Gene Symbol: gamma-adaptin
Description: adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 1
Alias: ADTG, CLAPG1, AP-1 complex subunit gamma-1, adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit gamma-1, adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit gamma-1, adaptor related protein complex 1 gamma 1 subunit, clathrin assembly protein complex 1 gamma large chain, clathrin assembly protein complex 1 gamma-1 large chain, clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, gamma 1, gamma adaptin, gamma1-adaptin, golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin gamma subunit, golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin subunit gamma-1, testicular tissue protein Li 21
Species: human
Products:     gamma-adaptin

Top Publications

  1. Shiba Y, Takatsu H, Shin H, Nakayama K. Gamma-adaptin interacts directly with Rabaptin-5 through its ear domain. J Biochem. 2002;131:327-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the gamma1-adaptin-Rabaptin-5 interaction may play a role in membrane trafficking between the TGN and endosomes. ..
  2. Nakagawa T, Setou M, Seog D, Ogasawara K, Dohmae N, Takio K, et al. A novel motor, KIF13A, transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex. Cell. 2000;103:569-81 pubmed
    ..Functional blockade of KIF13A reduced cell surface expression of the M6PR. Thus, KIF13A transports M6PR-containing vesicles and targets the M6PR from TGN to the plasma membrane via direct interaction with the AP-1 adaptor complex. ..
  3. Hirst J, Lui W, Bright N, Totty N, Seaman M, Robinson M. A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:67-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome. ..
  4. Theos A, Tenza D, Martina J, Hurbain I, Peden A, Sviderskaya E, et al. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5356-72 pubmed
  5. Page L, Robinson M. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:619-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane. ..
  6. Wonderlich E, Williams M, Collins K. The tyrosine binding pocket in the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) mu1 subunit is necessary for Nef to recruit AP-1 to the major histocompatibility complex class I cytoplasmic tail. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3011-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data provide evidence that Nef binding to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail stabilizes the interaction of a tyrosine in the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail with the natural tyrosine binding pocket in AP-1. ..
  7. Orzech E, Livshits L, Leyt J, Okhrimenko H, Reich V, Cohen S, et al. Interactions between adaptor protein-1 of the clathrin coat and microtubules via type 1a microtubule-associated proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31340-8 pubmed
  8. Page L, Sowerby P, Lui W, Robinson M. Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:993-1004 pubmed
    ..The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins. ..
  9. Checkley M, Luttge B, Freed E. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:582-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions. ..

More Information


  1. Sitaram A, Piccirillo R, Palmisano I, Harper D, Dell Angelica E, Schiaffino M, et al. Localization to mature melanosomes by virtue of cytoplasmic dileucine motifs is required for human OCA2 function. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1464-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that OCA2 is targeted to and functions within melanosomes but that residence within melanosomes may be regulated by secondary or alternative targeting to lysosomes. ..
  2. Roeth J, Williams M, Kasper M, Filzen T, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by recruiting AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:903-13 pubmed
    ..In sum, our evidence suggests that binding of AP-1 to the Nef-MHC-I complex is an important step required for inhibition of antigen presentation by HIV. ..
  3. Janvier K, Craig H, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Sol Foulon N, Renault L, et al. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8725-32 pubmed
    ..The stabilization of these complexes on membranes may underlie the pleiotropic effects of Nef on protein trafficking within the endosomal system. ..
  4. Kalthoff C, Groos S, Kohl R, Mahrhold S, Ungewickell E. Clint: a novel clathrin-binding ENTH-domain protein at the Golgi. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4060-73 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Clint might participate in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the level of the trans-Golgi network and remains associated with the vesicles longer than clathrin and adaptors. ..
  5. Nogi T, Shiba Y, Kawasaki M, Shiba T, Matsugaki N, Igarashi N, et al. Structural basis for the accessory protein recruitment by the gamma-adaptin ear domain. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:527-31 pubmed
  6. Camus G, Segura Morales C, Molle D, Lopez Verges S, Begon Pescia C, Cazevieille C, et al. The clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and facilitates their budding. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3193-203 pubmed
    ..We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. ..
  7. Wyss S, Berlioz Torrent C, Boge M, Blot G, Honing S, Benarous R, et al. The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. J Virol. 2001;75:2982-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env. ..
  8. Crump C, Xiang Y, Thomas L, Gu F, Austin C, Tooze S, et al. PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic. EMBO J. 2001;20:2191-201 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the requirement for PACS-1 interactions with adaptor proteins in multiple processes, including secretory granule biogenesis and HIV-1 pathogenesis. ..
  9. Delevoye C, Hurbain I, Tenza D, Sibarita J, Uzan Gafsou S, Ohno H, et al. AP-1 and KIF13A coordinate endosomal sorting and positioning during melanosome biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:247-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that LRO protein sorting is coupled to cell type-specific positioning of endosomes that facilitate endosome-LRO contacts and are required for organelle maturation...
  10. Berlioz Torrent C, Shacklett B, Erdtmann L, Delamarre L, Bouchaert I, Sonigo P, et al. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1999;73:1350-61 pubmed
  11. Takatsu H, Sakurai M, Shin H, Murakami K, Nakayama K. Identification and characterization of novel clathrin adaptor-related proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24693-700 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gamma2-adaptin constitute a novel adaptor-related complex that participates in a transport step different from that of AP-1. ..
  12. Coleman S, Van Damme N, Day J, Noviello C, Hitchin D, Madrid R, et al. Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes. J Virol. 2005;79:2066-78 pubmed
    ..This binding likely underlies the unusual ability of Nef to induce the stabilization of these complexes on endosomal membranes, an activity that correlates with enhancement of viral replication. ..
  13. O Farrell H, Harbourne B, Kurlawala Z, Inoue Y, Nagelberg A, Martinez V, et al. Integrative Genomic Analyses Identifies GGA2 as a Cooperative Driver of EGFR-Mediated Lung Tumorigenesis. J Thorac Oncol. 2019;14:656-671 pubmed publisher
    ..of chromosome arm 16p in mutant-EGFR tumors corresponding to increased expression of Golgi Associated, Gamma Adaptin Ear Containing, ARF Binding Protein 2 (GGA2), which functions in protein trafficking and sorting...
  14. Santonico E, Mattioni A, Panni S, Belleudi F, Mattei M, Torrisi M, et al. RNF11 is a GGA protein cargo and acts as a molecular adaptor for GGA3 ubiquitination mediated by Itch. Oncogene. 2015;34:3377-90 pubmed publisher
    ..two acidic-cluster dileucine (Ac-LL) motifs, which are recognized by the VHS domains of Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin era-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein (GGA) adaptors, as the molecular determinants ..
  15. Boman A, Zhang C, Zhu X, Kahn R. A family of ADP-ribosylation factor effectors that can alter membrane transport through the trans-Golgi. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1241-55 pubmed
  16. Tao X, Lu Y, Qiu S, Wang Y, Qin J, Fan Z. AP1G1 is involved in cetuximab-mediated downregulation of ASCT2-EGFR complex and sensitization of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to ROS-induced apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2017;408:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy to overcome cetuximab resistance in cancer cells through combination of cetuximab, which co-targets ASCT2 along with EGFR, with an ROS-inducing agent. ..
  17. Johnson K, Gagnon L, Chang B. A hypomorphic mutation of the gamma-1 adaptin gene (Ap1g1) causes inner ear, retina, thyroid, and testes abnormalities in mice. Mamm Genome. 2016;27:200-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Ap1g1 (fgt) mutant mice provide a new animal model to study the in vivo roles of gamma-1 adaptin and the AP-1 complex throughout development and to investigate factors that underlie its associated phenotypic abnormalities. ..
  18. Neubrand V, Will R, Mobius W, Poustka A, Wiemann S, Schu P, et al. Gamma-BAR, a novel AP-1-interacting protein involved in post-Golgi trafficking. EMBO J. 2005;24:1122-33 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the direct interaction of 2c18 and gamma1-adaptin is crucial for membrane association and thus the function of the AP-1 complex in living cells. We propose to name this protein gamma-BAR. ..
  19. Daboussi L, Costaguta G, Ghukasyan R, Payne G. Conserved role for Gga proteins in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase localization to the trans-Golgi network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:3433-3438 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of GGA2, but not GGA1 or GGA3, specifically affected PI4KIII? localization. These results reveal a conserved role for Gga proteins in regulating phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase function at the TGN. ..
  20. Dasuri K, Pepping J, Fernandez Kim S, Gupta S, Keller J, Scherer P, et al. Elevated adiponectin prevents HIV protease inhibitor toxicity and preserves cerebrovascular homeostasis in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult male wild type (WT) and adiponectin-overexpressing (ADTg) mice were thus subjected to a 4-week regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir, followed by comprehensive metabolic, ..
  21. Zlatic S, Tornieri K, L hernault S, Faundez V. Clathrin-dependent mechanisms modulate the subcellular distribution of class C Vps/HOPS tether subunits in polarized and nonpolarized cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1699-715 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that vesicular (AP-3) and nonvesicular (Hrs) clathrin mechanisms segregate class C Vps/HOPS tethers to organelles and domains of mammalian cells bearing complex architectures...
  22. Giehl K, Herzinger T, Wolff H, Sárdy M, von Braunmühl T, Dekeuleneer V, et al. Eight Novel Mutations Confirm the Role of AAGAB in Punctate Palmoplantar Keratoderma Type 1 (Buschke-Fischer-Brauer) and Show Broad Phenotypic Variability. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016;96:468-72 pubmed publisher
    ..No additional obvious genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, even when comparing different types of mutations. Rather, identical genotypes presented a very broad interfamilial and intrafamilial variability of phenotypes. ..
  23. Zuroff L, Daley D, Black K, Koronyo Hamaoui M. Clearance of cerebral A? in Alzheimer's disease: reassessing the role of microglia and monocytes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:2167-2201 pubmed publisher
    ..In AD transgenic (ADtg) mice, monocyte ablation or inhibition of their migration into the brain exacerbated A? pathology, while blood ..
  24. Lee L, Klute M, Herman E, Read B, Dacks J. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae. Protist. 2015;166:585-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts...
  25. Kalogera E, Pistos C, Provatopoulou X, Christophi C, Zografos G, Stefanidou M, et al. Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for the Quantification of Plasma Androgens and Androgen Glucuronides in Breast Cancer. J Chromatogr Sci. 2016;54:583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..and quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) in human plasma was developed and validated...
  26. Cho L, Sathyapalan T, Kilpatrick E, Keevil B, Miller A, Coady A, et al. Androsterone glucuronide to dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate ratio is discriminatory for obese Caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. BMC Endocr Disord. 2017;17:26 pubmed publisher
    Androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) concentrations have been suggested as a marker of the effects of androgens at the target tissue level...
  27. Abbott M, Roth T, Ho L, Wang L, O Carroll D, Nissenson R. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134290 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg)...
  28. Hirst J, Lindsay M, Robinson M. GGAs: roles of the different domains and comparison with AP-1 and clathrin. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:3573-88 pubmed
    ..Together with results from other studies, our findings suggest that the GGAs act as monomeric adaptors, with the four domains involved in cargo selection, membrane localization, clathrin binding, and accessory protein recruitment. ..
  29. Kulpa D, Del Cid N, Peterson K, Collins K. Adaptor protein 1 promotes cross-presentation through the same tyrosine signal in major histocompatibility complex class I as that targeted by HIV-1. J Virol. 2013;87:8085-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence for two separable cross-presentation pathways, only one of which is targeted by HIV...
  30. Jia X, Weber E, Tokarev A, Lewinski M, Rizk M, Suarez M, et al. Structural basis of HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST2 antagonism via hijacking of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1. elife. 2014;3:e02362 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Vpu to hijack AP-dependent trafficking pathways suggests a potential common theme for Vpu-mediated downregulation of host proteins.DOI: ..
  31. Horikawa H, Kneussel M, El Far O, Betz H. Interaction of synaptophysin with the AP-1 adaptor protein gamma-adaptin. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;21:454-62 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with synaptophysin serving as a docking site for AP-1 during clathrin-dependent vesicle budding and/or kinesin-based transport reactions. ..
  32. Lefrancois S, Janvier K, Boehm M, Ooi C, Bonifacino J. An ear-core interaction regulates the recruitment of the AP-3 complex to membranes. Dev Cell. 2004;7:619-25 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a new regulatory mechanism for the recruitment of AP-3 to membranes involving delta-ear-sigma3 interactions. ..
  33. Takatsu H, Futatsumori M, Yoshino K, Yoshida Y, Shin H, Nakayama K. Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three-hybrid system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1083-9 pubmed
  34. Mattera R, Puertollano R, Smith W, Bonifacino J. The trihelical bundle subdomain of the GGA proteins interacts with multiple partners through overlapping but distinct sites. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31409-18 pubmed
    ..The different GAT binding partners engage in both competitive and cooperative interactions that may be important for the function of the GGAs in protein sorting. ..
  35. Krauss M, Haucke V. Functional assay of effectors of ADP ribosylation factor 6 during clathrin/AP-2 coat recruitment to membranes. Methods Enzymol. 2005;404:388-98 pubmed
    ..These methods shall help to mechanistically dissect the role of Arf6 in regulating exo-endocytic vesicle cycling at synapses and in related membrane trafficking events. ..
  36. Bai H, Doray B, Kornfeld S. GGA1 interacts with the adaptor protein AP-1 through a WNSF sequence in its hinge region. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17411-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the GGA1 WXXF-type and Rabaptin5 FXXPhi-type motifs bind to the same or highly overlapping sites in the AP-1 gamma-ear. This binding is modulated by residues adjacent to the core motifs...
  37. Eiraku M, Hirata Y, Takeshima H, Hirano T, Kengaku M. Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related receptor, a novel EGF-like repeat-containing protein targeted to dendrites of developing and adult central nervous system neurons. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25400-7 pubmed
  38. Chi S, Cao H, Chen J, McNiven M. Eps15 mediates vesicle trafficking from the trans-Golgi network via an interaction with the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3564-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that Eps15 plays an important role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation not only at the plasma membrane but also at the TGN during the secretory process. ..
  39. FOLSCH H, Ohno H, Bonifacino J, Mellman I. A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. Cell. 1999;99:189-98 pubmed
    ..We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B...
  40. Mattera R, Arighi C, Lodge R, Zerial M, Bonifacino J. Divalent interaction of the GGAs with the Rabaptin-5-Rabex-5 complex. EMBO J. 2003;22:78-88 pubmed
    ..These observations thus identify a binding sequence for GAE/gamma-adaptin ear domains and reveal a functional link between proteins regulating TGN cargo export and endosomal tethering/fusion events. ..
  41. Rost M, Mann S, Lambert C, Döring T, Thomé N, Prange R. Gamma-adaptin, a novel ubiquitin-interacting adaptor, and Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase control hepatitis B virus maturation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29297-308 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that an enveloped DNA virus exploits a new ubiquitin receptor together with endosomal pathway functions for egress from hepatocytes. ..
  42. Rentsendorj A, Sheyn J, Fuchs D, Daley D, Salumbides B, Schubloom H, et al. A novel role for osteopontin in macrophage-mediated amyloid-β clearance in Alzheimer's models. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;67:163-180 pubmed publisher
    ..amyloid β-protein (Aβ) neuropathology and preserves cognitive function in murine models of Alzheimer's disease (ADtg mice)...
  43. Deneka M, Neeft M, Popa I, van Oort M, Sprong H, Oorschot V, et al. Rabaptin-5alpha/rabaptin-4 serves as a linker between rab4 and gamma(1)-adaptin in membrane recycling from endosomes. EMBO J. 2003;22:2645-57 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data show that rab4-GTP acts as a scaffold for a rabaptin-5alpha- gamma(1)-adaptin complex on recycling endosomes and that interactions between rab4, rabaptin-5alpha and gamma(1)-adaptin regulate membrane recycling. ..
  44. Herbein G, Varin A, Larbi A, Fortin C, Mahlknecht U, Fulop T, et al. Nef and TNFalpha are coplayers that favor HIV-1 replication in monocytic cells and primary macrophages. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:117-29 pubmed
  45. Tzitzivacos D, Tiemessen C, Stevens W, Papathanasopoulos M. Viral genetic determinants of nonprogressive HIV type 1 subtype C infection in antiretroviral drug-naive children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, LT46 Nef is unable to bind AP-1 and AP-2 and therefore is inactive on CD4 endocytosis. The biological relevance of these findings requires further investigation. ..
  46. Coleman S, Hitchin D, Noviello C, Guatelli J. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes AP-1 on membranes without inducing ARF1-independent de novo attachment. Virology. 2006;345:148-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Nef stabilizes AP complexes on endosomal membranes after ARF1-dependent attachment. This stabilization may facilitate coat formation and stimulate the trafficking of multiple cellular proteins. ..
  47. Leonard J, Filzen T, Carter C, Schaefer M, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by distinct pathways that share common elements. J Virol. 2011;85:6867-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide important new information on the similarities and differences with which Nef affects intracellular trafficking and help focus future research on the best potential pharmaceutical targets. ..
  48. Gurung R, Tan A, Ooms L, McGrath M, Huysmans R, Munday A, et al. Identification of a novel domain in two mammalian inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatases that mediates membrane ruffle localization. The inositol 5-phosphatase skip localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and translocates to membrane ruffles following . J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11376-85 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies demonstrate a novel membrane-targeting domain that serves to recruit SKIP and PIPP to membrane ruffles. ..
  49. Mattera R, Ritter B, Sidhu S, McPherson P, Bonifacino J. Definition of the consensus motif recognized by gamma-adaptin ear domains. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8018-28 pubmed
    ..These findings shed light on the mechanism of accessory protein recruitment to trans-Golgi network and endosomal clathrin coats. ..
  50. Perrin L, Laura P, Lacas Gervais S, Sandra L, Gilleron J, Jérôme G, et al. Rab4b controls an early endosome sorting event by interacting with the ?-subunit of the clathrin adaptor complex 1. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4950-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also uncover a novel type of endosomes, characterised by low abundance of either early or recycling endocytic markers, which could potentially be generated in cell types that naturally express high level of Rab4b. ..
  51. Peyrard M, Parveneh S, Lagercrantz S, Ekman M, Fransson I, Sahlén S, et al. Cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal assignment to 16q23 of the human gamma-adaptin gene (ADTG). Genomics. 1998;50:275-80 pubmed
    ..We present the cloning and sequencing of the human gamma-adaptin cDNA (HGMW-approved symbol ADTG) consisting of 3723 bp with an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 825 amino acids, 98...
  52. Bouchet J, Hérate C, Guenzel C, Verollet C, Järviluoma A, Mazzolini J, et al. Single-domain antibody-SH3 fusions for efficient neutralization of HIV-1 Nef functions. J Virol. 2012;86:4856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit all functions of Nef, both in T lymphocytes and macrophages, with a single ligand that represents an efficient tool to develop new antiviral strategies targeting Nef. ..
  53. Mills I, Praefcke G, Vallis Y, Peter B, Olesen L, Gallop J, et al. EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:213-22 pubmed
  54. Doray B, Kornfeld S. Gamma subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex binds clathrin: implications for cooperative binding in coated vesicle assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1925-35 pubmed
  55. Krzewski K, Gil Krzewska A, Nguyen V, Peruzzi G, Coligan J. LAMP1/CD107a is required for efficient perforin delivery to lytic granules and NK-cell cytotoxicity. Blood. 2013;121:4672-83 pubmed publisher
  56. Mazzolini J, Herit F, Bouchet J, Benmerah A, Benichou S, Niedergang F. Inhibition of phagocytosis in HIV-1-infected macrophages relies on Nef-dependent alteration of focal delivery of recycling compartments. Blood. 2010;115:4226-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that HIV-1 impairs optimal phagosome formation through Nef-dependent perturbation of the endosomal remodeling relying on AP1. We therefore identified a mechanism of macrophage function down-regulation in infected cells. ..
  57. Tavares L, da Silva E, da Silva Januário M, Januário Y, de Cavalho J, Czernisz É, et al. CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the ?1 and ?2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:429-443 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide evidence that the presence of ?1 or ?2 subunits delineates two distinct variants of AP-1 complexes, with different functions in protein sorting. ..
  58. Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail. Retrovirology. 2013;10:54 pubmed publisher
    ..It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms. ..
  59. Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K. Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that interact with gamma-synergin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:719-25 pubmed
  60. Hoya M, Yanguas F, Moro S, Prescianotto Baschong C, Doncel C, de Leon N, et al. Traffic Through the Trans-Golgi Network and the Endosomal System Requires Collaboration Between Exomer and Clathrin Adaptors in Fission Yeast. Genetics. 2017;205:673-690 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the effect of eliminating exomer is more pervasive than that described to date, and suggest that exomer complexes might participate in diverse steps of vesicle transport in other organisms. ..
  61. Knuehl C, Chen C, Manalo V, Hwang P, Ota N, Brodsky F. Novel binding sites on clathrin and adaptors regulate distinct aspects of coat assembly. Traffic. 2006;7:1688-700 pubmed
    ..Thus, the distinct sites for clathrin-adaptor interactions perform distinct functions, revealing new aspects to regulation of CCV formation. ..
  62. Kueck T, Foster T, Weinelt J, Sumner J, Pickering S, Neil S. Serine Phosphorylation of HIV-1 Vpu and Its Binding to Tetherin Regulates Interaction with Clathrin Adaptors. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005141 pubmed publisher
  63. Zhu Y, Doray B, Poussu A, Lehto V, Kornfeld S. Binding of GGA2 to the lysosomal enzyme sorting motif of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Science. 2001;292:1716-8 pubmed
    ..The hinge domain of GGA2 bound clathrin, suggesting that GGA2 could be a link between cargo molecules and clathrin-coated vesicle assembly. Thus, GGA2 binding to the CI-MPR is important for lysosomal enzyme targeting. ..
  64. Lubben N, Sahlender D, Motley A, Lehner P, Benaroch P, Robinson M. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation of MHC class I requires AP-1 and clathrin but not PACS-1 and is impeded by AP-2. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3351-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that depleting AP-2 potentiates Nef activity by altering the membrane composition and dynamics of endosomes and causing increased delivery of HLA-A2 to a prelysosomal compartment. ..
  65. Austin C, Boehm M, Tooze S. Site-specific cross-linking reveals a differential direct interaction of class 1, 2, and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3. Biochemistry. 2002;41:4669-77 pubmed
  66. Navarro Negredo P, Edgar J, Manna P, Antrobus R, Robinson M. The WDR11 complex facilitates the tethering of AP-1-derived vesicles. Nat Commun. 2018;9:596 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the complex acts together with TBC1D23 to facilitate the golgin-mediated capture of vesicles that were generated using AP-1. ..
  67. Bultema J, Ambrosio A, Burek C, Di Pietro S. BLOC-2, AP-3, and AP-1 proteins function in concert with Rab38 and Rab32 proteins to mediate protein trafficking to lysosome-related organelles. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19550-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, analysis of tyrosinase-related protein-2 and total melanin production indicates that Rab32 has unique functions that cannot be carried out by Rab38 in melanosome biogenesis. ..
  68. Rybakin V, Gounko N, Späte K, Honing S, Majoul I, