Gene Symbol: GGA3
Description: golgi associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 3
Alias: ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA3, Golgi-localized, gamma ear-containing, ARF-binding protein 3
Species: human
Products:     GGA3

Top Publications

  1. Puertollano R, Randazzo P, Presley J, Hartnell L, Bonifacino J. The GGAs promote ARF-dependent recruitment of clathrin to the TGN. Cell. 2001;105:93-102 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the GGAs could function to link clathrin to membrane-bound ARF.GTP. ..
  2. Scott P, Bilodeau P, Zhdankina O, Winistorfer S, Hauglund M, Allaman M, et al. GGA proteins bind ubiquitin to facilitate sorting at the trans-Golgi network. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:252-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, GGA proteins fulfill the role of ubiquitin sorting receptors at the TGN...
  3. Puertollano R, Bonifacino J. Interactions of GGA3 with the ubiquitin sorting machinery. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:244-51 pubmed
    ..RNA interference (RNAi) of GGA3 expression results in accumulation of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and internalized ..
  4. Wakasugi M, Waguri S, Kametaka S, Tomiyama Y, Kanamori S, Shiba Y, et al. Predominant expression of the short form of GGA3 in human cell lines and tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:687-92 pubmed
    Three GGAs (GGA1-3) were found in humans, among which GGA3 has short and long forms of spliced variants (GGA3-S and GGA3-L). The present study analyzed expression patterns of both GGA3 variants in human tissues and cell lines...
  5. Boman A, Zhang C, Zhu X, Kahn R. A family of ADP-ribosylation factor effectors that can alter membrane transport through the trans-Golgi. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1241-55 pubmed
  6. Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K. Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that interact with gamma-synergin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:719-25 pubmed
    ..When overexpressed, the proteins, called GGA1, GGA2, and GGA3, localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and often caused fragmentation and vacuolation of the compartment...
  7. Prag G, Lee S, Mattera R, Arighi C, Beach B, Bonifacino J, et al. Structural mechanism for ubiquitinated-cargo recognition by the Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation-factor-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2334-9 pubmed
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of the GAT domain of human GGA3 in a 1:1 complex with ubiquitin at 2.8-A resolution...
  8. Takatsu H, Katoh Y, Shiba Y, Nakayama K. Golgi-localizing, gamma-adaptin ear homology domain, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding (GGA) proteins interact with acidic dileucine sequences within the cytoplasmic domains of sorting receptors through their Vps27p/Hrs/STAM (VHS) domains. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28541-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GGA proteins regulate the localization to or exit from the TGN of the sorting receptors. ..
  9. Kawasaki M, Shiba T, Shiba Y, Yamaguchi Y, Matsugaki N, Igarashi N, et al. Molecular mechanism of ubiquitin recognition by GGA3 GAT domain. Genes Cells. 2005;10:639-54 pubmed
    ..We report here the crystal structure of human GGA3 C-GAT in complex with ubiquitin...

More Information


  1. Hirst J, Lui W, Bright N, Totty N, Seaman M, Robinson M. A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:67-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome. ..
  2. Kametaka S, Mattera R, Bonifacino J. Epidermal growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of the GGA3 adaptor protein regulates its recruitment to membranes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7988-8000 pubmed
    ..Here we report that one of these proteins, GGA3, becomes transiently phosphorylated upon activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor...
  3. Shiba Y, Katoh Y, Shiba T, Yoshino K, Takatsu H, Kobayashi H, et al. GAT (GGA and Tom1) domain responsible for ubiquitin binding and ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7105-11 pubmed
  4. Dell Angelica E, Puertollano R, Mullins C, Aguilar R, Vargas J, Hartnell L, et al. GGAs: a family of ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins related to adaptors and associated with the Golgi complex. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:81-94 pubmed
    ..microscopy showed colocalization of GGAs with Golgi markers, whereas immunoelectron microscopy of GGA3 revealed its presence on coated vesicles and buds in the area of the TGN...
  5. Bilodeau P, Winistorfer S, Allaman M, Surendhran K, Kearney W, Robertson A, et al. The GAT domains of clathrin-associated GGA proteins have two ubiquitin binding motifs. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54808-16 pubmed
    ..Using affinity chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we have found that the human GGA3 GAT domain contains two Ub binding motifs that bind to the same surface of ubiquitin...
