GDF11

Summary

Gene Symbol: GDF11
Description: growth differentiation factor 11
Alias: BMP-11, BMP11, growth/differentiation factor 11, GDF-11, bone morphogenetic protein 11
Species: human
Products:     GDF11

Top Publications

  1. Kondás K, Szláma G, Trexler M, Patthy L. Both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 have high affinity for growth and differentiation factors 8 and 11. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, WFIKKN1, also binds to both myostatin and myostatin propeptide and that both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 bind GDF11, the growth and differentiation factor most closely related to myostatin, with high affinity...
  2. Gamer L, Wolfman N, Celeste A, Hattersley G, Hewick R, Rosen V. A novel BMP expressed in developing mouse limb, spinal cord, and tail bud is a potent mesoderm inducer in Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol. 1999;208:222-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that during vertebrate embryogenesis, BMP-11 plays a unique role in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues. ..
  3. McPherron A, Lawler A, Lee S. Regulation of anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton by growth/differentiation factor 11. Nat Genet. 1999;22:260-4 pubmed
    ..While the work described here was being completed, the cloning of this gene, designated Gdf11 (also called Bmp11), was also reported by other groups...
  4. Lee S, McPherron A. Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:604-7 pubmed
  5. Andersson O, Reissmann E, Ibanez C. Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor-beta receptor ALK5 to regionalize the anterior-posterior axis. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:831-7 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) contributes to regionalize the mouse embryo along its anterior-posterior axis by regulating the expression of Hox genes...
  6. Leitner L, Wilson R, Yan Z, Gödecke A. Reactive Oxygen Species/Nitric Oxide Mediated Inter-Organ Communication in Skeletal Muscle Wasting Diseases. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;26:700-717 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue secrete soluble factors, including Angiotensin II, myostatin (growth differentiation factor 8 [GDF8]), GDF11, tumor growth factor beta (TGF?), which act on skeletal muscle...
  7. Langerak S, Kim M, Lamberg H, Godinez M, Main M, Winslow L, et al. The Drosophila TGF-beta/Activin-like ligands Dawdle and Myoglianin appear to modulate adult lifespan through regulation of 26S proteasome function in adult muscle. Biol Open. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Since Myo is closely related to the vertebrate muscle mass regulator Myostatin (GDF8) and the Myostatin paralog GDF11, our observations may offer a new experimental model for probing the roles of GDF11/8 in ageing regulation in ..
  8. Drannik A, MARTIN J, Peterson R, Ma X, Jiang F, Turnbull J. Cerebrospinal fluid from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis inhibits sonic hedgehog function. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171668 pubmed publisher
    ..being significantly elevated in ALS CSF, these cytokines negatively correlated with the disease duration, whereas GDF11 was a favorable predictor of ALS clinical score...
  9. Zhang L, Yue J, Pu L, Wang L, Liu X, Liang J, et al. Genome-wide study refines the quantitative trait locus for number of ribs in a Large White × Minzhu intercross pig population and reveals a new candidate gene. Mol Genet Genomics. 2016;291:1885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..beta binding protein, was previously reported to indirectly regulate the activity of growth differentiation factor Gdf11, which has been shown to increase the number of ribs in knock-out mice...

More Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang C, Fang Z, Zhu Z, Liu J, Chen H. Reciprocal regulation between hepcidin and erythropoiesis and its therapeutic application in erythroid disorders. Exp Hematol. 2017;52:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..been reported that hepcidin expression can be suppressed by secreted erythroid factors, including GDF15, TWSG1, GDF11, and ERFE, thereby increasing iron availability for hemoglobin synthesis...
  2. Lamar K, Bogdanovich S, Gardner B, Gao Q, Miller T, Earley J, et al. Overexpression of Latent TGF? Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGF?. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006019 pubmed publisher
    ..LTBP4 also interacted with TGF? and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin...
  3. Quarles E, Dai D, Tocchi A, Basisty N, Gitari L, Rabinovitch P. Quality control systems in cardiac aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2015;23:101-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These include caloric restriction, rapamycin, resveratrol, GDF11, mitochondrial antioxidants and cardiolipin-targeted therapeutics...
  4. Rochette L, Vergely C. "Pro-youthful" factors in the "labyrinth" of cardiac rejuvenation. Exp Gerontol. 2016;83:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the heart's cardiomyocytes have been described: follistatin like 1 (FSTL1), growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I)...
  5. Wang F, Shen X, Li S, Chen L, Wang Y, Qin J, et al. Splenocytes derived from young WT mice prevent AD progression in APPswe/PSENldE9 transgenic mice. Oncotarget. 2015;6:20851-62 pubmed
    ..Young WT splenocytes enhanced Aβ clearance, decreased astrogliosis and increased systemic growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) levels. Splenocytes derived from old AD mouse promoted AD...
  6. Leinwand L, Harrison B. Young at heart. Cell. 2013;153:743-5 pubmed publisher
    ..authors demonstrate that this effect can be recapitulated by treating old mice with growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11). These data suggest that GDF11 therapy may be a useful tool in combating age-related cardiac hypertrophy.
  7. Andersen R, Lim D. An ingredient for the elixir of youth. Cell Res. 2014;24:1381-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is the first of such factors to be identified, and two new studies demonstrate that this "factor of youth" ..
  8. Dong X, Han Y, Abeysekera I, Shao Z, Wang H. GDF11 is increased in patients with aplastic anemia. Hematology. 2019;24:331-336 pubmed publisher
    To explore the critical role of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) in the pathobiology of aplastic anemia (AA). We have examined the serum GDF11 levels for 79 AA patients and 30 healthy controls...
  9. Gerardo Ramírez M, Lazzarini Lechuga R, Hernández Rizo S, Jiménez Salazar J, Simoni Nieves A, Garcia Ruiz C, et al. GDF11 exhibits tumor suppressive properties in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by restricting clonal expansion and invasion. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been characterized as a key regulator of differentiation in cells that retain stemness features, despite some controversies in age-related studies...
  10. Tsuda T, Iwai N, Deguchi E, Kimura O, Ono S, Furukawa T, et al. PCSK5 and GDF11 expression in the hindgut region of mouse embryos with anorectal malformations. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2011;21:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that retinoic acid induced anorectal malformations (ARM) in mice. GDF11 is a TGFβ superfamily molecule and is cleaved and activated by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 5 (PCSK5)...
  11. Anqi X, Ruiqi C, Yanming R, Chao Y. Neuroprotective potential of GDF11 in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in elderly rats. J Clin Neurosci. 2019;63:182-188 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent researches have proved rejuvenating effect of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) in improving multiple systemic diseases on old individuals...
  12. Su H, Liao J, Wang Y, Chen K, Lin C, Lee I, et al. Exogenous GDF11 attenuates non-canonical TGF-β signaling to protect the heart from acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2019;114:20 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) superfamily that reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy, improves muscle regeneration and angiogenesis, and maintains progenitor ..
  13. Zhou Y, Song L, Ni S, Zhang Y, Zhang S. Administration of rGDF11 retards the aging process in male mice via action of anti-oxidant system. Biogerontology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Current studies have generated disputes on the effects of GDF11 and GDF8, a closely related member of GDF11, on rejuvenation and anti-aging properties...
  14. Schafer M, Lebrasseur N. The influence of GDF11 on brain fate and function. GeroScience. 2019;41:1-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) protein that regulates aspects of central nervous system (CNS) formation and health throughout the lifespan...
  15. Opstad T, Kalstad A, Pettersen A, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I. Novel biomolecules of ageing, sex differences and potential underlying mechanisms of telomere shortening in coronary artery disease. Exp Gerontol. 2019;119:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Any covariations between LTL, GDF11, IGF1, SIRT-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were further assessed...
