gastrin

Summary

Gene Symbol: gastrin
Description: gastrin
Alias: GAS, gastrin, preprogastrin
Species: human
Products:     gastrin

Top Publications

  1. Tu S, Chi A, Lim S, Cui G, Dubeykovskaya Z, Ai W, et al. Gastrin regulates the TFF2 promoter through gastrin-responsive cis-acting elements and multiple signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1726-37 pubmed
    ..The peptide hormone, gastrin, stimulates acid secretion but also induces proliferation of the acid-secreting mucosa...
  2. Yuan A, Liu J, Liu Y, Bjørnsen T, Varro A, Cui G. Immunohistochemical examination of gastrin, gastrin precursors, and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Pathol Oncol Res. 2008;14:449-55 pubmed publisher
    A promoting effect of gastrin on stimulating Barrett's oesophagus proliferation has been demonstrated, but whether it plays a regulating role for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to date has not been fully investigated...
  3. Clarke M, Russell P, Zajac J, Davey R. The androgen receptor in the hypothalamus positively regulates hind-limb muscle mass and voluntary physical activity in adult male mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;189:187-194 pubmed publisher
  4. Kumar A, Singh A, Kumar P, Sarkar A. GAST proteins evolved through successive conjugation of novel motifs and their sub-functionalization. Plant Physiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study identifies GASTs and their encoded proteins, uncovers their structure, novel motifs, and evolutionary pattern among plants, and suggests their functional conservation. ..
  5. Marshall K, Laval M, Estacio O, Hudson D, Kalitsis P, Shulkes A, et al. Activation by zinc of the human gastrin gene promoter in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Metallomics. 2015;7:1390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that hypoxia, cobalt chloride (a hypoxia mimetic) and zinc chloride could activate the expression of the gastrin gene in vitro...
  6. Iftner T, Neis K, Castanon A, Landy R, Holz B, Woll Herrmann A, et al. Longitudinal Clinical Performance of the RNA-Based Aptima Human Papillomavirus (AHPV) Assay in Comparison to the DNA-Based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV Test in Two Consecutive Screening Rounds with a 6-Year Interval in Germany. J Clin Microbiol. 2019;57: pubmed publisher
    ..This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02634190.). ..
  7. Herbel V, Schäfer H, Wink M. Recombinant Production of Snakin-2 (an Antimicrobial Peptide from Tomato) in E. coli and Analysis of Its Bioactivity. Molecules. 2015;20:14889-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The total yield of recombinant SN2 was approximately 1 mg/L. The membrane-active SN2 showed a bactericidal and fungicidal bioactivity, which can be explained by perforation of biomembranes of bacteria and fungi. ..
  8. Migdalis L, Thomaides T, Chairopoulos C, Kalogeropoulou C, Charalabides J, Mantzara F. Changes of gastric emptying rate and gastrin levels are early indicators of autonomic neuropathy in type II diabetic patients. Clin Auton Res. 2001;11:259-63 pubmed
    The authors investigated the effect of a balanced meal on gastric emptying rate and gastrin plasma concentrations in patients with type II diabetes and autonomic neuropathy, in diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy, and in ..
  9. Zhou J, Chen M, Zhang Q, Hu J, Wang W. Coexpression of cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor and gastrin gene in human gastric tissues and gastric cancer cell line. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:791-4 pubmed
    To compare the expression patterns of cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B)/gastrin receptor genes in matched human gastric carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with gastric cancer, inflammatory gastric mucosa from patients with ..

More Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang Z, Wu S, Su Y, Jin J, Fan Y, Yu H, et al. Differences and significance of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstones. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2008;7:58-64 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to assess the relationship of the levels of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues with the formation of cholelithiasis.
  2. Mehrpisheh S, Mosayebi Z, Memarian A, Kadivar M, Nariman S, Ostadrahimi P, et al. Evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of gastric aspirate shake test to predict surfactant deficiency in Iranian premature infants. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2015;5:182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our findings, the application of GAST on gastric aspirate secretions is not a useful method to predict surfactant deficiency. Therefore, decisions for RDS management must be made based on clinical and radiological findings. ..
