gamma glutamyl hydrolase


Gene Symbol: gamma glutamyl hydrolase
Description: gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
Alias: gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, gamma-Glu-X carboxypeptidase, gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (conjugase, folylpolygammaglutamyl hydrolase)
Species: human
Products:     gamma glutamyl hydrolase

Top Publications

  1. O Connor B, Rotundo R, Nimec Z, McGuire J, Galivan J. Secretion of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in vitro. Cancer Res. 1991;51:3874-81 pubmed
    ..These studies directly establish for the first time the secretion of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in vitro. ..
  2. He P, Varticovski L, Bowman E, Fukuoka J, Welsh J, Miura K, et al. Identification of carboxypeptidase E and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase as biomarkers for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors by cDNA microarray. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:1196-209 pubmed
    ..Thus, cDNA microarray analysis led to the identification of 2 novel biomarkers that should facilitate molecular diagnosis and further study of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. ..
  3. Dervieux T, Greenstein N, Kremer J. Pharmacogenomic and metabolic biomarkers in the folate pathway and their association with methotrexate effects during dosage escalation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3095-103 pubmed
    ..RBC MTXPG levels are a useful means by which to monitor therapy. The genetic associations presented generate hypotheses, and confirmation in independent cohorts is warranted. ..
  4. POLLARD C, Nitz M, Baras A, Williams P, Moskaluk C, Theodorescu D. Genoproteomic mining of urothelial cancer suggests {gamma}-glutamyl hydrolase and diazepam-binding inhibitor as putative urinary markers of outcome after chemotherapy. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1824-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these predictive results were obtained on tumor tissues, the presence of GGH and DBI in urine serves as a rationale for developing them as urinary markers of clinical outcomes for patients treated with neoadjuvant MVAC. ..
  5. Jiang B, Xie Y, Xia D, Liu X. A potential source for PM2.5: Analysis of fine particle generation mechanism in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System by modeling drying and breakage of slurry droplet. Environ Pollut. 2019;246:249-256 pubmed publisher
    ..5 generation, Tg is suggested to be lower than 120 °C. Additionally, a new insight of the elimination effect of gas-gas heater (GGH) on "gypsum rain" in WFGD system is provided. ..
  6. Park B, Yao T, Seo J, Wong E, Mitsuda N, Huang C, et al. Arabidopsis NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION regulates ORE1 homeostasis during senescence induced by nitrogen deficiency. Nat Plants. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identified ORE1 as a downstream target of NLA/PHO2 (UBC24) and showed that post-translational regulation of ORE1 levels determines leaf senescence during nitrogen deficiency. ..
  7. Bernstock J, Peruzzotti Jametti L, Leonardi T, Vicario N, Ye D, Lee Y, et al. SUMOylation promotes survival and integration of neural stem cell grafts in ischemic stroke. EBioMedicine. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..FUND: Intramural Research Program of the NINDS/NIH, the Italian Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (FISM), the Bascule Charitable Trust, NIH-IRTA-OxCam and Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowships. ..
  8. Hegyi M, Arany A, Semsei A, Csordás K, Eipel O, Gézsi A, et al. Pharmacogenetic analysis of high-dose methotrexate treatment in children with osteosarcoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:9388-9398 pubmed publisher
    ..In both univariate and multivariate analyses the SNPs ABCB1 rs928256, ABCC3 rs4793665, GGH rs3758149, and NR1I2 rs3814058 SNPs were relevant. These SNPs should be considered in future dose individualization during treatment. ..
  9. Fan Y, Chen J, Wang Z, Tan T, Li S, Li J, et al. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seedlings response to shading: leaf structure, photosynthesis and proteomic analysis. BMC Plant Biol. 2019;19:34 pubmed publisher
    ..This maybe the major reason that the photosynthetic capacity was decreased in shading. ..

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Liu X, Yu X, Xu X, Zhang X, Zhang X. The protective effects of Poria cocos-derived polysaccharide CMP33 against IBD in mice and its molecular mechanism. Food Funct. 2018;9:5936-5949 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, these results demonstrated the protective effects of CMP33 against IBD in mice through the potential TPG and PMP. ..