  6. Doray B, Ghosh P, Griffith J, Geuze H, Kornfeld S. Cooperation of GGAs and AP-1 in packaging MPRs at the trans-Golgi network. Science. 2002;297:1700-3 pubmed
    ..Further, AP-1 contained bound casein kinase-2 that phosphorylated GGA1 and GGA3, thereby causing autoinhibition. This could induce the directed transfer of the MPRs from GGAs to AP-1...
  7. Doray B, Bruns K, Ghosh P, Kornfeld S. Autoinhibition of the ligand-binding site of GGA1/3 VHS domains by an internal acidic cluster-dileucine motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8072-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that full-length cytoplasmic GGA1 and GGA3 but not GGA2 bind the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor very poorly because of autoinhibition...
  8. Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Toda K, Nakayama K. GGA proteins associate with Golgi membranes through interaction between their GGAH domains and ADP-ribosylation factors. Biochem J. 2002;365:369-78 pubmed
    ..Previous studies identified a novel family of potential ARF effectors, termed GGA1-GGA3, which interact specifically with GTP-bound ARF1 and ARF3 and are localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or its ..
  9. Puertollano R, Aguilar R, Gorshkova I, Crouch R, Bonifacino J. Sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors mediated by the GGAs. Science. 2001;292:1712-6 pubmed
    ..A dominant-negative GGA mutant blocked exit of the receptors from the trans-Golgi network. Thus, the GGAs appear to mediate sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. ..
  10. Joshi A, Garg H, Nagashima K, Bonifacino J, Freed E. GGA and Arf proteins modulate retrovirus assembly and release. Mol Cell. 2008;30:227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas siRNA-mediated depletion of GGA2 and GGA3 led to a significant increase in particle release in a late domain-dependent manner, GGA overexpression severely ..
  11. Misra S, Puertollano R, Kato Y, Bonifacino J, Hurley J. Structural basis for acidic-cluster-dileucine sorting-signal recognition by VHS domains. Nature. 2002;415:933-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report the structures of the VHS domain of human GGA3 complexed with signals from both mannose-6-phosphate receptors...
  12. Yasukochi Y, Sakuma J, Takeuchi I, Kato K, Oguri M, Fujimaki T, et al. Two novel susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus identified by longitudinal exome-wide association studies in a Japanese population. Genomics. 2019;111:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the three SNPs, rs6414624 in EVC and rs78338345 in GGA3 were novel susceptibility loci for T2DM...
  13. Chen F, Klein A, Klein B, Lee K, Truitt B, Klein R, et al. Exome array analysis identifies CAV1/CAV2 as a susceptibility locus for intraocular pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;56:544-51 pubmed publisher
    ..22 (rs4931170, P = 1.2 × 10(-5)), in GGA3 at 17q25.1 (rs52809447, P = 6.7 × 10(-5)), and in PKDREJ at 22q13.31 (rs7291444, P = 7.4 × 10(-5))...
  14. Walker K, Modgil A, Albrecht D, Lomoio S, Haydon P, Moss S, et al. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155799 pubmed publisher
    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer'..
  15. Loskutov Y, Kozyulina P, Kozyreva V, Ice R, Jones B, Roston T, et al. NEDD9/Arf6-dependent endocytic trafficking of matrix metalloproteinase 14: a novel mechanism for blocking mesenchymal cell invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Oncogene. 2015;34:3662-75 pubmed publisher
    ..NEDD9 directly binds to Arf6-GTPase-activating protein, ARAP3 and Arf6-effector GGA3, thereby facilitating the Arf6 inactivation required for MMP14/TIMP2 targeting to late endosomes...
  16. Kim W, Ma L, Lomoio S, Willen R, Lombardo S, Dong J, et al. BACE1 elevation engendered by GGA3 deletion increases β-amyloid pathology in association with APP elevation and decreased CHL1 processing in 5XFAD mice. Mol Neurodegener. 2018;13:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that the clathrin adaptor Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) plays a key role in the trafficking of BACE1 to lysosomes, where it is normally degraded...