  3. Stamatakis K, Vayenos D, Kotakis C, Gast R, Papageorgiou G. The extraordinary longevity of kleptoplasts derived from the Ross Sea haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica within dinoflagellate host cells relates to the diminished role of the oxygen-evolving Photosystem II and to supplementary light harvesting by myc. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2017;1858:189-195 pubmed publisher
  4. Pavel M, Chen D, He W, Cushman S, Voi M, de Vries E, et al. Everolimus Effect on Gastrin and Glucagon in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Pancreas. 2017;46:751-757 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the effects of everolimus on gastrin and glucagon levels in patients with progressive pNET in RADIANT-1 (a single-arm phase II trial) and RADIANT-3 (a ..
  5. Liu K, Liu Y, Yan J, Sun Z. Nondestructive Estimation of Muscle Contributions to STS Training with Different Loadings Based on Wearable Sensor System. Sensors (Basel). 2018;18: pubmed publisher
  6. Kato K, Hayashizaki Y, Takahashi Y, Himeno S, Matsubara K. Molecular cloning of the human gastrin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:8197-203 pubmed
    A genomic clone that contains the human gastrin gene was isolated from a human gene library. Restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that this gene is about 0.7 kb long, and has an intron...
  7. Bramante G, Patel O, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Ferric ions inhibit proteolytic processing of progastrin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:1083-7 pubmed publisher
    The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is generated from an 80 amino acid precursor (progastrin) by cleavage after dibasic residues by prohormone convertase 1...
  8. Lacourse K, Friis Hansen L, Rehfeld J, Samuelson L. Disturbed progastrin processing in carboxypeptidase E-deficient fat mice. FEBS Lett. 1997;416:45-50 pubmed
    ..Since CPE plays a central role in the biosynthesis of a number of regulatory peptides, including gastrin, we examined the biogenesis and processing of progastrin in fat/fat mice by measuring gastrin mRNA, ..
  9. Dahan T, Ziv O, Horwitz E, Zemmour H, Lavi J, Swisa A, et al. Pancreatic ?-Cells Express the Fetal Islet Hormone Gastrin in Rodent and Human Diabetes. Diabetes. 2017;66:426-436 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that gastrin, a stomach hormone typically expressed in the pancreas only during embryogenesis, is expressed in islets of ..
  10. Davey R, Clarke M, Russell P, Rana K, Seto J, Roeszler K, et al. Androgen Action via the Androgen Receptor in Neurons Within the Brain Positively Regulates Muscle Mass in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3684-3695 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence for a role of androgens via the AR in neurons to positively regulate fast-twitch hind-limb muscle mass and physical activity in male mice. ..
  11. Cao Y, Cao X, Liu X. Expression of cholecystokinin2-receptor in rat and human L cells and the stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by gastrin treatment. Acta Histochem. 2015;117:205-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells...
  12. Fuchs H, Hölscher A, Leers J, Bludau M, Brinkmann S, Schröder W, et al. Long-term quality of life after surgery for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: extended gastrectomy or transthoracic esophagectomy?. Gastric Cancer. 2016;19:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved HRQL after gastrectomy is mainly due to less pulmonary and reflux-related symptoms. Our findings may influence the choice of the surgical strategy for patients with AEG. ..
  13. Choi E, Petersen C, Lapierre L, Williams J, Weis V, Goldenring J, et al. Dynamic expansion of gastric mucosal doublecortin-like kinase 1-expressing cells in response to parietal cell loss is regulated by gastrin. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate that loss of parietal cells leads to the reversible emergence of a novel Dclk1-expressing sensory cell population in the gastric mucosa. ..
  14. Jiang X, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Yang J, Asico L, Chen W, et al. Gastrin stimulates renal dopamine production by increasing the renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E1-E10 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone that is involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure...
  15. Lee S, Kim S, Han S, An G, Kim S. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and ?-amylase expression in rice. J Plant Physiol. 2017;214:116-122 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, five ?-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and ?-amylase gene expression. ..
  16. Tang Z, Zhao M, Ji J, Yang G, Hu F, He J, et al. Overexpression of gastrin and c-met protein involved in human gastric carcinomas and intestinal metaplasia. Oncol Rep. 2004;11:333-9 pubmed
    ..investigated the expression of c-met and c-erbB2 protein in human gastric adenocarcinomas, but the expression of gastrin protein in human gastric cancer and the relationship between gastrin and c-met are unknown...
  17. Akutsu T, Saito H, Iwase H, Watanabe K, Takamura A, Sakurada K, et al. The applicability of ELISA detection of gastric mucosa-expressing proteins for the identification of vomit. Int J Legal Med. 2017;131:359-364 pubmed publisher
    ..of vomit stains, we focused on four gastric mucosa-expressing proteins, pepsinogen I (PGA), pepsinogen II (PGC), gastrin (GAST), and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC)...
  18. Maheshwari A, Gibreel A, Bhattacharya S, Johnson N. Dynamic tests of ovarian reserve: a systematic review of diagnostic accuracy. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:717-34 pubmed
    ..There is an urgent need for consensus on the performance of these tests and the definition of normality, if their use is to be continued. However, given the present level of evidence, these tests should be completely abandoned. ..
  19. Helgadóttir H, Metz D, Yang Y, Rhim A, Björnsson E. The effects of long-term therapy with proton pump inhibitors on meal stimulated gastrin. Dig Liver Dis. 2014;46:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To measure fasting and postprandial gastrin in patients on long-term proton-pump inhibitor treatment and correlate gastrin levels with the duration of ..
  20. Kimura H, Ohtsuka T, Fujimoto T, Date K, Matsunaga T, Cases A, et al. Different Hormonal Expression Patterns Between Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Metastatic Sites. Pancreas. 2016;45:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of 4 representative hormones, gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, in both primary and metastatic lesions, were analyzed by ..
  21. Flejter W, Barcroft C, Guo S, Lynch E, Boehnke M, Chandrasekharappa S, et al. Multicolor FISH mapping with Alu-PCR-amplified YAC clone DNA determines the order of markers in the BRCA1 region on chromosome 17q12-q21. Genomics. 1993;17:624-31 pubmed
    ..Statistical analysis of the combined data suggests that the order of markers in the BRCA1 region is cen-THRA1-TOP2-GAS-OF2-17HSD-248yg9-RNU 2-OF3-PPY/p131-EPB3-Mfd188- WNT3-HOX2-GP3A-tel...
  22. Fang Z, Zhou L, Jiang S, Cao L, Yu L. UNC50 prompts G1/S transition and proliferation in HCC by regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119338 pubmed publisher
    ..matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), aldose reductase-like 1 (AKR1B10), cell surface-associated mucin 1 (MUC1), and gastrin (GAST). Moreover, UNC50 influenced EGF, inducing cell cycle entry by affecting cell surface EGFR amounts...
  23. Arbeille P, Provost R, Zuj K, Vincent N. Measurements of jugular, portal, femoral, and calf vein cross-sectional area for the assessment of venous blood redistribution with long duration spaceflight (Vessel Imaging Experiment). Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115:2099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is needed to determine the consequences of this fluid stagnation on the brain, eye, splanchnic, and pelvic organ morphology and or function. ..
  24. Kim Y, Kim J, Yoon J, Kim D, Hong M, Seo Y. Characterization of 4 TaGAST genes during spike development and seed germination and their response to exogenous phytohormones in common wheat. Mol Biol Rep. 2016;43:1435-1449 pubmed
    ..TaGAST4 was not expressed in all developmental stages. TaGAST1 and TaCypA1 might be expressed antagonistically during wheat spike development. ..
  25. Higashimoto Y, Himeno S, Shinomura Y, Nagao K, Tamura T, Tarui S. Purification and structural determination of urinary NH2-terminal big gastrin fragments. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;160:1364-70 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that there existed extremely abundant NH2-terminal big gastrin immunoreactivity (NT G-34-IR) in human urine...
  26. Lund T, Geurts van Kessel A, Haun S, Dixon J. The genes for human gastrin and cholecystokinin are located on different chromosomes. Hum Genet. 1986;73:77-80 pubmed
    The polypeptide hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin are structurally related, having the identical pentapeptide GWMDF located at their C-terminus...
  27. Vierhapper H, Nowotny P, Bieglmayer C, Gessl A. Prevalence of hypergastrinemia in patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism: impact for calcitonin?. Horm Res. 2002;57:85-9 pubmed
    ..the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and to determine whether gastrin-induced hypercalcitonemia could explain the high prevalence of thyroid C-cell hyperplasia among patients with ..
  28. He H, Yang X, Xun H, Lou X, Li S, Zhang Z, et al. Over-expression of GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in Arabidopsis and soybean. Plant Cell Rep. 2017;36:1441-1455 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in plants most likely by affecting the expression of signal transduction and immune response genes. ..