  2. Zou Y, Duan H, Li L, Chen X, Wang C. Quantification of polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, monoglutamyl folate vitamers, and total folates in different berries and berry juice by UHPLC-MS/MS. Food Chem. 2019;276:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this is the first study to show the application of recombinant pure GGH for the deconjugation of polyglutamyl folates for folate vitamers and total folates analysis. ..
  3. Nguyen T, Tran H, Vu T, Reisberg S, Noel V, Mattana G, et al. Peptide-modified electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor. Application to Cu2+ detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2019;127:118-125 pubmed publisher
    ..The limit of detection is ca. 10-12 M and the sensitivity in the linear range (10-12 - 10-8 M) is 1 mA dec-1 (drain current variations). ..
  4. Hakamata J, Kaneko Y, Shimizu M, Yamaoka K, Maruyama J, Takeuchi T, et al. Factors Predicting the Therapeutic Response to Methotrexate in Japanese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study. Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41:1414-1422 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that the therapeutic response to MTX in Japanese RA patients was associated with the genetic polymorphisms of SLC19A1 80G>A and GGH 16T>C in actual clinical practice. ..
  5. Wang W, Lim W, Leong H, Chong F, Lim T, Tan D, et al. An eleven gene molecular signature for extra-capsular spread in oral squamous cell carcinoma serves as a prognosticator of outcome in patients without nodal metastases. Oral Oncol. 2015;51:355-62 pubmed publisher
  6. Su I, Wang L, Hsieh W, Wu H, Teng C, Tsai H, et al. The emerging role of hepatitis B virus pre-S2 deletion mutant proteins in HBV tumorigenesis. J Biomed Sci. 2014;21:98 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting at pre-S2 mutant protein-induced, ER stress-dependent, mTOR signal cascade and metabolic disorders may offer potential strategy for chemoprevention or therapy in high risk chronic HBV carriers. ..
  7. Taflin H, Odin E, Derwinger K, Carlsson G, Gustavsson B, Wettergren Y. Relationship between folate concentration and expression of folate-associated genes in tissue and plasma after intraoperative administration of leucovorin in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018;82:987-997 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of several folate-associated genes is associated with folate concentration in tissue and plasma and may become useful when predicting response to LV treatment. ..
  8. Hao Y, Chen W, Wang L, Zhu X, Zhang Y, Qu P, et al. A retrievable, water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent probe for recognition of Cu(II) and sulfide based on a peptide receptor. Talanta. 2015;143:307-314 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the cell imaging study demonstrated that the probe can be exploited to detect sulfur anion in biological systems. ..
  9. Virts E, Jankowska A, MacKay C, Glaas M, Wiek C, Kelich S, et al. AluY-mediated germline deletion, duplication and somatic stem cell reversion in UBE2T defines a new subtype of Fanconi anemia. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5093-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Cumulatively, we identified UBE2T as a bona fide FA gene (FANCT) that also may be a rare cancer susceptibility gene. ..
  10. Moya P, Salazar J, Arranz M, Díaz Torné C, del Río E, Casademont J, et al. Methotrexate pharmacokinetic genetic variants are associated with outcome in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2016;17:25-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Three ABCB1 SNPs, rs868755, rs10280623 and rs1858923, were associated with toxicity (p = 0.025, p = 0.048 and p = 0.031, respectively). FPGS and ABCB1 genetic variants can influence the outcome in RA patients receiving MTX monotherapy. ..
  11. Dikshit A, Jin Y, Degan S, Hwang J, Foster M, Li C, et al. UBE2N Promotes Melanoma Growth via MEK/FRA1/SOX10 Signaling. Cancer Res. 2018;78:6462-6472 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Significance: These findings identify ubiquitin conjugase UBE2N and its variant partners as novel regulators of MAPK signaling and potential therapeutic targets in melanoma. Cancer Res; 78(22); 6462-72. ©2018 AACR. ..
  12. Markar S, Mackenzie H, Mikhail S, Mughal M, Preston S, Maynard N, et al. Surgical resection of hepatic metastases from gastric cancer: outcomes from national series in England. Gastric Cancer. 2017;20:379-386 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented should not be a rationale to change current clinical practice but rather a stimulus to prospectively study the role of surgery in a selected group of patients who are currently treated with palliative chemotherapy. ..
  13. Knobbe A, Horken K, Plucinak T, Balassa E, Cerutti H, Weeks D. SUMOylation by a stress-specific small ubiquitin-like modifier E2 conjugase is essential for survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under stress conditions. Plant Physiol. 2015;167:753-65 pubmed publisher
    ..reinhardtii, with a clear division of labor between the two sets: One (CrUBC9) is involved in essential stress-induced SUMOylations, and one (CrUBC3) is involved in housekeeping SUMOylations. ..
  14. Sandhu A, Ahmad S, Kaur J, Bhatnagar A, Dhawan V, Dhir V. Do SNPs in folate pharmacokinetic pathway alter levels of intracellular methotrexate polyglutamates and affect response? A prospective study in Indian patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;37:3221-3228 pubmed publisher
    ..GGH 452C>T CC genotype was associated with response to methotrexate. None of the SNPs affected MTX-glu1-5levels. ..
  15. Ding X, Yang K. Quantitative serine protease assays based on formation of copper(II)-oligopeptide complexes. Analyst. 2015;140:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)vs. 1.3 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)). This result shows that trypsin is more specific toward arginine (R) than lysine (K) in the oligopeptide sequence. ..
  16. Maharaj P, Prasad S, Devi R, Gopalan R. Folate content and retention in commonly consumed vegetables in the South Pacific. Food Chem. 2015;182:327-32 pubmed publisher
  17. Hsieh Y, Chang Y, Su I, Yen C, Liu Y, Liu R, et al. Hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutant large surface protein inhibits DNA double-strand break repair and leads to genome instability in hepatocarcinogenesis. J Pathol. 2015;236:337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse array CGH raw data: GEO Accession No. GSE61378 ( ..
  18. Zhang Y, Thomas G, Swat M, Shirinifard A, Glazier J. Computer simulations of cell sorting due to differential adhesion. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24999 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach helps connect signaling at the molecular level to tissue-level morphogenesis. ..
  19. Kim S, Hinoue T, Kim M, Sohn K, Cho R, Cole P, et al. γ-Glutamyl hydrolase modulation significantly influences global and gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression in human colon and breast cancer cells. Genes Nutr. 2015;10:444 pubmed publisher
  20. Silva G, Finley D, Vogel C. K63 polyubiquitination is a new modulator of the oxidative stress response. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2015;22:116-23 pubmed publisher
  21. Buček A, Matoušková P, Vogel H, Šebesta P, Jahn U, Weißflog J, et al. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:12586-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. ..
  22. Yamamoto T, Shikano K, Nanki T, Kawai S. Folylpolyglutamate synthase is a major determinant of intracellular methotrexate polyglutamates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35615 pubmed publisher
    ..FPGS may have a major role in regulating intracellular polyglutamation of MTX in RA patients receiving low-dose weekly MTX therapy. ..
  23. Yang Y, Huang K, Huang Y, Peng L. Assessment of the safety and feasibility of 24-hour hospitalization after thyroidectomy. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Thyroid surgery with 24-hour hospital stay is feasible and safe by experienced surgeon in a setting of appropriate facility and management protocol. ..
  24. van Erp H, Shockey J, Zhang M, Adhikari N, Browse J. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015;168:36-46 pubmed publisher
  25. Jiang T, Wang C, Wei L, Yu X, Shi L, Xu D, et al. Serum protein gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, Ig gamma-3 chain C region, and haptoglobin are associated with the syndromes of pulmonary tuberculosis in traditional Chinese medicine. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:243 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides new biological basis to understand the pathological changes and proteomic differences of TB syndromes. ..
  26. Uprety B, Kaja A, Ferdoush J, Sen R, Bhaumik S. Regulation of Antisense Transcription by NuA4 Histone Acetyltransferase and Other Chromatin Regulatory Factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:992-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the roles of NuA4 KAT and other chromatin regulatory factors in controlling antisense transcription, thus illuminating chromatin regulation of antisense transcription. ..
  27. Lawson B, Pettet G. Space-Limited Mitosis in the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg Model. Bull Math Biol. 2017;79:1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..All results are found to be insensitive to the inclusion of active cell motility. The implications of these simulated proliferation assays towards problems in cell biology are also discussed. ..
  28. Delaey P, Duisit J, Behets C, Duprez T, Gianello P, Lengele B. Specific branches of hypoglossal nerve to genioglossus muscle as a potential target of selective neurostimulation in obstructive sleep apnea: anatomical and morphometric study. Surg Radiol Anat. 2017;39:507-515 pubmed publisher
    ..6 cm above the GG lower border. ..
  29. Kuo W, Tu D, Chiu L, Sheu G, Wu M. High pemetrexed sensitivity of docetaxel-resistant A549 cells is mediated by TP53 status and downregulated thymidylate synthase. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:2787-2795 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed that for lung cancer with DOC resistance and wild?type TP53 status, the administration of PEM as a second-line agent to overcome DOC-resistance may benefit patients. ..
  30. Sadahiro S, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, Okada K, Saito G, Miyakita H, et al. Gene expression levels of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in tumor tissues may be a useful biomarker for the proper use of S-1 and tegafur-uracil/leucovorin in preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;79:1077-1085 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the gene expression level of GGH in tumor tissues may be a useful biomarker for the appropriate use of S-1 and UFT/LV in CRT. ..
  31. Antico Arciuch V, Tedesco L, Fuertes M, Arzt E. Role of RSUME in inflammation and cancer. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:3330-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings point to an important role of RSUME in the regulation and stability of specific targets, which are key regulatory mediators in cancer and inflammation. ..
  32. Drusbosky L, Medina C, Martuscello R, Hawkins K, Chang M, Lamba J, et al. Computational drug treatment simulations on projections of dysregulated protein networks derived from the myelodysplastic mutanome match clinical response in patients. Leuk Res. 2017;52:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This tool can improve understanding of MDS biology and mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance. ..
  33. Tisato F, Peruzzo V, Zanchetta G, Tamburini S, Traldi P, Porchia M. Electrospray ionization in the study of the interactions between cytotoxic phosphino Cu(I) complexes and selected amino acids and GlyGlyHis peptide model. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2016;22:275-287 pubmed
    ..CID pathways of [CuII(GGH)]-/+ adducts instead took place mainly through intramolecular electron-transfer reactions comprising the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and the formation of fragment radical cations. ..
  34. Qian K, Li C, Gong X, Ndawula C, Qian J, Chen Y, et al. Expression of a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, as a therapeutic agent for type II diabetes, with enhanced bioactivity and increased N-terminal homogeneity in Pichia pastoris. Biotechnol Lett. 2015;37:2229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple method for the preparation of GGH2 with a cleavable His-tag was developed, and the resultant protein possessed improved bioactivity and N-terminal homogeneity. ..
  35. Weile J, Sun S, Coté A, Knapp J, Verby M, Mellor J, et al. A framework for exhaustively mapping functional missense variants. Mol Syst Biol. 2017;13:957 pubmed publisher
    ..Assays potentially amenable to deep mutational scanning are already available for 57% of human disease genes, suggesting that DMS could ultimately map functional variation for all human disease genes. ..
  36. Pérez Maya A, Wallis M, Barrera Saldaña H. Structure and evolution of the gorilla and orangutan growth hormone loci. Mamm Genome. 2016;27:511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of transcriptomic databases derived from gorilla tissues establishes that the gGH-N, gGH-V and several gCSH genes are expressed, but the significance of the many CSH genes in gorilla remains unclear. ..
  37. Song Z, Mietkiewska E, Weselake R. The linin promoter is highly effective in enhancing punicic acid production in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep. 2017;36:447-457 pubmed publisher
    ..This study contributes to metabolic engineering strategies aimed at enhancing the production of bioactive fatty acids in oilseed crops. ..
  38. Wein S, Laviano A, Wolffram S. Quercetin induces hepatic γ-glutamyl hydrolase expression in rats by suppressing hepatic microRNA rno-miR-125b-3p. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:1660-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Because increased GGH expressions were repeatedly associated with resistance to methotrexate, concomitant intake with quercetin should be monitored carefully. ..
  39. Tsai C, Li F, Wu C, Chang A, Chan S. Sumoylation of IkB attenuates NF-kB-induced nitrosative stress at rostral ventrolateral medulla and cardiovascular depression in experimental brain death. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:65 pubmed
  40. Yoshida T, Okamoto T, Yano T, Takada K, Kohno M, Suda K, et al. Molecular Factors Associated with Pemetrexed Sensitivity According to Histological Type in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:6319-6326 pubmed
    ..In adenocarcinomas, GGH potentially represents a marker for chemosensitivity to Alimta®. ..