  17. Hickman F, Stanley E, Carter B. Neurotrophin Responsiveness of Sympathetic Neurons Is Regulated by Rapid Mobilization of the p75 Receptor to the Cell Surface through TrkA Activation of Arf6. J Neurosci. 2018;38:5606-5619 pubmed publisher
    ..p75NTR was mobilized to the neuron surface from GGA3-postitive vesicles through activation of the GTPase Arf6, which was stimulated by NGF, but not NT3 binding to TrkA...
  18. Sun Y, Liu R, Zhao G, Zheng M, Sun Y, Yu X, et al. Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis Identifies Loci for Physical Appearance Traits in Chickens. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:2037-41 pubmed publisher
    ..55 Mb on chicken (Gallus gallus; GG) chromosome 3 (i.e., GGA3). For beard and wattles traits, an identical region 11 cM/2.23 Mb (0.0-11.0 cM/0.00-2...
  19. Moura A, Ledur M, Boschiero C, Nones K, Pinto L, Jaenisch F, et al. Quantitative trait loci with sex-specific effects for internal organs weights and hematocrit value in a broiler-layer cross. J Appl Genet. 2016;57:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..QTL with different effects across sexes were mapped to GGA 8, 19 and 26 for heart weight; GGA26 for heart % and GGA3 for hematocrit value...
  20. Hu C, Cheng C, Wu J, Pan S, Wu W. PKCε-mediated c-Met endosomal processing directs fluctuant c-Met-JNK-paxillin signaling for tumor progression of HepG2. Cell Signal. 2015;27:1544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..hand, HGF induced colocalizations of both phosphorylated JNK and paxillin with the endosomal recycling protein GGA3 at 10h and depletion of GGA3 abolished membrane recycling of c-Met and phosphorylation of JNK/paxillin at the same ..
  21. Miller G, Mattera R, Bonifacino J, Hurley J. Recognition of accessory protein motifs by the gamma-adaptin ear domain of GGA3. Nat Struct Biol. 2003;10:599-606 pubmed
    ..We determined the structure of the GAE domain of human GGA3 in complex with a peptide based on the DFGPLV sequence of the accessory protein Rabaptin-5 and refined it at a ..
  22. Kang E, Cameron A, Piazza F, Walker K, Tesco G. Ubiquitin regulates GGA3-mediated degradation of BACE1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24108-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation...
  23. Zhu G, Zhai P, Wakeham N, He X, Zhang X. Analysis of the interaction between GGA1 GAT domain and Rabaptin-5. Methods Enzymol. 2005;403:583-92 pubmed
    ..Combining with the complex crystal structure, we reveal that the binding mode is helix bundle-to-helix bundle in nature. ..
  24. Scott G, Fei H, Thomas L, Medigeshi G, Thomas G. A PACS-1, GGA3 and CK2 complex regulates CI-MPR trafficking. EMBO J. 2006;25:4423-35 pubmed
    ..Cycling of CI-MPR between the TGN and early endosomes is mediated by GGA3, which directs TGN export, and PACS-1, which directs endosome-to-TGN retrieval...
  25. Santosa C, Rasche S, Barakat A, Bellingham S, Ho M, Tan J, et al. Decreased expression of GGA3 protein in Alzheimer's disease frontal cortex and increased co-distribution of BACE with the amyloid precursor protein. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;43:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and a 64% decrease of GGA3 in the AD group compared to the HC (p = 0.006)...
  26. Natunen T, Parrado A, Helisalmi S, Pursiheimo J, Sarajärvi T, Mäkinen P, et al. Elucidation of the BACE1 regulating factor GGA3 in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;37:217-32 pubmed publisher
    Golgi-localized ?-ear-containing ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein (GGA3) is a central regulator of trafficking and degradation of BACE1 (?-site A?PP-cleaving enzyme), the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-? (A?) in ..
  27. Parachoniak C, Luo Y, Abella J, Keen J, Park M. GGA3 functions as a switch to promote Met receptor recycling, essential for sustained ERK and cell migration. Dev Cell. 2011;20:751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Golgi-localized gamma ear-containing Arf-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts selectively with the Met/hepatocyte growth factor RTK when stimulated, to sort it for recycling in ..