  16. Rochette L, Meloux A, Rigal E, Zeller M, Cottin Y, Malka G, et al. Regenerative Capacity of Endogenous Factor: Growth Differentiation Factor 11; a New Approach of the Management of Age-Related Cardiovascular Events. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..An endogenous compound called growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a circulating negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that raising GDF11 ..
  17. Aires R, de Lemos L, Novoa A, Jurberg A, Mascrez B, Duboule D, et al. Tail Bud Progenitor Activity Relies on a Network Comprising Gdf11, Lin28, and Hox13 Genes. Dev Cell. 2019;48:383-395.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that this process entails a major regulatory switch, bringing tail bud progenitors under Gdf11 signaling control...
  18. Tito A, Barbulova A, Zappelli C, Leone M, Ruvo M, Mercurio F, et al. The Growth Differentiation Factor 11 is Involved in Skin Fibroblast Ageing and is Induced by a Preparation of Peptides and Sugars Derived from Plant Cell Cultures. Mol Biotechnol. 2019;61:209-220 pubmed publisher
    ..The growth differentiation factor GDF11, a TGF-β family member, has been associated with the maintenance of youth phenotypes in different human tissues ..
  19. Ozek C, Krolewski R, Buchanan S, Rubin L. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 treatment leads to neuronal and vascular improvements in the hippocampus of aged mice. Sci Rep. 2018;8:17293 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, our lab showed that delivery of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) to the bloodstream increases the number of neural stem cells and positively affects ..
  20. Castonguay R, Lachey J, Wallner S, Strand J, Liharska K, Watanabe A, et al. Follistatin-288-Fc Fusion Protein Promotes Localized Growth of Skeletal Muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019;368:435-445 pubmed publisher
    ..cell-based assays, FST288-Fc binds to activin A, activin B, myostatin (growth differentiation factor GDF8), and GDF11 with high affinity and neutralizes their activity in vitro...
  21. Kuznik B, Davydov S, Smolyakov Y, Stepanov A, Guseva Y, Fine I, et al. [The role of «Youth and aging proteins» in essential hypertension pathogenesis.]. Adv Gerontol. 2018;31:362-367 pubmed
    ..It was shown, that during EG concentrations of GDF11 «youth protein» decreased in 3,3 times and GDF15, JAM-A/1, CCL11 «aging proteins» increased in 1,4-2,4 times...
  22. Liu Y, Shao L, Chen K, Wang Z, Wang J, Jing W, et al. GDF11 restrains tumor growth by promoting apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. Onco Targets Ther. 2018;11:8371-8379 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effects of growth differentiation factor (GDF11) in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. To investigate the expression and significance of GDF11 in pancreatic cancer...
  23. Tanaka R, Sugiura H, Yamada M, Ichikawa T, Koarai A, Fujino N, et al. Physical inactivity is associated with decreased growth differentiation factor 11 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:1333-1342 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is reported to possess anti-aging and rejuvenating effects, including muscle regeneration and to be highly expressed in skeletal muscle...
  24. Gu B, Wang Q, Dai W, Ma G, Song Y, Wu Q. Effect of GDF11 on proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018;64:80-84 pubmed
    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) on the proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells...
  25. Zhou Y, Ni S, Song L, Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhang S. Late-onset administration of GDF11 extends life span and delays development of age-related markers in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. Biogerontology. 2019;20:225-239 pubmed publisher
    Current studies have generated disputes on the age-related change in the concentration of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and its role in the genesis of rejuvenation conditions...
  26. Durán J, Troncoso M, Lagos D, Ramos S, Marín G, Estrada M. GDF11 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Smad2/3 Signaling to Prevent Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor-? family, has been shown to act as a negative regulator in cardiac hypertrophy...
  27. Wang W, Qu R, Wang X, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Chen C, et al. GDF11 Antagonizes Psoriasis-like Skin Inflammation via Suppression of NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Inflammation. 2019;42:319-330 pubmed publisher
    Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) is a key member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, which plays a momentous role in both normal physiological processes and pathophysiology processes...