  29. Rozengurt E, Walsh J. Gastrin, CCK, signaling, and cancer. Annu Rev Physiol. 2001;63:49-76 pubmed
    b>Gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric antrum, has been identified as the circulating hormone responsible for stimulation of acid secretion from the parietal cell...
  30. Konturek P, Konturek S, Bielanski W, Kania J, Zuchowicz M, Hartwich A, et al. Influence of COX-2 inhibition by rofecoxib on serum and tumor progastrin and gastrin levels and expression of PPARgamma and apoptosis-related proteins in gastric cancer patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:2005-17 pubmed
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and certain growth hormones, such as gastrin, have been related to gastric carcinogenesis, but little is known about the factors that enhance this COX-2 expression and whether specific blockade of this ..
  31. Do C, Bertrand C, Palasse J, Delisle M, Shulkes A, Cohen Jonathan Moyal E, et al. A new biomarker that predicts colonic neoplasia outcome in patients with hyperplastic colonic polyps. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:675-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that progastrin expression evaluation in hyperplastic polyps is an efficient prognostic tool to determine patients with higher risk of metachronous neoplasms who could benefit from an adapted follow-up. ..
  32. Koh T, Wang T. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the murine gastrin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:34-41 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone important in acid regulation, growth of enterochromaffin cells of the oxyntic mucosa, and smooth muscle contractility. We isolated a genomic clone of gastrin from a SV-129 murine genomic library...
  33. Wang J, Xin B, Wang H, He X, Wei W, Zhang T, et al. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-?B signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2016;346:74-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues...
  34. Polosatov M, Klimov P, Masevich C, Samartsev M, Wunsch E. Interaction of synthetic human big gastrin with blood proteins of man and animals. Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg). 1979;26:154-9 pubmed
    Radio gel and affin chromatography were used to study big gastrin interaction with blood proteins of man and animals. The experiments showed that big gastrin interacts with serum proteins in vitro...
  35. Smith K, Kovac S, Anderson G, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Circulating gastrin is increased in hemochromatosis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6195-8 pubmed
    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively...
  36. Nasrollahzadeh D, Aghcheli K, Sotoudeh M, Shakeri R, Persson E, Islami F, et al. Accuracy and cut-off values of pepsinogens I, II and gastrin 17 for diagnosis of gastric fundic atrophy: influence of gastritis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26957 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured serum pepsinogens I (PGI) and II (PGII), gastrin 17 (G-17), and antibodies against whole H...
  37. Stone S, Mierke D, Jackson G. Evidence for a C-terminal structural motif in gastrin and its bioactive fragments in membrane mimetic media. Peptides. 2007;28:1561-71 pubmed
    The conformational preferences of human little gastrin, [Nle(15)] gastrin-17, and its short analogues, gastrin-4 and [beta-Ala(1)] gastrin-5, which include the C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) crucial for gastrin ..
  38. Leinskold T, Adrian T, Arnelo U, Larsson J, Permert J. Gastrointestinal growth factors and pancreatic islet hormones during postoperative IGF-I supplementation in man. J Endocrinol. 2000;167:331-8 pubmed
    ..growth factors (epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, IGF-II), gastrointestinal hormones (gastrin, enteroglucagon, peptide YY), and islet hormones (insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and pancreatic ..
  39. Hur K, Kwak M, Lee H, Park D, Lee H, Lee H, et al. Expression of gastrin and its receptor in human gastric cancer tissues. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:85-91 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a growth factor of cancerous and normal cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and its effect is known to be mediated by gastrin/cholecystokinin B (CCKB) receptor...
  40. Rau T, Sonst A, Rogler A, Burnat G, Neumann H, Oeckl K, et al. Gastrin mediated down regulation of ghrelin and its pathophysiological role in atrophic gastritis. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;64:719-25 pubmed
    ..Using confocal laser microscopy, the gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor (CCKB) could be detected on normal ghrelin cells as well as in autoimmune gastritis...
  41. Jang J, Kim S, Ku J, Park Y, Park J. Presence of CCK-A, B receptors and effect of gastrin and cholecystokinin on growth of pancreatobiliary cancer cell lines. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:803-9 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) and their specific antagonists on the growth of pancreatic and biliary tract cancer cell lines...