  28. von Einem B, Wahler A, Schips T, Serrano Pozo A, Proepper C, Boeckers T, et al. The Golgi-Localized γ-Ear-Containing ARF-Binding (GGA) Proteins Alter Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP) Processing through Interaction of Their GAE Domain with the Beta-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129047 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, GGA1 and GGA3 were shown to interact with BACE1, to be expressed in neurons, and to be decreased in AD brain, whereas little is ..
  29. Caly L, Saksena N, Piller S, Jans D. Impaired nuclear import and viral incorporation of Vpr derived from a HIV long-term non-progressor. Retrovirology. 2008;5:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, an F72L point mutation in the LTNP was identified for the first time as being uniquely responsible for decreased Vpr nuclear import. ..
  30. Sarajärvi T, Haapasalo A, Viswanathan J, Mäkinen P, Laitinen M, Soininen H, et al. Down-regulation of seladin-1 increases BACE1 levels and activity through enhanced GGA3 depletion during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34433-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased caspase-3 activity coincided with a significant depletion of the BACE1-sorting protein, GGA3 (Golgi-localized gamma-ear-containing ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein), and subsequently augmented BACE1 ..
  31. Kato Y, Misra S, Puertollano R, Hurley J, Bonifacino J. Phosphoregulation of sorting signal-VHS domain interactions by a direct electrostatic mechanism. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:532-6 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that the phosphoserine residue interacts electrostatically with two basic residues on the VHS domain of GGA3, thus providing an additional point of attachment of the acidic-cluster dileucine signal to its recognition module.
  32. Li X, Lavigne P, Lavoie C. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival. Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:4412-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear-containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional ..
  33. Zhang M, Davis J, Li C, Gao J, Huang W, Lambert N, et al. GGA3 Interacts with a G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Modulates Its Cell Surface Export. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:1152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have studied the regulation of cell surface transport of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) by GGA3 (Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3), a multidomain ..
  34. Wasiak S, Legendre Guillemin V, Puertollano R, Blondeau F, Girard M, de Heuvel E, et al. Enthoprotin: a novel clathrin-associated protein identified through subcellular proteomics. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:855-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for enthoprotin in clathrin-mediated budding on internal membranes. Our study reveals the utility of proteomics in the identification of novel vesicle trafficking proteins...
  35. Singer Krüger B, Lasić M, Bürger A, Hausser A, Pipkorn R, Wang Y. Yeast and human Ysl2p/hMon2 interact with Gga adaptors and mediate their subcellular distribution. EMBO J. 2008;27:1423-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Because activated Arl1p is part of the network that binds Gga2p, Arf and Arf-like GTPases may interact in a regulatory cascade. ..
  36. Ghosh P, Griffith J, Geuze H, Kornfeld S. Mammalian GGAs act together to sort mannose 6-phosphate receptors. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:755-66 pubmed
    ..The morphology of the TGN was also altered. These findings indicate that the three mammalian GGAs cooperate to sort cargo and are required for maintenance of TGN structure...
  37. Yuan J, Chen S, Shi F, Wu G, Liu A, Yang N, et al. Genome-wide association study reveals putative role of gga-miR-15a in controlling feed conversion ratio in layer chickens. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:699 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, some suggestively significant variants, located on GGA3 and GGA9, were identified to associate with FI and RFI...
  38. Ratcliffe C, Sahgal P, Parachoniak C, Ivaska J, Park M. Regulation of Cell Migration and β1 Integrin Trafficking by the Endosomal Adaptor GGA3. Traffic. 2016;17:670-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a role for Golgi-localized gamma-ear containing Arf-binding protein 3 (GGA3), in regulating trafficking of β1 integrin...
  39. Katoh Y, Shiba Y, Mitsuhashi H, Yanagida Y, Takatsu H, Nakayama K. Tollip and Tom1 form a complex and recruit ubiquitin-conjugated proteins onto early endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24435-43 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Tollip was localized on early endosomes and recruited Tom1 and ubiquitinated proteins. These observations suggest that Tollip and Tom1 form a complex and regulate endosomal trafficking of ubiquitinated proteins. ..
  40. Barriere H, Nemes C, Lechardeur D, Khan Mohammad M, Fruh K, Lukacs G. Molecular basis of oligoubiquitin-dependent internalization of membrane proteins in Mammalian cells. Traffic. 2006;7:282-97 pubmed
    ..These results provide a paradigm for the clathrin-mediated uptake of ubiquitinated membrane proteins in mammalian cells, requiring the assembly of multiple UIM-Ub interactions to overcome the low affinity binding of mono-Ub to UIM. ..
  41. Pak Y, Glowacka W, Bruce M, Pham N, Rotin D. Transport of LAPTM5 to lysosomes requires association with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, but not LAPTM5 ubiquitination. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:631-45 pubmed
    ..We show that LAPTM5 binds the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4 and GGA3 to promote LAPTM5 sorting from the Golgi to the lysosome, an event that is independent of LAPTM5 ubiquitination...
  42. Santonico E, Mattioni A, Panni S, Belleudi F, Mattei M, Torrisi M, et al. RNF11 is a GGA protein cargo and acts as a molecular adaptor for GGA3 ubiquitination mediated by Itch. Oncogene. 2015;34:3377-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that RNF11 recruits itch to drive the ubiquitination of GGA3. This function is experimentally detectable only in cells overexpressing an RNF11 variant that is inactivated in ..
  43. Jing J, Tarbutton E, Wilson G, Prekeris R. Rab11-FIP3 is a Rab11-binding protein that regulates breast cancer cell motility by modulating the actin cytoskeleton. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:325-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our data we propose that FIP3 affects cell motility by regulating Arf6 localization to the plasma membrane of the leading edge, thus regulating polarized Rac1 activation and actin dynamics. ..
  44. He X, Li F, Chang W, Tang J. GGA proteins mediate the recycling pathway of memapsin 2 (BACE). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11696-703 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GGA proteins function with the phosphorylated ACDL in the memapsin 2-recycling pathway from endosomes to trans-Golgi on the way back to the cell surface...
  45. Ren X, Hurley J. VHS domains of ESCRT-0 cooperate in high-avidity binding to polyubiquitinated cargo. EMBO J. 2010;29:1045-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis of all the five ubiquitin-binding sites in yeast ESCRT-0 shows that cooperation between them is required for the sorting of the Lys63-linked polyubiquitinated cargo Cps1 to the vacuole. ..
  46. Bill A, Blockus H, Stumpfe D, Bajorath J, Schmitz A, Famulok M. A homogeneous fluorescence resonance energy transfer system for monitoring the activation of a protein switch in real time. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:8372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions between the GTPase adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor (ARF) and its effector protein GGA3. The GTPase is activated when bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and switched off in its guanosine diphosphate (..
  47. Stahlschmidt W, Robertson M, Robinson P, McCluskey A, Haucke V. Clathrin terminal domain-ligand interactions regulate sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors mediated by AP-1 and GGA adaptors. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4906-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that clathrin is required for the function of AP-1- and GGA-coated carriers at the TGN but may be dispensable for outward traffic en route to the plasma membrane. ..
  48. He X, Zhu G, Koelsch G, Rodgers K, Zhang X, Tang J. Biochemical and structural characterization of the interaction of memapsin 2 (beta-secretase) cytosolic domain with the VHS domain of GGA proteins. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12174-80 pubmed
    ..0 x 10(-4), 4.1 x 10(-4), and 3.1 x 10(-4) M for VHS domains from GGA1, GGA2, and GGA3, respectively...
  49. Walker K, Kang E, Whalen M, Shen Y, Tesco G. Depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 mediates postinjury elevation of BACE1. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10423-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that the BACE1 interacting protein, GGA3, is depleted while BACE1 levels increase in the acute phase after injury (48 h) in a mouse model of TBI...
  50. Li C, Chiang T, Wu T, Pacheco Rodriguez G, Moss J, Lee F. ARL4D recruits cytohesin-2/ARNO to modulate actin remodeling. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4420-37 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that ARL4D acts as a novel upstream regulator of cytohesin-2/ARNO to promote ARF6 activation and modulate actin remodeling. ..