  41. Cheng L, Schneider B, Li L. A bioinformatics approach for precision medicine off-label drug drug selection among triple negative breast cancer patients. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016;23:741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed bioinformatics approach lays a foundation for cancer precision medicine. It supplies much needed knowledge base for the off-label cancer drug usage in clinics. ..
  42. Houlder E, Millier M, Highton J, Gwynne Jones D, Stamp L, Hessian P. Expression of the genes facilitating methotrexate action within subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35:943-947 pubmed
    ..This could help explain differing responses to MTX in rheumatoid nodules and synovium and warrants further investigation. ..
  43. Roh J, Lee H, Woo S, Yoon M, Kim J, Park S, et al. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;171:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. ..
  44. Van Oss S, Shirra M, Bataille A, Wier A, Yen K, Vinayachandran V, et al. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6. Mol Cell. 2016;64:815-825 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results argue for an active role for Paf1C in promoting H2Bub and ensuring its proper localization in vivo. ..
  45. Yoon S, Kim J, Lee H, Lee H, Lim J, Yang H, et al. The effects of herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats and HepG2 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;195:204-213 pubmed publisher
    ..GGH(4) also suppressed obesity-related hepatic inflammation. Thus, GGH(4) may be a promising drug for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. ..
  46. Zhou B, Li H, Xing C, Ye H, Feng J, Wu J, et al. Honokiol induces proteasomal degradation of AML1-ETO oncoprotein via increasing ubiquitin conjugase UbcH8 expression in leukemia. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;128:12-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, HNK might be a potential treatment for t(8;21) leukemia by targeting AML1-ETO oncoprotein. ..
  47. Hayashi H, Fujimaki C, Inoue K, Suzuki T, Itoh K. Genetic polymorphism of C452T (T127I) in human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in a Japanese population. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:839-41 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report about the examination of C452T polymorphism of GGH in a Japanese population. ..
  48. Stamp L, Hazlett J, Highton J, Hessian P. Expression of methotrexate transporters and metabolizing enzymes in rheumatoid synovial tissue. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:1519-22 pubmed publisher
  49. Melling N, Rashed M, Schroeder C, Hube Magg C, Kluth M, Lang D, et al. High-Level ?-Glutamyl-Hydrolase (GGH) Expression is Linked to Poor Prognosis in ERG Negative Prostate Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..0001). In conclusion, the results of our study identify GGH as an ERG subtype specific molecular marker with modest prognostic relevance, which may have clinical relevance if analyzed in combination with other molecular markers. ..
  50. Zhang J, Kinch L, Cong Q, Weile J, Sun S, Coté A, et al. Assessing predictions of fitness effects of missense mutations in SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBE2I. Hum Mutat. 2017;38:1051-1063 pubmed publisher
    ..Prediction accuracy of other mutations remains unsatisfactory, and this fast-growing field of research is yet to learn the use of spatial structure information to improve the predictions significantly...
  51. Garaiova M, Mietkiewska E, Weselake R, Holic R. Metabolic engineering of Schizosaccharomyces pombe to produce punicic acid, a conjugated fatty acid with nutraceutic properties. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:7913-7922 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of total fatty acids, the highest level reported to date for heterologous expression. Therefore, microbial systems can be considered as a potential alternative to plant sources for a source of PuA for nutraceutic applications. ..
  52. van der Straaten R, Wessels J, de Vries Bouwstra J, Goekoop Ruiterman Y, Allaart C, Bogaartz J, et al. Exploratory analysis of four polymorphisms in human GGH and FPGS genes and their effect in methotrexate-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2007;8:141-50 pubmed
  53. Wernimont S, Clark A, Stover P, Wells M, Litonjua A, Weiss S, et al. Folate network genetic variation predicts cardiovascular disease risk in non-Hispanic white males. J Nutr. 2012;142:1272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This work supports a role for SHMT1-related genes and nuclear folate metabolism, including the thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, in mediating CVD risk. ..
  54. Davis L, Polk B, Mann A, Wolff R, Kerr G, Reimold A, et al. Folic acid pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with methotrexate significant adverse events in United States veterans with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014;32:324-32 pubmed
    ..0001. RA subjects taking MTX may have decreased time-to-SigAE with ≥ 1 copy of the minor allele in MTHFR rs1801131. Further investigation is warranted, as these SNPs may indicate susceptibility to MTX toxicity. ..
  55. Karube Y, Kobayashi S, Maeda S, Sado T, Ishihama H, Chida M. Tumor-related gene expression levels in thymic carcinoma and Type B3 thymoma. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;11:85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that elevated expressions of the tumor-related genes FPGS/GGH and VEGF are correlated with malignancy of TC and B3 tumors. Additional examinations will be necessary to investigate their chemosensitivity. ..
  56. Naik M, Kang M, Ho C, Liao P, Hsieh Y, Naik N, et al. Molecular mechanism of K65 acetylation-induced attenuation of Ubc9 and the NDSM interaction. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17391 pubmed publisher
  57. Yao R, Nimec Z, Ryan T, Galivan J. Identification, cloning, and sequencing of a cDNA coding for rat gamma-glutamyl hydrolase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8525-8 pubmed
    ..The results of amino acid analysis of the purified protein agreed with the deduced amino acid sequence in which there are seven potential asparagine-containing glycosylation sites. ..
  58. Chave K, Auger I, Galivan J, Ryan T. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis define the catalytic motif in human gamma -glutamyl hydrolase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:40365-70 pubmed
    ..The H171N hGH mutant was found to have a 250-fold reduced V(max). These studies to determine the catalytic mechanism begin to define the three dimensional interactions of hGH with poly-gamma-glutamate substrates. ..
  59. Eisele L, Chave K, Lehning A, Ryan T. Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1479-86 pubmed
    ..The conservation of hGH monomer-monomer interface sequences in other mammalian and plant gamma-glutamyl hydrolase molecules suggests that they also exist as stable homodimers. ..
  60. Cheng H, Chiou S, Liao Y, Chen Y, Wu S. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism in ?-glutamyl hydrolase gene by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:2021-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MTX-(Glu)(n) levels and genotypes in GGH gene of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were evaluated. The SSCP-CE method was found to be feasible for SNP screening in the GGH gene. ..
  61. Świerkot J, Ślęzak R, Karpiński P, Pawłowska J, Noga L, Szechiński J, et al. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of RFC-1, GGH, MTHFR , TYMS, and TCII genes and the efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2015;125:152-61 pubmed
    ..Future allele and genotype analyses may help identify the subsets of RA patients with an increased risk of adverse effects. ..
  62. Shimamoto Y, Nukatsuka M, Takechi T, Fukushima M. Association between mRNA expression of chemotherapy-related genes and clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer: A large-scale population analysis. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The data generated from this study may prove to be useful for the development of individualized chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with colorectal cancer, and will mean that the tumor location is taken into account. ..
  63. Kawakami K, Ooyama A, Ruszkiewicz A, Jin M, Watanabe G, Moore J, et al. Low expression of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase mRNA in primary colorectal cancer with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of folate metabolism in CIMP+ CRC may help to elucidate the aetiology of these tumours and to predict their response to anti-folates and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. ..
  64. Eldridge M, Sanchez Garrido J, Hoben G, Goddard P, Shenoy A. The Atypical Ubiquitin E2 Conjugase UBE2L3 Is an Indirect Caspase-1 Target and Controls IL-1β Secretion by Inflammasomes. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1285-1297 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings regarding UBE2L3 as a molecular rheostat have implications for IL-1-driven pathology in hereditary fever syndromes and in autoinflammatory conditions associated with UBE2L3 polymorphisms. ..
  65. Yao R, Schneider E, Ryan T, Galivan J. Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase: cloning and characterization of the enzyme expressed in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10134-8 pubmed
    ..These properties are consistent with the enzymes derived from human and rat sources. ..
  66. Yin D, Chave K, Macaluso C, Galivan J, Yao R. Structural organization of the human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase gene. Gene. 1999;238:463-70 pubmed
    ..Studies of cDNA from different human tissue sources provided evidence that there is a single spliced cDNA species in human. ..
