Gene Symbol: GAPDHS
Description: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic
Alias: GAPD2, GAPDH-2, GAPDS, HEL-S-278, HSD-35, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific, epididymis secretory protein Li 278, spermatogenic cell-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Species: human
Products:     GAPDHS

Top Publications

  1. Benham F, Povey S. Members of the human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-related gene family map to dispersed chromosomal locations. Genomics. 1989;5:209-14 pubmed
    ..Together, these sites constitute the known expressed locus, the known X-linked pseudogene, and 15 GAPD-like loci. ..
  2. Welch J, Barbee R, Magyar P, Bunch D, O Brien D. Expression of the spermatogenic cell-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) in rat testis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:1052-60 pubmed
    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined...
  3. Welch J, Brown P, O Brien D, Magyar P, Bunch D, Mori C, et al. Human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-2 gene is expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells. J Androl. 2000;21:328-38 pubmed
    ..We have now cloned and sequenced the cDNA for the human homologue of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD2) and determined the structure of the gene...
  4. Lim S, Chan C, Chen K, Tuan H. The shape-controlled synthesis of gallium-palladium (GaPd2) nanomaterials as high-performance electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Nanoscale. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a facile hot injection method and successfully synthesized well-dispersed and shape-controlled GaPd2 nanomaterials including polyhedrons, nanoparticles and nanowires...
  5. Wang G. Human antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014;7:545-94 pubmed publisher
  6. Zeng H, Xie Y, Liu G, Lin D, He C, Shi H. Molecular identification of GAPDHs in cassava highlights the antagonism of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s in plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight. Plant Mol Biol. 2018;97:201-214 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, 14 MeGAPDHs including 6 cytosol GAPDHs (MeGAPCs) were identified from cassava, and the transcripts of 14 MeGAPDHs in response to Xanthomonas axonopodis ..
  7. Hu Y, Zhang E, Huang L, Li W, Liang P, Wang X, et al. Expression profiles of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Clonorchis sinensis: a glycolytic enzyme with plasminogen binding capacity. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:4543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs) from many species have functions other than their catalytic role in glycolysis...
  8. Makshakova O, Semenyuk P, Kuravsky M, Ermakova E, Zuev Y, Muronetz V. Structural basis for regulation of stability and activity in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases. Differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics. J Struct Biol. 2015;190:224-35 pubmed publisher
    Tissue specific isoforms of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, somatic (GAPD) and sperm-specific (GAPDS), have been reported to display different levels of both stability and catalytic activity...
  9. Liu J, Yang L, Gong L, Gu Y, Wang Y, Sun C, et al. Effect of GAPDS overexpression on high glucose-induced oxidative damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;500:191-195 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we successfully constructed TM3-GAPDS stable strain and investigated the role of sperm specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) on high ..

More Information


  1. Chen J, Xia X, Wang L, Jia Y, Nan P, Li L, et al. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization. Theriogenology. 2015;83:1416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis...
  2. Camacho Jiménez L, Peregrino Uriarte A, Martínez Quintana J, Yepiz Plascencia G. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning, characterization and expression during hypoxia. Mar Environ Res. 2018;138:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..vannamei GAPDH (LvGAPDH), which is highly similar in sequence and structure to other animal GAPDHs. During hypoxia, LvGAPDH expression is significantly induced in gills but not in hepatopancreas, suggesting that ..
  3. Hashemitabar M, Sabbagh S, Orazizadeh M, Ghadiri A, Bahmanzadeh M. A proteomic analysis on human sperm tail: comparison between normozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins might be used as markers for the better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions, targets for male contraceptive development, and to predict embryo quality. ..
  4. Jung D, Kim W, Seo S, Oh E, Yim S, Ha H, et al. Chemical targeting of GAPDH moonlighting function in cancer cells reveals its role in tubulin regulation. Chem Biol. 2014;21:1533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the triazine small molecule, GAPDS, that targets the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)...
  5. Henry E, Fung N, Liu J, Drakakaki G, Coaker G. Beyond glycolysis: GAPDHs are multi-functional enzymes involved in regulation of ROS, autophagy, and plant immune responses. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005199 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, cell biological and genetic approaches were used to investigate the role of GAPDHs during plant immune responses...
  6. Kuravsky M, Barinova K, Marakhovskaya A, Eldarov M, Semenyuk P, Muronetz V, et al. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is stabilized by additional proline residues and an interdomain salt bridge. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1844:1820-6 pubmed publisher
    Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) exhibits enhanced stability compared to the somatic isoenzyme (GAPD)...
  7. Margaryan H, Dorosh A, Capkova J, Maňásková Postlerová P, Philimonenko A, Hozak P, et al. Characterization and possible function of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic protein GAPDHS in mammalian sperm. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional analysis of GAPDHS from the sperm acrosome was performed in the boar model using sperm/zona pellucida binding assay...
  8. Liu J, Wang Y, Gong L, Sun C. Oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase decreases sperm motility in diabetes mellitus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;465:245-8 pubmed publisher
    The relation between the activity of the sperm specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) and the motility of sperms in diabetic men was investigated...
  9. Virk S, Bertone A, Hussein H, Toth J, Kaido M, Khan S. The temporal expression of adipokines during spinal fusion. Spine J. 2017;17:1897-1906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that leptin expression may be upstream of VEGF expression during spinal fusion, and both appear to play an important role in bone spinal fusion. ..
  10. Kang J, Choi Y. Simulation study of PET detector configuration with thick light guide and GAPD array having large-area microcells for high effective quantum efficiency. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2016;131:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of PET detector modules based on GAPDs was considerably improved by using the thick light guide...
  11. Danshina P, Qu W, Temple B, Rojas R, Miley M, Machius M, et al. Structural analyses to identify selective inhibitors of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme. Mol Hum Reprod. 2016;22:410-26 pubmed publisher
    Detailed structural comparisons of sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS) and the somatic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) isozyme should facilitate the identification of selective ..
  12. Machado A, Silva M, Iulek J. Structural studies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Naegleria gruberi, the first one from phylum Percolozoa. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2018;1866:581-588 pubmed publisher 313 is highly conserved, as expected, with the exception of Asn145, present only in NgGAPDH, while the other GAPDHs present either Ser or Thr on the corresponding position...
  13. Barinova K, Khomyakova E, Kuravsky M, Schmalhausen E, Muronetz V. Denaturing action of adjuvant affects specificity of polyclonal antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:1265-1270 pubmed publisher
    ..a rabbit with an adjuvant-free solution of recombinant sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (dN-GAPDS) resulted in production of antibodies recognizing only native conformation of dN-GAPDS and exhibiting no cross-..
  14. Evdokimov V, Barinova K, Turovetskiĭ V, Muronetz V, Schmalhausen E. Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide Activate the Antioxidant Defense System in Human Sperm Cells. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2015;80:1178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..on sperm motility and on the activity of the sperm enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) was investigated...
  15. Fu J, Yao R, Luo Y, Yang D, Cao Y, Qiu Y, et al. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;364:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) was considered to be a candidate biomarker of immune infertility...
  16. Zeng L, Deng R, Guo Z, Yang S, Deng X. Genome-wide identification and characterization of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes family in wheat (Triticum aestivum). BMC Genomics. 2016;17:240 pubmed publisher
    ..The qRT-PCR results revealed that wheat GAPDHs were involved in several abiotic stress response...
  17. Westhoff D, Kamp G. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is bound to the fibrous sheath of mammalian spermatozoa. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 15):1821-9 pubmed
    ..The inverse compartmentation of the glycolytic enzyme and mitochondria in the mammalian sperm flagella suggests that ATP-production in the principal piece mainly occurs by glycolysis and in the midpiece by respiration. ..
  18. Ercolani L, Florence B, Denaro M, Alexander M. Isolation and complete sequence of a functional human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:15335-41 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a probe derived from an intron segment of the isolated gene detected only a single copy of the GAPDH gene. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that the human genome encodes a single functional GAPDH gene. ..
  19. Goodwin L, Karabinus D, Pergolizzi R, Benoff S. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-1C subunit mRNA is present in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000;6:127-36 pubmed
  20. Bone W, Jones A, Morin C, Nieschlag E, Cooper T. Susceptibility of glycolytic enzyme activity and motility of spermatozoa from rat, mouse, and human to inhibition by proven and putative chlorinated antifertility compounds in vitro. J Androl. 2001;22:464-70 pubmed
  21. Kodama R, Kondo T, Yokote H, Jing X, Sawada T, Hironishi M, et al. Nuclear localization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not involved in the initiation of apoptosis induced by 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridium iodide (MPP+). Genes Cells. 2005;10:1211-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have concluded that a simple nuclear localization of GAPDH does not induce apoptosis, and that MPP+-induced apoptosis is not caused by nuclear translocation of GAPDH. ..
  22. Shchutskaya Y, Elkina Y, Kuravsky M, Bragina E, Schmalhausen E. Investigation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human sperms. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:185-91 pubmed
    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDs) was purified from human sperms and properties of the enzyme were investigated. After sonication of sperms, the most part of GAPDs is associated with the insoluble cell fraction...
  23. Sevostyanova I, Kulikova K, Kuravsky M, Schmalhausen E, Muronetz V. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is expressed in melanoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:649-53 pubmed publisher
    Sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) is normally expressed only in sperms, but not in somatic tissues...
  24. Li Y, Nowotny P, Holmans P, Smemo S, Kauwe J, Hinrichs A, et al. Association of late-onset Alzheimer's disease with genetic variation in multiple members of the GAPD gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15688-93 pubmed
    ..Our observations raise the possibility that GAPD genes are AD risk factors, a hypothesis that is consistent with the role of GAPD in neuronal apoptosis. ..
  25. Peterson R, Freund M. Effects of (H + ), (Na + ), (K + ) and certain membrane-active drugs on glycolysis, motility, and ATP synthesis by human spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1973;8:350-7 pubmed
  26. Lamson D, House A, Danshina P, Sexton J, Sanyang K, O Brien D, et al. Recombinant human sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) is expressed at high yield as an active homotetramer in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;75:104-13 pubmed publisher
    The sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) isoform is a promising contraceptive target because it is specific to male germ cells, essential for sperm motility and male fertility, and well suited to ..
  27. Tatjewski M, Gruca A, Plewczynski D, Grynberg M. The proline-rich region of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human sperm may bind SH3 domains, as revealed by a bioinformatic study of low-complexity protein segments. Mol Reprod Dev. 2016;83:144-8 pubmed publisher
    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human sperm (GAPDHS) provides energy to the sperm flagellum, and is therefore essential for sperm motility and male fertility...
  28. Elkina Y, Kuravsky M, Bragina E, Kurilo L, Khayat S, Sukhomlinova M, et al. Detection of a mutation in the intron of Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in patients with fibrous sheath dysplasia of the sperm flagellum. Andrologia. 2017;49: pubmed publisher
    ..Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) is a glycolytic enzyme that is tightly associated with the fibrous sheath of the sperm flagellum...
  29. Lin P, Martin E, Bronson P, Browning Large C, Small G, Schmechel D, et al. Exploring the association of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006;67:64-8 pubmed
    ..003). The GAPD gene and its pseudogene may play a role in the development of late-onset Alzheimer disease. However, the effect, if any, is likely to be limited. ..
  30. Bertram L, McQueen M, Mullin K, Blacker D, Tanzi R. Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: the AlzGene database. Nat Genet. 2007;39:17-23 pubmed
    ..effects, we pinpointed over a dozen potential Alzheimer disease susceptibility genes (ACE, CHRNB2, CST3, ESR1, GAPDHS, IDE, MTHFR, NCSTN, PRNP, PSEN1, TF, TFAM and TNF) with statistically significant allelic summary odds ratios (..
  31. Heinz F, Freimüller B. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human tissues. Methods Enzymol. 1982;89 Pt D:301-5 pubmed
  32. Huang Z, Danshina P, Mohr K, Qu W, Goodson S, O Connell T, et al. Sperm function, protein phosphorylation, and metabolism differ in mice lacking successive sperm-specific glycolytic enzymes. Biol Reprod. 2017;97:586-597 pubmed publisher
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDHS) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), two isozymes restricted to the male germline, catalyze successive steps in the glycolytic pathway in mammalian sperm...
  33. Elkina Y, Kuravsky M, El darov M, Stogov S, Muronetz V, Schmalhausen E. Recombinant human sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: structural basis for enhanced stability. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:2207-12 pubmed publisher
    Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) is bound to the fibrous sheath of the sperm flagellum through the hydrophobic N-terminal domain of the enzyme molecule. Expression of human GAPDS in E...
  34. Wang F, Shu C, Jia L, Zuo X, Zhang Y, Zhou A, et al. Exploration of 16 candidate genes identifies the association of IDE with Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1014.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.38-3.18). Our data suggest that the polymorphism of IDE is associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese. ..
  35. Liu J, Sun C, Zhang C, Wang X, Li J. Location and characterization of GAPDS in male reproduction. Urol Int. 2013;90:449-54 pubmed publisher
    Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) originates from spermatogenic cells of the human testis...
  36. Kuravsky M, Barinova K, Asryants R, Schmalhausen E, Muronetz V. Structural basis for the NAD binding cooperativity and catalytic characteristics of sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochimie. 2015;115:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibited by its homologous isoenzymes: the somatic enzyme (GAPD) and the recombinant sperm-specific enzyme (dN-GAPDS)...
  37. Naletova I, Popova K, Eldarov M, Kuravsky M, Schmalhausen E, Sevostyanova I, et al. Chaperonin TRiC assists the refolding of sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;516:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results suggest that TRiC is likely to be involved in the refolding of sperm-specific proteins. ..
  38. Dorosh A, Tepla O, Zatecka E, Ded L, Koci K, Peknicova J. Expression analysis of MND1/GAJ, SPATA22, GAPDHS and ACR genes in testicular biopsies from non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:42 pubmed publisher
    ..azoospermia who underwent TESE to investigate the expression of spermatogenesis-related genes MND1, SPATA22, GAPDHS and ACR...
  39. Cooper T, Yeung C. Approaches to post-testicular contraception. Asian J Androl. 1999;1:29-36 pubmed
    ..Future contraceptive developments may arise from production of targeted inhibitors, research on the displacement of sperm proteins in the epididymis and interference with sperm plasma membrane ion channels. ..
  40. Yatsenko A, Roy A, Chen R, Ma L, Murthy L, Yan W, et al. Non-invasive genetic diagnosis of male infertility using spermatozoal RNA: KLHL10 mutations in oligozoospermic patients impair homodimerization. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3411-9 pubmed
  41. Neuhaus E, Mashukova A, Barbour J, Wolters D, Hatt H. Novel function of beta-arrestin2 in the nucleus of mature spermatozoa. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3047-56 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the interaction partners of beta-arrestin2 indicates that odorant receptor signaling in spermatozoa may be important for the regulation of gene expression during the early processes of fertilization. ..
  42. Chaikuad A, Shafqat N, Al Mokhtar R, Cameron G, Clarke A, Brady R, et al. Structure and kinetic characterization of human sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDS. Biochem J. 2011;435:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, enzyme characterization of GAPDS has been hampered by the difficulty in producing soluble recombinant protein...