  51. Cho H, Oh Y, Kwon J, Kwon J, Kim K, Kim H. c-Myc stimulates cell invasion by inhibiting FBX8 function. Mol Cells. 2010;30:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that FBX8 is a novel c-Myc binding protein and that c-Myc induces cell invasive activity through the inhibition of FBX8 effects on ARF6 function during cell invasion. ..
  52. Yogosawa S, Kawasaki M, Wakatsuki S, Kominami E, Shiba Y, Nakayama K, et al. Monoubiquitylation of GGA3 by hVPS18 regulates its ubiquitin-binding ability. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:82-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that GGA3 is monoubiquitylated by a RING-H2 type-ubiquitin ligase hVPS18 (human homologue of vacuolar protein sorting 18)...
  53. Mattera R, Ritter B, Sidhu S, McPherson P, Bonifacino J. Definition of the consensus motif recognized by gamma-adaptin ear domains. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8018-28 pubmed
    ..These findings shed light on the mechanism of accessory protein recruitment to trans-Golgi network and endosomal clathrin coats. ..
  54. Hall B, McLean M, Davis K, Casanova J, Sligar S, Schwartz M. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6. Anal Biochem. 2008;374:243-9 pubmed
    ..This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)...
  55. Mattera R, Puertollano R, Smith W, Bonifacino J. The trihelical bundle subdomain of the GGA proteins interacts with multiple partners through overlapping but distinct sites. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31409-18 pubmed
    ..The different GAT binding partners engage in both competitive and cooperative interactions that may be important for the function of the GGAs in protein sorting. ..
  56. Mattera R, Arighi C, Lodge R, Zerial M, Bonifacino J. Divalent interaction of the GGAs with the Rabaptin-5-Rabex-5 complex. EMBO J. 2003;22:78-88 pubmed
    ..These observations thus identify a binding sequence for GAE/gamma-adaptin ear domains and reveal a functional link between proteins regulating TGN cargo export and endosomal tethering/fusion events. ..
  57. Frittoli E, Palamidessi A, Pizzigoni A, Lanzetti L, Garré M, Troglio F, et al. The primate-specific protein TBC1D3 is required for optimal macropinocytosis in a novel ARF6-dependent pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TBC1D3 binds and colocalize to GGA3, an ARF6-effector, in an ARF6-dependent manner, and synergize with it in promoting macropinocytosis, suggesting ..
  58. Joshi A, Nagashima K, Freed E. Defects in cellular sorting and retroviral assembly induced by GGA overexpression. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:72 pubmed publisher
    ..we find that compartments induced by GGA overexpression sequester Tsg101, poly-ubiquitin, and, in the case of GGA3, Hrs...
  59. Kzhyshkowska J, Gratchev A, Martens J, Pervushina O, Mamidi S, Johansson S, et al. Stabilin-1 localizes to endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in human macrophages and interacts with GGA adaptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:1151-61 pubmed
    ..gamma-ear-containing, adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribosylation factor-binding (GGA) adaptors GGA1, GGA2, and GGA3 long, mediating traffic between Golgi and endosomal/lysosomal compartments...
  60. Tesco G, Koh Y, Kang E, Cameron A, Das S, Sena Esteves M, et al. Depletion of GGA3 stabilizes BACE and enhances beta-secretase activity. Neuron. 2007;54:721-37 pubmed
    ..We also found that during cerebral ischemia, levels of GGA3, an adaptor protein involved in BACE trafficking, are reduced, while BACE levels are increased...
  61. Wang J, Sun H, Macia E, Kirchhausen T, Watson H, Bonifacino J, et al. PI4P promotes the recruitment of the GGA adaptor proteins to the trans-Golgi network and regulates their recognition of the ubiquitin sorting signal. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2646-55 pubmed
  62. Boman A, Salo P, Hauglund M, Strand N, Rensink S, Zhdankina O. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) interaction is not sufficient for yeast GGA protein function or localization. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3078-95 pubmed
    ..Whereas mammalian GGAs must interact with ARF to localize to and function at the Golgi, interaction between yeast Ggas and Arf plays a minor role in Gga localization and function. ..