  28. Shen G, Zhou H, Zhang H, Chen B, Liu Z, Yuan Y, et al. The GDF11-FTO-PPARγ axis controls the shift of osteoporotic MSC fate to adipocyte and inhibits bone formation during osteoporosis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018;1864:3644-3654 pubmed publisher
    ..FTO was up-regulated in bone marrow during aging or osteoporosis in human and mice in a GDF11(growth differentiation factor 11)-C/EBPα-dependent mechanism...
  29. Rodgers B, Eldridge J. Reduced Circulating GDF11 Is Unlikely Responsible for Age-Dependent Changes in Mouse Heart, Muscle, and Brain. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3885-8 pubmed publisher
    ..studies report conflicting data on the age-related change in circulating growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin as well as the former's influence on muscle regeneration...
  30. Zhou Y, Jiang Z, Harris E, Reeves J, Chen X, Pazdro R. Circulating Concentrations of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Are Heritable and Correlate With Life Span. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71:1560-1563 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins...
  31. Rinaldi F, Zhang Y, Mondragón González R, Harvey J, Perlingeiro R. Treatment with rGDF11 does not improve the dystrophic muscle pathology of mdx mice. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the TGF-? superfamily and myostatin homologous, has been reported to have the ..
  32. Fife E, Kostka J, Kroc Ł, Guligowska A, Pigłowska M, Sołtysik B, et al. Relationship of muscle function to circulating myostatin, follistatin and GDF11 in older women and men. BMC Geriatr. 2018;18:200 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin, its inhibitor follistatin, and growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) have been proposed as factors that could potentially modify biological aging...
  33. Jin Q, Qiao C, Li J, Li J, Xiao X. Neonatal Systemic AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery of GDF11 Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Growth. Mol Ther. 2018;26:1109-1117 pubmed publisher
    Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11; BMP11) is a circulating cytokine in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily...
  34. Lee J, Momani J, Kim Y, Kang C, Choi J, Baek H, et al. Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;179:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei...
  35. Yu X, Chen X, Zheng X, Zhang J, Zhao X, Liu Y, et al. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Promotes Abnormal Proliferation and Angiogenesis of Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells. Hypertension. 2018;71:729-741 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies revealed that GDF11 (growth differentiation factor 11) induces endothelial cells proliferation and migration; however, whether GDF11 is directly involved ..
  36. Jones J, Cadena S, Gong C, Wang X, Chen Z, Wang S, et al. Supraphysiologic Administration of GDF11 Induces Cachexia in Part by Upregulating GDF15. Cell Rep. 2018;22:1522-1530 pubmed publisher
    The age-related effects of GDF11 have been a subject of controversy. Here, we find that elevated GDF11 causes signs of cachexia in mice: reduced food intake, body weight, and muscle mass...
  37. Qin X, Kuang H, Chen L, Wei S, Yu D, Liang F. Coexpression of growth differentiation factor 11 and reactive oxygen species in metastatic oral cancer and its role in inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;123:697-706 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression in metastatic oral cancer and explored their roles in inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  38. Nydegger U, Luginbühl M, Risch M. The aging human recipient of transfusion products. Transfus Apher Sci. 2015;52:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of blood plasma, such as the growth-differentiation protein GDF11, were shown to enhance neurogenesis and to improve the vasculature in the animal cortex and to rejuvenate muscle ..
  39. Camici G, Savarese G, Akhmedov A, Lüscher T. Molecular mechanism of endothelial and vascular aging: implications for cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GDF11, a member of TGFβ superfamily with homology to myostatin also retards the aging process via yet unknown ..
  40. Tang F, Ling C, Liu J. Reduced expression of growth differentiation factor 11 promoted the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by activating the AKT signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;103:691-698 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of cigarette smoke (an accepted risk factor for COPD) and growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), which is reduced in patients with COPD, in the occurrence of COPD are unclear...
  41. Pons M, Koniaris L, Moe S, Gutierrez J, Esquela Kerscher A, Zimmers T. GDF11 induces kidney fibrosis, renal cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and kidney dysfunction and failure. Surgery. 2018;164:262-273 pubmed publisher
    b>GDF11 modulates embryonic patterning and kidney organogenesis. Herein, we sought to define GDF11 function in the adult kidney and in renal diseases. In vitro renal cell lines, genetic, and murine in vivo renal injury models were examined...
  42. Mendelsohn A, Larrick J. Systemic factors mediate reversible age-associated brain dysfunction. Rejuvenation Res. 2014;17:525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, plasma levels of the trophic factor growth/differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decrease with aging...
  43. Ma J, Zhang L, Niu T, Ai C, Jia G, Jin X, et al. Growth differentiation factor 11 improves neurobehavioral recovery and stimulates angiogenesis in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Brain Res Bull. 2018;139:38-47 pubmed publisher
    The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial...
  44. Li H, Li Y, Xiang L, Zhang J, ZHu B, Xiang L, et al. GDF11 Attenuates Development of Type 2 Diabetes via Improvement of Islet β-Cell Function and Survival. Diabetes. 2017;66:1914-1927 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been implicated in the regulation of islet development and a variety of aging conditions, but little is known about the physiological functions of GDF11 in adult pancreatic islets...
  45. Zhang J, Li Y, Li H, ZHu B, Wang L, Guo B, et al. GDF11 Improves Angiogenic Function of EPCs in Diabetic Limb Ischemia. Diabetes. 2018;67:2084-2095 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been shown to promote stem cell activity and rejuvenate the function of multiple organs in old mice, but little is known about the functions of GDF11 in the diabetic rat model of hindlimb ..
  46. Marini K, Croucher D, McCloy R, Vaghjiani V, González Rajal A, Hastings J, et al. Inhibition of activin signaling in lung adenocarcinoma increases the therapeutic index of platinum chemotherapy. Sci Transl Med. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) superfamily ligands activin A and growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) mediated resistance via their cognate receptors through TGF?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), ..
  47. Zhao L, Isayama K, Chen H, Yamauchi N, Shigeyoshi Y, Hashimoto S, et al. The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα represses the transcription of growth/differentiation factor 10 and 15 genes in rat endometrium stromal cells. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..However, Gdf5, Gdf7, and Gdf11 were not significantly affected by Bmal1 silencing...
  48. Liu W, Zhou L, Zhou C, Zhang S, Jing J, Xie L, et al. GDF11 decreases bone mass by stimulating osteoclastogenesis and inhibiting osteoblast differentiation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12794 pubmed publisher
    Osteoporosis is an age-related disease that affects millions of people. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) superfamily...
  49. Lee S, Park S, Kim Y. Production of bioactive chicken (Gallus gallus) follistatin-type proteins in E. coli. AMB Express. 2015;5:142 pubmed publisher
    ..In an in vitro reporter gene assay to examine their potencies and selectivities to different ligands (MSTN, GDF11, and activin A), the four FST-type proteins (MBP-FST288, MBP-NDFSD1/2, MBP-NDFSD1, and MBP-NDFSD1/1) showed ..
  50. Pirruccello Straub M, Jackson J, Wawersik S, Webster M, Salta L, Long K, et al. Blocking extracellular activation of myostatin as a strategy for treating muscle wasting. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2292 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin and GDF11 are closely related members of the TGFβ family whose activation requires two proteolytic cleavages to release the ..
  51. Pilling L, Joehanes R, Kacprowski T, Peters M, Jansen R, Karasik D, et al. Gene transcripts associated with muscle strength: a CHARGE meta-analysis of 7,781 persons. Physiol Genomics. 2016;48:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood-borne factors, including growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), have been linked to muscle regeneration in animal models...
  52. Poggioli T, Vujic A, Yang P, Macias Trevino C, Uygur A, Loffredo F, et al. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 11/8 Levels Decline With Age. Circ Res. 2016;118:29-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and GDF8 are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily sharing 89% protein sequence homology. We have previously shown that circulating GDF11 levels decrease with age in mice...
  53. Han Y, Wang H, Fu R, Qu W, Ruan E, Wang X, et al. [GDF11 level in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and its clinical significance]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;96:620-4 pubmed publisher
    To detect the expression level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and to evaluate the relationship between GDF11 level and erythropoiesis functions...
  54. Jing Y, Li D, Wu F, Gong L, Li R. GDF11 does not improve the palmitate induced insulin resistance in C2C12. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:1795-1802 pubmed
    GDF11 (Growth Differentiation factor 11) has been reported to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, heart and brain in aged mice, and the aged skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin resistance...
  55. Khavinson V, Kuznik B, Ryzhak G, Linkova N, Kozina L, Sall T. ["Protein of senility" CCL11, "protein of juvenility" GDF11 and their role in age-related pathology]. Adv Gerontol. 2016;29:722-731 pubmed
    ..data on the structure and functions of «protein of juvenility» - CCL11 and «protein of senility» - GDF11. Chemokine CCL11 injected to young animals has been shown to lead to degenerative changes in the central nervous ..
  56. Ohsawa Y, Takayama K, Nishimatsu S, Okada T, Fujino M, Fukai Y, et al. The Inhibitory Core of the Myostatin Prodomain: Its Interaction with Both Type I and II Membrane Receptors, and Potential to Treat Muscle Atrophy. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133713 pubmed publisher
    ..other TGF-β family members, but suppresses activation of myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) that share identical membrane receptors...
  57. Zhang Y, Li Q, Liu D, Huang Q, Cai G, Cui S, et al. GDF11 improves tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury in elderly mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:34624 pubmed publisher
    The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics...
  58. Brun C, Rudnicki M. GDF11 and the Mythical Fountain of Youth. Cell Metab. 2015;22:54-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue, Egerman et al. (2015) re-investigate the activity of GDF11 in myogenesis, recently suggested as an anti-aging agent, and instead find a potent inhibitory effect on skeletal ..
  59. Monestier O, Blanquet V. WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2: "Companion" proteins regulating TGFB activity. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2016;32:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily such as myostatin (MSTN) and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11)...
  60. Freitas Rodríguez S, Rodriguez F, Folgueras A. GDF11 administration does not extend lifespan in a mouse model of premature aging. Oncotarget. 2016;7:55951-55956 pubmed publisher
    b>GDF11 has recently emerged as a powerful anti-aging candidate, found in young blood, capable of rejuvenating a number of aged tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscle and brain...
  61. Rochette L, Zeller M, Cottin Y, Vergely C. Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11): Functions in the regulation of erythropoiesis and cardiac regeneration. Pharmacol Ther. 2015;156:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth and differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) as activins belong to the TGF-β family...
  62. Hinken A, Powers J, Luo G, Holt J, Billin A, Russell A. Lack of evidence for GDF11 as a rejuvenator of aged skeletal muscle satellite cells. Aging Cell. 2016;15:582-4 pubmed publisher
    Recent high-profile studies report GDF11 to be a key circulating 'anti-aging' factor...
  63. Lu Q, Tu M, Li C, Zhang L, Jiang T, Liu T, et al. GDF11 Inhibits Bone Formation by Activating Smad2/3 in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;99:500-509 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily...
  64. Onodera K, Sugiura H, Yamada M, Koarai A, Fujino N, Yanagisawa S, et al. Decrease in an anti-ageing factor, growth differentiation factor 11, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2017;72:893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily and was recently reported to be a ..
  65. Semba R, Zhang P, Zhu M, Fabbri E, Gonzalez Freire M, Moaddel R, et al. A targeted proteomic assay for the measurement of plasma proteoforms related to human aging phenotypes. Proteomics. 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..been implicated in reversing or accelerating aging phenotypes, including growth/differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), GDF11, eotaxin, and oxytocin...
  66. Li Z, Kawasumi M, Zhao B, Moisyadi S, Yang J. Transgenic over-expression of growth differentiation factor 11 propeptide in skeleton results in transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:990-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton...
  67. Ahn S, Suh S, Moon H, Hyun C. Evaluation of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) levels in dogs with chronic mitral valve insufficiency. Can J Vet Res. 2016;80:90-2 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) regulates cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues...
  68. Alvarez C, Aravena A, Tapia T, Rozenblum E, Solís L, Corvalán A, et al. Different Array CGH profiles within hereditary breast cancer tumors associated to BRCA1 expression and overall survival. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:219 pubmed publisher
    ..0221). Within this cluster, deletion of PLEKHO1, GDF11, DARC, DAG1 and CD63 may be associated to the worse outcome of the patients...
  69. Glass D. Elevated GDF11 Is a Risk Factor for Age-Related Frailty and Disease in Humans. Cell Metab. 2016;24:7-8 pubmed publisher
    b>GDF11 was reported to decline with age and to have muscle and heart rejuvenating effects. These reports were disputed...
  70. Olson K, Beatty A, Heidecker B, Regan M, Brody E, Foreman T, et al. Association of growth differentiation factor 11/8, putative anti-ageing factor, with cardiovascular outcomes and overall mortality in humans: analysis of the Heart and Soul and HUNT3 cohorts. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:3426-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 and/or its homologue growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF11/8) reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy and vascular ageing in mice...
  71. Myzithras M, Li H, Bigwarfe T, Waltz E, Gupta P, Löw S, et al. Development of an ultra-sensitive Simoa assay to enable GDF11 detection: a comparison across bioanalytical platforms. Bioanalysis. 2016;8:511-8 pubmed publisher
    Four bioanalytical platforms were evaluated to optimize sensitivity and enable detection of recombinant human GDF11 in biological matrices; ELISA, Meso Scale Discovery, Gyrolab xP Workstation and Simoa HD-1...
  72. Du G, Shao Z, Wu J, Yin W, Li S, Wu J, et al. Targeted myocardial delivery of GDF11 gene rejuvenates the aged mouse heart and enhances myocardial regeneration after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2017;112:7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), from the activin-transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to promote stem ..
  73. Hayashi Y, Mikawa S, Masumoto K, Katou F, Sato K. GDF11 expression in the adult rat central nervous system. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018;89:21-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11), is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily...
  74. Ma J, Zhang L, He G, Tan X, Jin X, Li C. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation regulates expression of growth differentiation factor 11 and activin-like kinase 5 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats. J Neurol Sci. 2016;369:27-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), as a rejuvenation factor in heterochronic parabiosis, can increase proliferation of primary brain capillary endothelial cells (ECs)...
  75. Zimmers T, Jiang Y, Wang M, Liang T, Rupert J, Au E, et al. Exogenous GDF11 induces cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and wasting. Basic Res Cardiol. 2017;112:48 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis...
  76. St Andre M, Johnson M, Bansal P, Wellen J, Robertson A, Opsahl A, et al. A mouse anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength and contractility in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its humanized equivalent, domagrozumab (PF-06252616), increases muscle volume in cynomolgus. Skelet Muscle. 2017;7:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the murine and human antibodies are specific and potent inhibitors of myostatin and GDF11. mRK35 is able to increase body weight, lean mass, and muscle weights in normal mice...
  77. Khalil A, Dotimas H, Kahn J, Lamerdin J, Hayes D, Gupta P, et al. Differential Binding Activity of TGF-? Family Proteins to Select TGF-? Receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;358:423-30 pubmed publisher
    Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and myostatin (MSTN) are highly related transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) ligands with 89% amino acid sequence homology...
  78. Augustin H, McGourty K, Steinert J, Cochemé H, Adcott J, Cabecinha M, et al. Myostatin-like proteins regulate synaptic function and neuronal morphology. Development. 2017;144:2445-2455 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass...
  79. Morvan F, Rondeau J, Zou C, Minetti G, Scheufler C, Scharenberg M, et al. Blockade of activin type II receptors with a dual anti-ActRIIA/IIB antibody is critical to promote maximal skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12448-12453 pubmed publisher
    The TGF-? family ligands myostatin, GDF11, and activins are negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass, which have been reported to primarily signal via the ActRIIB receptor on skeletal muscle and thereby induce muscle wasting described ..
  80. Zhang Y, Wei Y, Liu D, Liu F, Li X, Pan L, et al. Role of growth differentiation factor 11 in development, physiology and disease. Oncotarget. 2017;8:81604-81616 pubmed publisher
    Growth differentiation factor (GDF11) is a member of TGF-?/BMP superfamily that activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways and regulates expression of its target nuclear genes...
  81. Bajikar S, Wang C, Borten M, Pereira E, Atkins K, Janes K. Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Dev Cell. 2017;43:418-435.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC...
  82. Schafer M, Atkinson E, Vanderboom P, Kotajarvi B, White T, Moore M, et al. Quantification of GDF11 and Myostatin in Human Aging and Cardiovascular Disease. Cell Metab. 2016;23:1207-1215 pubmed publisher
    Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a transforming growth factor β superfamily member with a controversial role in aging processes...
  83. Hannan N, Jamshidi P, Pera M, Wolvetang E. BMP-11 and myostatin support undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells in feeder-free cultures. Cloning Stem Cells. 2009;11:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that members of the TGF-beta superfamily, other than Activin-A and GDF3, are able to maintain hES cells in an undifferentiated state under feeder free conditions. ..
  84. Szumska D, Pieles G, Essalmani R, Bilski M, Mesnard D, Kaur K, et al. VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to ..
  85. Vanbekbergen N, Hendrickx M, Leyns L. Growth differentiation factor 11 is an encephalic regionalizing factor in neural differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:766 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a previously developed methodology to identify the novel patterning role of GDF11, a TGF-β signaling factor...
  86. Walker R, Poggioli T, Katsimpardi L, Buchanan S, Oh J, Wattrus S, et al. Biochemistry and Biology of GDF11 and Myostatin: Similarities, Differences, and Questions for Future Investigation. Circ Res. 2016;118:1125-41; discussion 1142 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (or GDF8) are closely related members of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily and are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles...
  87. Zhou Y, Sharma N, Dukes D, Myzithras M, Gupta P, Khalil A, et al. GDF11 Treatment Attenuates the Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Function After Injury in Older Rats. AAPS J. 2017;19:431-437 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been proposed as a "youthful" circulating factor that can restore cardiac, neural, and ..
  88. Yokoe T, Ohmachi T, Inoue H, Mimori K, Tanaka F, Kusunoki M, et al. Clinical significance of growth differentiation factor 11 in colorectal cancer. Int J Oncol. 2007;31:1097-101 pubmed
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily, plays a role in regulation of development and differentiation...
  89. Hocking J, Hehr C, Chang R, Johnston J, McFarlane S. TGFbeta ligands promote the initiation of retinal ganglion cell dendrites in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;37:247-60 pubmed
    ..factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), can signal cultured RGCs to form dendrites...
  90. Matsubara Y, Hirasawa T, Egawa S, Hattori A, Suganuma T, Kohara Y, et al. Anatomical integration of the sacral-hindlimb unit coordinated by GDF11 underlies variation in hindlimb positioning in tetrapods. Nat Ecol Evol. 2017;1:1392-1399 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that GDF11 secreted from the posterior axial mesoderm is a key factor in the integration of sacral vertebrae and hindlimb ..
  91. Smith S, Zhang X, Zhang X, Gross P, Starosta T, Mohsin S, et al. GDF11 does not rescue aging-related pathological hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2015;117:926-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β super family of secreted factors...
  92. Hammers D, Merscham Banda M, Hsiao J, ENGST S, Hartman J, Sweeney H. Supraphysiological levels of GDF11 induce striated muscle atrophy. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:531-544 pubmed publisher
    ..Though several reports have refuted these data, the in vivo effects of GDF11 on skeletal muscle mass have not been addressed...