  42. Cayrol C, Bertrand C, Kowalski Chauvel A, Daulhac L, Cohen Jonathan Moyal E, Ferrand A, et al. ?v integrin: a new gastrin target in human pancreatic cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4488-95 pubmed publisher
    To analyse ?v integrin expression induced by gastrin in pancreatic cancer models...
  43. Ferrand A, Lachal S, Bramante G, Kovac S, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. Stimulation of proliferation in the colorectal mucosa by gastrin precursors is blocked by desferrioxamine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G220-7 pubmed publisher
    Precursors of the peptide hormone gastrin stimulate proliferation in the colorectal mucosa and promote the development of colorectal carcinoma...
  44. Kumar J, Steele I, Moore A, Murugesan S, Rakonczay Z, Venglovecz V, et al. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;309:G78-86 pubmed publisher
    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood...
  45. Lai X, Umbricht C, Fisher K, Bishop J, Shi Q, Chen S. Identification of novel biomarker and therapeutic target candidates for diagnosis and treatment of follicular carcinoma. J Proteomics. 2017;166:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..proto-oncogene protein (MYC), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A), gastrin (GAST), N-myc proto-oncogene protein (MYCN), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), and interleukin-4 (IL4)...
  46. Ruppe E, Schrenzel J. Messages from the second International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg2). Microbes Infect. 2018;20:222-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, assessing the clinical value of CMg, implementing a quality process, storage of data and the ethics of CMg are emerging challenges. ..
  47. Dockray G. Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Gastrin. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;18:555-68 pubmed
    ..Multiple active products are generated from the precursor, preprogastrin, including the well-characterized amidated gastrins acting at the cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2, or gastrin-CCK(B)) ..
  48. Rehfeld J, Hansen C, Johnsen A. Post-poly(Glu) cleavage and degradation modified by O-sulfated tyrosine: a novel post-translational processing mechanism. EMBO J. 1995;14:389-96 pubmed
    Expression of bioactive peptides requires several modifications of the primary translation product. Gastrin, a vertebrate gut hormone, occurs in multiple forms, including a bioactive fragment of the predominant gastrin-17...
  49. Dranitsina A, Morgaienko O, Grebinyk D, Ostapchenko L. EXPRESSION OF REG1Α, GAST AND TGFB1 GENES IN CONDITIONS OF STRESSINDUCED GASTRIC MUCOUS LESIONS DEVELOPMENT AND HEALING IN RATS. Fiziol Zh. 2016;62:53-61 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Gast gene expression did not confirm that gastrin stimulated Reg1a expression in gastric mucosa under water immersion restraint stress...
  50. Rico Sanz J, Thomas E, Jenkinson G, Mierisova S, Iles R, Bell J. Diversity in levels of intracellular total creatine and triglycerides in human skeletal muscles observed by (1)H-MRS. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:2068-72 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 19.2 mmol/kg dry wt (TA)]. It is proposed that the differences in metabolite levels may be due to the differences in fiber-type composition and deposition of metabolites due to the adaptation of different muscles during locomotion...
  51. Al Menhali A, Keeley T, Demitrack E, Samuelson L. Gastrin induces parathyroid hormone-like hormone expression in gastric parietal cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;312:G649-G657 pubmed publisher
    ..The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and ..
  52. Huang C, Hsu C, Huang K, Su H, Weng S. Preprandial single oral dose of sitagliptin does not affect circulating ghrelin and gastrin levels in normal subjects. Pharmacology. 2010;85:131-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of an oral dose of sitagliptin on the secretion of ghrelin and gastrin hormones. Ten healthy volunteers were recruited in this study...
  53. Kikuchi R, Abe Y, Iijima K, Koike T, Ara N, Uno K, et al. Low serum levels of pepsinogen and gastrin 17 are predictive of extensive gastric atrophy with high-risk of early gastric cancer. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;223:35-44 pubmed
    Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a well-recognized high-risk condition for developing gastric cancer (GC). Gastrin 17 (G17), a hormone secreted from antral G cells, regulates gastric acid secretion, and its serum level is a possible indicator ..
  54. Mukawa K, Fujii S, Takeda J, Kitajima K, Tominaga K, Chibana Y, et al. Analysis of K-ras mutations and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and gastrin protein in laterally spreading tumors. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;20:1584-90 pubmed
    ..We also performed immunohistochemistry to analyze cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and gastrin abnormalities. The incidence of K-ras mutation was 50.0% in protruded type tumors, 76.5% in LST-G, and 26...
  55. Kovac S, Ferrand A, Esteve J, Mason A, Baldwin G. Definition of the residues required for the interaction between glycine-extended gastrin and transferrin in vitro. FEBS J. 2009;276:4866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The peptides amidated gastrin(17) (Gamide) and glycine-extended gastrin(17) (Ggly) are well known for their roles in controlling acid secretion ..
  56. Zub Pokrowiecka A, Rembiasz K, Konturek P, Budzynski A, Konturek S, Winiarski M, et al. Ghrelin and gastrin in advanced gastric cancer before and after gastrectomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:449-58 pubmed publisher
    To investigate plasma ghrelin, gastrin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) expression in advanced gastric cancer (GC) before and after resection...
  57. Ito R, Sato K, Helmer T, Jay G, Agarwal K. Structural analysis of the gene encoding human gastrin: the large intron contains an Alu sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:4662-6 pubmed
    ..sequences of the human cDNA and the genomic clone revealed that the aspartic acid codon at position 71 of preprogastrin is interrupted by the small intron (130 base pairs)...
  58. Smith J, Hamory M, Verderame M, Zagon I. Quantitative analysis of gastrin mRNA and peptide in normal and cancerous human pancreas. Int J Mol Med. 1998;2:309-15 pubmed
    b>Gastrin has been shown to stimulate growth of human pancreatic cancer, and does so in an autocrine fashion...
  59. Pauwels S, Najdovski T, Dimaline R, Lee C, Deschodt Lanckman M. Degradation of human gastrin and CCK by endopeptidase 24.11: differential behaviour of the sulphated and unsulphated peptides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;996:82-8 pubmed
    The degradation of human sulphated heptadecapeptide gastrin (G17s) by human endopeptidase 24.11 was studied in vitro...
  60. Varro A, Dockray G. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A. Biochem J. 1993;295 ( Pt 3):813-9 pubmed
    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide ..
  61. Woodman C, Schrage W, Rush J, Ray C, Price E, Hasser E, et al. Hindlimb unweighting decreases endothelium-dependent dilation and eNOS expression in soleus not gastrocnemius. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:1091-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that HLU decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, eNOS expression, and SOD-1 expression primarily in arteries of Sol muscle where blood flow is reduced during HLU...
  62. Haigh C, Attwood S, Thompson D, Jankowski J, Kirton C, Pritchard D, et al. Gastrin induces proliferation in Barrett's metaplasia through activation of the CCK2 receptor. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:615-25 pubmed
    Factors associated with the development and malignant progression of Barrett's esophagus are poorly understood. Gastrin is a mitogen capable of inducing growth in normal and malignant gastrointestinal mucosa...
  63. Zhang Z, Wu S, Wang B, Su Y, Jin J, Kong J, et al. Sphincter of Oddi hypomotility and its relationship with duodenal-biliary reflux, plasma motilin and serum gastrin. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:4077-81 pubmed
    ..with duodenal-biliary reflux have sphincter of Oddi hypomotility, by measuring the level of plasma and serum gastrin of the patients...
  64. Bhandari S, Bakke I, Kumar J, Beisvag V, Sandvik A, Thommesen L, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is activated by gastrin and involved in gastrin-induced migration and invasion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to explore a possible link between CTGF and gastrin in gastric epithelial cells and to study the role of CTGF in gastrin induced migration and invasion of AGS-GR ..
  65. Rao S, Solum G, Niederdorfer B, Nørsett K, Bjørkøy G, Thommesen L. Gastrin activates autophagy and increases migration and survival of gastric adenocarcinoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:68 pubmed publisher
    The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a growth-promoting effect in both normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue. Gastrin mediates its effect via the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCKBR/CCK2R)...
  66. Sereti E, Gavriil A, Agnantis N, Golematis V, Voloudakis Baltatzis I. Immunoelectron study of somatostatin, gastrin and glucagon in human colorectal adenocarcinomas and liver metastases. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:2117-23 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role and function of somatostatin, glucagon and gastrin in 35 colorectal adenocarcinoma and 25 liver metastases. The investigation was carried out at the electron immunocytochemistry level...
  67. Koh T, Field J, Varro A, Liloglou T, Fielding P, Cui G, et al. Glycine-extended gastrin promotes the growth of lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:196-201 pubmed
    The less processed forms of gastrin have recently been shown to act as trophic factors for both normal and malignant colonic cells...
  68. El Ali Z, Fichna M, Piniewska J, Kosowicz J, Grzymisławski M. Chromogranin A as a useful neuroendocrine marker in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum chromogranin A, gastrin, and gastric APC-Ab levels were determined in 40 patients with AAD using commercially available kits...
  69. Kim O, Yoon J, Choi W, Ashktorab H, Smoot D, Nam S, et al. Gastrokine 1 inhibits gastrin-induced cell proliferation. Gastric Cancer. 2016;19:381-391 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether GKN1 contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal homeostasis by regulating gastrin-induced gastric epithelial cell growth...
  70. Jung J, Choi K, Koh Y, Park Y, Jung H, Lee G, et al. Risk factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumor with normal serum gastrin level. Hepatogastroenterology. 2015;62:207-13 pubmed
    Locoregional gastric carcinoids with normal serum gastrin level have been recommended radical resection regardless of tumor size or depth of invasion...
  71. Zhuang K, Zhang L, Zhang X, Tang H, Zhang J, Yan Y, et al. Gastrin induces multidrug resistance via the degradation of p27Kip1 in the gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:2091-2100 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gastrin (GAS), a key gastrointestinal (GI) hormone, was found to be involved in tumor formation, progression, and ..
  72. Ansorge N, Jüttner S, Cramer T, Schmidt W, Hocker M, Schmitz F. An upstream CRE-E-box element is essential for gastrin-dependent activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene in human colon cancer cells. Regul Pept. 2007;144:25-33 pubmed
    ..anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk for these malignancies, whereas high serum gastrin levels elevate this risk...
  73. Wang T, Zhao L, Yang Y, Tian H, Suo W, Yan M, et al. EGR1 is critical for gastrin-dependent upregulation of anion exchanger 2 in gastric cancer cells. FEBS J. 2013;280:174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that gastrin, a major gastrointestinal hormone, upregulates the expression of AE2 mRNA and protein in a cholecystokinin B ..
  74. Fritsch W, Hausamen T, Scholten T. [Gastrointestinal hormones. I. Hormones of the gastrin group]. Z Gastroenterol. 1977;15:264-76 pubmed
    b>Gastrin is a peptide hormone originating from G-cells of the antrum, the duodenum and the proximal jejunum...
  75. Bentley P, Kenner G, Sheppard R. Structures of human gastrins I and II. Nature. 1966;209:583-5 pubmed
  76. Peitz U, Wex T, Vieth M, Stolte M, Willich S, Labenz J, et al. Correlation of serum pepsinogens and gastrin-17 with atrophic gastritis in gastroesophageal reflux patients: a matched-pairs study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for the non-invasive diagnosis of atrophic gastritis has been previously proposed, based on serum pepsinogen-I, gastrin-17, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies...
  77. Zhou J, Xie Y, Zhao Y, Wang S, Li Y. Human gastrin mRNA expression up-regulated by Helicobacter pylori CagA through MEK/ERK and JAK2-signaling pathways in gastric cancer cells. Gastric Cancer. 2011;14:322-31 pubmed publisher
    Helicobacter pylori-cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and gastrin are believed to play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis, but their interaction has been incompletely clear...
  78. Leja M, Kupcinskas L, Funka K, Sudraba A, Jonaitis L, Ivanauskas A, et al. Value of gastrin-17 in detecting antral atrophy. Adv Med Sci. 2011;56:145-50 pubmed publisher
    Decreased plasma gastrin-17 (G-17), particularly after protein stimulation, is indicative of atrophy in the antral stomach mucosa. Available data on the value of this biomarker is inconclusive...
  79. Kapp E, Visser H, Sampson S, Malan S, Streicher E, Foka G, et al. Versatility of 7-Substituted Coumarin Molecules as Antimycobacterial Agents, Neuronal Enzyme Inhibitors and Neuroprotective Agents. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..These coumarin molecules are thus interesting lead compounds that may provide insight into the design of new antimicrobacterial and neuroprotective agents. ..
  80. Grow L, Kodak T, Clements A. An Evaluation of Instructive Feedback to Teach Play Behavior to a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Anal Pract. 2017;10:313-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Instructive feedback resulted in the emergence of play behaviors during tabletop instruction and a play area of a classroom. We discuss the results in terms of clinical practice and future research...
  81. Kariya Y, Kato K, Hayashizaki Y, Himeno S, Tarui S, Matsubara K. Expression of human gastrin gene in normal and gastrinoma tissues. Gene. 1986;50:345-52 pubmed
    The complete sequence of the human gastrin gene is reported here. This gene consists of three exons. Nine Alu family sequences are found within the gene and in the surrounding region...
  82. Leja M, Kupcinskas L, Funka K, Sudraba A, Jonaitis L, Ivanauskas A, et al. The validity of a biomarker method for indirect detection of gastric mucosal atrophy versus standard histopathology. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:2377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the current study was to validate a biomarker method (pepsinogen I/II ratio and gastrin-17) for indirect detection of atrophy of the stomach mucosa versus standard histopathology in Caucasian and Asian ..
  83. Tomita H, Takaishi S, Menheniott T, Yang X, Shibata W, Jin G, et al. Inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis by the hormone gastrin is mediated by suppression of TFF1 epigenetic silencing. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Although hormones have been associated with cancer risk, the mechanisms have not been determined. The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a suppressive effect on antral gastric carcinogenesis.
  84. Wiborg O, Berglund L, Boel E, Norris F, Norris K, Rehfeld J, et al. Structure of a human gastrin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:1067-9 pubmed
    A gastrin gene was isolated from a genomic library of human DNA. The human gastrin gene is about 4100 base pairs long and contains two intervening sequences...
  85. Finley G, Koski R, Melhem M, Pipas J, Meisler A. Expression of the gastrin gene in the normal human colon and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 1993;53:2919-26 pubmed
    b>Gastrin, produced in the G-cells of the gastric antrum and regulating acid secretion in the stomach, also acts as a trophic factor in the gastrointestinal tract...
  86. Kovac S, Xiao L, Shulkes A, Patel O, Baldwin G. Gastrin increases its own synthesis in gastrointestinal cancer cells via the CCK2 receptor. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4413-8 pubmed publisher
    The involvement of the gastrointestinal hormone gastrin in the development of gastrointestinal cancer is highly controversial...
  87. Rehfeld J, Johnsen A. Identification of gastrin component I as gastrin-71. The largest possible bioactive progastrin product. Eur J Biochem. 1994;223:765-73 pubmed
    b>Gastrin component I is the largest hormonally active form of gastrin. In order to determine its structure, we isolated progastrin-derived peptides from normal human antral tissue...
  88. Bishop L, Dimaline R, Blackmore C, Deavall D, Dockray G, Varro A. Modulation of the cleavage of the gastrin precursor by prohormone phosphorylation. Gastroenterology. 1998;115:1154-62 pubmed
    ..Hamster insulinoma cells were stably transfected with wild-type rat preprogastrin and phosphorylation site mutants; biosynthesis was studied by a pulse-chase protocol...
  89. Mao J, Wu P, Yang Y, Wu J, Hu J, Huang H. [Relationships of the mRNA and protein expression of gastrin with Fas/FasL and caspases in colorectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;11:554-7 pubmed
    To examine the correlation between the mRNA and proteins expressions of gastrin(GAS), and the association of protein expression of GAS with apoptosis index(AI) and apoptosis regulation gene Fas/FasL, caspases in colorectal cancer...
  90. Xiao L, Kovac S, Chang M, Shulkes A, Baldwin G, Patel O. Induction of gastrin expression in gastrointestinal cells by hypoxia or cobalt is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Endocrinology. 2012;153:3006-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Gastrin and its precursors have been shown to promote mitogenesis and angiogenesis in gastrointestinal tumors. Hypoxia stimulates tumor growth, but its effect on gastrin gene regulation has not been examined in detail...
  91. Kimoto Y. A single human cell expresses all messenger ribonucleic acids: the arrow of time in a cell. Mol Gen Genet. 1998;258:233-9 pubmed
    ..homeobox 4A, interleukin 2, cluster of differentiation 8, progesterone receptor, parathyroid hormone, gastrin, cholecystokinin/pancreozymin, glucagon, insulin, enkephalin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic ..