis decrease with increasing age. The regulation of the GH/IGF-I system is dependent on the integrity of the hypothalamus, pituitary and liver...
  31. Moseley C, Mullis P, Prince M, Phillips J. An exon splice enhancer mutation causes autosomal dominant GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:847-52 pubmed
    Familial isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD II) is caused, in some cases, by heterogeneous IVS3 mutations that affect GH mRNA splicing...
  32. Giordano M, Godi M, Mellone S, Petri A, Vivenza D, Tiradani L, et al. A functional common polymorphism in the vitamin D-responsive element of the GH1 promoter contributes to isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1005-12 pubmed
    Causal mutations have been detected only in a minority of isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) patients. Idiopathic IGHD might be the result of the interaction between several low-penetrance genetic factors and the environment...
  33. Cogan J, Ramel B, Lehto M, Phillips J, Prince M, Blizzard R, et al. A recurring dominant negative mutation causes autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:3591-5 pubmed
    Familial isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD-II) is an autosomal dominant disorder that has been previously shown in some patients to be caused by heterogeneous GH gene defects that affect GH messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing...
  34. Kamijo T, Hayashi Y, Shimatsu A, Kinoshita E, Yoshimoto M, Ogawa M, et al. Mutations in intron 3 of GH-1 gene associated with isolated GH deficiency type II in three Japanese families. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;51:355-60 pubmed
    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II is a disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Three mutations at the donor splice site of intron 3 of the GH-I gene have been identified in five families...
  35. Wagner K, Hemminki K, Israelsson E, Grzybowska E, Klaes R, Chen B, et al. Association of polymorphisms and haplotypes in the human growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene with breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12:917-28 pubmed
    ..The effect was marginally stronger in combination with the LCR GC haplotype (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.01, P = 0.04). ..
  36. Millar D, Horan M, Chuzhanova N, Cooper D. Characterisation of a functional intronic polymorphism in the human growth hormone (GH1) gene. Hum Genomics. 2010;4:289-301 pubmed
    ..within intron 4 of the human growth hormone 1 ( GH1 ) gene, has been associated with reduced levels of circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor 1, a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and a predisposition to osteoporosis...
  37. Le Marchand L, Donlon T, Seifried A, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Wilkens L. Association of a common polymorphism in the human GH1 gene with colorectal neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:454-60 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH) may be associated with the development of colorectal tumors directly and/or indirectly via an increased plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which has been associated with colorectal cancer risk...
  38. Salemi S, Yousefi S, Baltensperger K, Robinson I, Eblé A, Simon D, et al. Variability of isolated autosomal dominant GH deficiency (IGHD II): impact of the P89L GH mutation on clinical follow-up and GH secretion. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:791-802 pubmed
    Four distinct familial types of isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) are classified, of which type II, IGHD II, is the autosomal dominant inherited form...
  39. Giordano M, Godi M, Giacopelli F, Lessi M, Mellone S, Paracchini R, et al. A variation in a Pit-1 site in the growth hormone gene (GH1) promoter induces a differential transcriptional activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;249:51-7 pubmed
    ..Despite the strong effect of this polymorphism in vitro, the -75G variation was not associated to an impairment of the GH secretion in vivo.
  40. Esteban C, Audi L, Carrascosa A, Fernandez Cancio M, Pérez Arroyo A, Ulied A, et al. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;66:258-68 pubmed
    ..Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected GH deficiency/insufficiency will clarify whether different SNP frequencies and/or the presence of different sequence ..
  41. Igarashi Y, Ogawa M, Kamijo T, Iwatani N, Nishi Y, Kohno H, et al. A new mutation causing inherited growth hormone deficiency: a compound heterozygote of a 6.7 kb deletion and a two base deletion in the third exon of the GH-1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1993;2:1073-4 pubmed
  42. Gong F, Deng J, Shi Y. Mek and p38 MAPK-dependant pathways are involoved in the positive effect of interleukin-6 on human growth hormone gene expression in rat MtT/S somatotroph cells. Chin Med Sci J. 2008;23:73-80 pubmed
    ..The 10(3) U/mL IL-6 stimulated GH secretion and synthesis, and promoted the 5'-promoter activity of GH gene in stably transfected MtT/SGL cells with ..
  43. Huang S, Chen X, Payne J, Pennell D, Gohlke P, Smith M, et al. Haplotype of growth hormone and angiotensin I-converting enzyme genes, serum angiotensin I-converting enzyme and ventricular growth: pathway inference in pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007;17:291-4 pubmed
    ..A genetic marker (CSH1.01) in the syntenic GH-CSH gene cluster correlates with metabolic syndrome in adult life in males...
  44. Florindo R, Souza V, Mutti H, Camilo C, Manzine L, Marana S, et al. Structural insights into ?-glucosidase transglycosylation based on biochemical, structural and computational analysis of two GH1 enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum. N Biotechnol. 2018;40:218-227 pubmed publisher
  45. Rohayem J, Drechsel H, Tittel B, Hahn G, Pfaeffle R, Huebner A. Long-Term Outcomes, Genetics, and Pituitary Morphology in Patients with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: A Single-Centre Experience of Four Decades of Growth Hormone Replacement. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016;86:106-116 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH) has been used to treat children with GH deficiency (GHD) since 1966...
  46. Mateos S, Cervantes C, Zenteno E, Slomianny M, Alpuche J, Hernández Cruz P, et al. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule). Molecules. 2015;20:19372-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min(-1). The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C. ..
  47. West D, Cotie L, Mitchell C, Churchward Venne T, MacDonald M, Phillips S. Resistance exercise order does not determine postexercise delivery of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 to skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38:220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..001), net exposure was similar. The anabolic potential of postexercise hormones was not affected by exercise order. ..
  48. Ersoy B, Ozbilgin K, Kasirga E, Inan S, Coskun S, Tuglu I. Effect of growth hormone on small intestinal homeostasis relation to cellular mediators IGF-I and IGFBP-3. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:5418-24 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) on the histology of small intestines which might be related to the role of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and its receptors...
  49. Bustamante J, Gonzalez L, Carroll C, Weintraub S, Aguilar R, Munoz J, et al. O-Glycosylated 24 kDa human growth hormone has a mucin-like biantennary disialylated tetrasaccharide attached at Thr-60. Proteomics. 2009;9:3474-88 pubmed publisher
  50. Lanfranco F, Motta G, Minetto M, Ghigo E, Maccario M. Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: an update. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:192-6 pubmed
    ..In particular, obese patients with OSAS show a peculiar reduction of both spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion coupled with reduced IGF-I concentrations and impaired peripheral sensitivity to GH...
  51. Giordano M. Genetic causes of isolated and combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;30:679-691 pubmed publisher
    ..The introduction of novel diagnostic approaches is now leading to the disclosure of novel genetic causes in disorders characterized by pituitary hormone defects. ..
  52. Mohammed Geba K, Yúfera M, Martínez Rodríguez G, Mancera J. Molecular endocrine changes of Gh/Igf1 axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to different environmental salinities during larvae to post-larvae stages. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2016;42:1177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..GH1 expression did not show significant changes under both experimental conditions. Our results suggested an enhanced general performance for post-larvae in brackish water, supported by the actions of adcyap1, igf1, and prl. ..
  53. Graebin N, Schöffer J, Andrades D, Hertz P, Ayub M, Rodrigues R. Immobilization of Glycoside Hydrolase Families GH1, GH13, and GH70: State of the Art and Perspectives. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    Glycoside hydrolases (GH) are enzymes capable to hydrolyze the glycosidic bond between two carbohydrates or even between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety...
  54. Koutsaki M, Sifakis S, Zaravinos A, Koutroulakis D, Koukoura O, Spandidos D. Decreased placental expression of hPGH, IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2011;21:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether these alterations are a causative factor of FGR or accompany other pathogenetic mechanisms requires further investigation. ..
  55. Reddy G, Pushpanathan M, Ransom R, Holzman L, Brosius F, Diakonova M, et al. Identification of the glomerular podocyte as a target for growth hormone action. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2045-55 pubmed
    b>GH excess in both the human and transgenic animal models is characterized by significant changes in blood pressure and renal function. The GH/GH receptor (GHR) axis is also implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy...
  56. Sartorio A, Agosti F, Patrizi A, Compri E, Muller E, Cella S, et al. Growth hormone response induced by a respiratory muscle endurance training in healthy subjects. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:319-24 pubmed publisher
    To date, the large majority of studies evaluating growth hormone (GH) response to acute physical exercise has been performed involving gross muscle groups...
  57. Kato C, Kobayashi T, Kudo T, Furusato T, Murakami Y, Tanaka T, et al. Construction of an excretion vector and extracellular production of human growth hormone from Escherichia coli. Gene. 1987;54:197-202 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal amino acid sequence and the biological activity of the extracellular hGH were consistent with those of the authentic hGH. ..
  58. Iliev D, Wittekindt N, Ranke M, Binder G. Structural analysis of human growth hormone with respect to the dominant expression of growth hormone (GH) mutations in isolated GH deficiency type II. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1411-7 pubmed
    Human GH protein consists of four alpha-helices and contains two disulfide bridges...
  59. Yue Y, Jin C, Chen M, Zhang L, Liu X, Ma W, et al. A lncRNA promotes myoblast proliferation by up-regulating GH1. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2017;53:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results reveal a novel lncRNA associated with bovine myoblast proliferation and differentiation. This lncRNA will play a crucial and critical role in future studies of bovine muscle development. ..
  60. Rasmussen M, Wildschiødtz G, Juul A, Hilsted J. Polysomnographic sleep, growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis, leptin, and weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked...
  61. Binder G. Isolated growth hormone deficiency and the GH-1 gene: update 2002. Horm Res. 2002;58 Suppl 3:2-6 pubmed
    This short review will focus on the mechanisms which are thought to be directly involved in GH expression and particularly on the monogenetic disorders which were shown to cause isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) due to ..
  62. Abir R, Garor R, Felz C, Nitke S, Krissi H, Fisch B. Growth hormone and its receptor in human ovaries from fetuses and adults. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1333-9 pubmed
    To investigate the presence of growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GH-R) in early developing follicles.
  63. Brunet Dunand S, Vouyovitch C, Araneda S, Pandey V, Vidal L, Print C, et al. Autocrine human growth hormone promotes tumor angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of hGH antagonism to inhibit angiogenic processes in mammary carcinoma is therefore warranted. ..
  64. Sackmann Sala L, Ding J, Frohman L, Kopchick J. Activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis by CJC-1295, a long-acting GHRH analog, results in serum protein profile changes in normal adult subjects. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2009;19:471-7 pubmed publisher
    To identify biomarkers of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) action in human serum...
  65. Kim J, Ugrinowitsch C, Craig B. Post-eccentric exercise blunted hGH response. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our findings suggest that a previous concentric exercise bout may blunt the anabolic response expected after an eccentric exercise bout. ..