  67. Li H, Ryan T, Chave K, Van Roey P. Three-dimensional structure of human gamma -glutamyl hydrolase. A class I glatamine amidotransferase adapted for a complex substate. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24522-9 pubmed
  68. Warren R, Smith R, Campalani E, Eyre S, Smith C, Barker J, et al. Outcomes of methotrexate therapy for psoriasis and relationship to genetic polymorphisms. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variation in four key genes relevant to the intracellular metabolism of methotrexate does not appear to predict response to methotrexate therapy in patients with psoriasis. ..
  69. Smit E, Burgers S, Biesma B, Smit H, Eppinga P, Dingemans A, et al. Randomized phase II and pharmacogenetic study of pemetrexed compared with pemetrexed plus carboplatin in pretreated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..03). PC as second-line treatment for relapsed NSCLC resulted in a significant 33% reduction of the hazard of disease progression as compared with pemetrexed alone. ..
  70. Wang T, Chandler C, Halsted C. Intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase from human jejunal mucosa. Isolation and characterization. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:13551-5 pubmed
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    ..Side effects of MTX in IBD are associated with a SNP in the MTHFR gene but response cannot be predicted by any of the investigated SNPs. ..
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    ..0001). Genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 R399Q is associated with response to platinum-based NAC in bulky cervical cancer, and MDR analysis documented association between gene-gene interaction of XRCC1 R399Q and treatment response. ..
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    ..The expression level of FPGS, GGH and ABCC1 in CRC tissues could predict the reduced folate level after LV administration, and these factors may determine the efficacy of LV treatment. ..
  74. Adjei A, Mandrekar S, Dy G, Molina J, Adjei A, Gandara D, et al. Phase II trial of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab for second-line therapy of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: NCCTG and SWOG study N0426. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the median PFS time of 4 months is promising. Pharmacogenetic studies in larger cohorts are needed to definitively identify polymorphisms that predict for survival and toxicity of pemetrexed. ..
  75. Chen X, Wen F, Yue L, Li C. Genetic polymorphism of ?-glutamyl hydrolase in Chinese acute leukemia children and identification of a novel double nonsynonymous mutation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;29:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Allele frequency of GGH C452T polymorphism is determined for the first time among Chinese. A novel double nonsynonymous mutation of GGH was identified in a boy with ALL. ..
  76. Jekic B, Lukovic L, Bunjevacki V, Milic V, Novakovic I, Damnjanovic T, et al. Association of the TYMS 3G/3G genotype with poor response and GGH 354GG genotype with the bone marrow toxicity of the methotrexate in RA patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In a group of 184 RA patients treated with MTX, we have investigated whether selected polymorphisms in these genes modulate MTX efficacy and/or have impact on adverse drug effects (ADEs)...
  77. Woo H, Kim J, Jung H, Kim K, Lee J, Sun J, et al. Correlation of genetic polymorphisms with clinical outcomes in pemetrexed-treated advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Pharmacogenomics. 2015;16:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Original submitted 10 May 2013; Revision submitted 27 June 2014. ..
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  79. Sharma S, Das M, Kumar A, Marwaha V, Shankar S, Aneja R, et al. Interaction of genes from influx-metabolism-efflux pathway and their influence on methotrexate efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis patients among Indians. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:1041-9 pubmed
    ..Interactions between genes coding for deconjugation and transporter seem to be important determinants of MTX response in RA but replication and functional studies would be confirmatory. ..
  80. Silva I, Nogueira Silva C, Figueiredo T, Lombo L, Faustino I, Catarino R, et al. The impact of GGH -401C>T polymorphism on cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy response and survival in cervical cancer. Gene. 2013;512:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..folate metabolism might interfere with cisplatin effectiveness, we intended to study the influence of the Gamma Glutamyl Hydrolase -401C>T polymorphism in treatment response in cervical cancer...
  81. Wang D, Zhang Q, Hu X, Wang W, Zhu X, Yuan Z. Pharmacodynamics in Alzheimer's disease model rats of a bifunctional peptide with the potential to accelerate the degradation and reduce the toxicity of amyloid ?-Cu fibrils. Acta Biomater. 2018;65:327-338 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suppose the bifunctional inhibitor GR has good application prospects in the treatment of AD treatment. ..
  82. Kim K, Kang S, Chung H, Kim J, Park N, Song Y. XRCC1 Arginine194Tryptophan and GGH-401Cytosine/Thymine polymorphisms are associated with response to platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The genotypes of XRCC1 Arginine194Tryptophan and GGH-401Cytosine/Thymine were associated with the response to NAC in patients with cervical cancer. However, no SNP genotypes were associated with DFS. ..
  83. Yang Y, Lin D, Chang S, Lin S, Lin S, Chiou R, et al. Pharmacogenomic variations in treatment protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;54:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The hazard ratios were 6.8 (p = 0.01), 21.7 (p = 0.009), and 6.8 (p = 0.01), respectively. Independent pharmacogenomic determinants associated with treatment outcome were identified in subsets of Taiwanese ALL patients. ..
  84. Hayashi H, Fujimaki C, Daimon T, Tsuboi S, Matsuyama T, Itoh K. Genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway enzymes as a possible marker for predicting the outcome of methotrexate therapy in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:355-61 pubmed
    ..Patients with RA having RFC 80A and GGH-401T alleles were less responsive to MTX than those with RFC 80A and without GGH-401T alleles. Thus, this data may be useful for guiding treatment of RA patients with MTX. ..
  85. Li Y, Liu S, Wang H, Mai H, Yuan X, Li C, et al. Methylation level of CpG islands in GGH gene promoter in pediatric acute leukemia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173472 pubmed publisher
    ..328, P = 0.202). Either methylation of CpG1 or hypermethylation of CpG2 in GGH promoter region can significantly reduce GGH mRNA expression in pediatric patients with acute leukemia, which can improve the response to treatment. ..
  86. Xiong Y, Ye C, Yang N, Li M, Liu H. Ubc9 Binds to ADAP and Is Required for Rap1 Membrane Recruitment, Rac1 Activation, and Integrin-Mediated T Cell Adhesion. J Immunol. 2017;199:4142-4154 pubmed publisher
  87. Galivan J, Ryan T, Rhee M, Yao R, Chave K. Glutamyl hydrolase: properties and pharmacologic impact. Semin Oncol. 1999;26:33-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the possibility of using glutamyl hydrolase to favorably modulate the activity of antifolate therapy. ..
  88. DeVos L, Chanson A, Liu Z, Ciappio E, Parnell L, Mason J, et al. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolizing genes with blood folate, homocysteine, and DNA uracil concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:1149-58 pubmed
    ..022). Because the accumulation of uracil in DNA induces chromosome breaks, mutagenic lesions, we suggest that, as for MTHFR C677T, the GGH -124 T>G SNP may modulate the risk of carcinogenesis and therefore warrants further attention. ..
  89. Dervieux T, Wessels J, van der Straaten T, Penrod N, Moore J, Guchelaar H, et al. Gene-gene interactions in folate and adenosine biosynthesis pathways affect methotrexate efficacy and tolerability in rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:935-44 pubmed publisher
    ..False-positive report probabilities were below 0.2, thereby indicating that true signals were likely detected in this cohort. These data indicate that gene-gene interactions impact MTX efficacy and tolerability in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  90. Adjei A, Salavaggione O, Mandrekar S, Dy G, Ziegler K, Endo C, et al. Correlation between polymorphisms of the reduced folate carrier gene (SLC19A1) and survival after pemetrexed-based therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-based exploratory study. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, polymorphisms in GGH and FPGS have marginal associations with response and adverse event. These results should be validated in larger prospective studies using pemetrexed. ..
  91. Wang S, Sun L, Zeng W, Wu W, Zhang G. Influence of genetic polymorphisms of FPGS, GGH, and MTHFR on serum methotrexate levels in Chinese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014;74:283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data indicate that FPGS rs1544105, GGH rs3758149, and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphisms contribute to the variability of MTX pharmacokinetics, and their genotyping may be useful to reduce toxicities associated with MTX therapy. ..
  92. Yang L, Wu H, Gelder T, Matic M, Ruan J, Han Y, et al. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genetic polymorphism predicting methotrexate toxicity in Chinese patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2017;18:1557-1562 pubmed publisher
    ..028). SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genetic variants can affect the HD-MTX-related toxicity in Chinese patients with NHL. ..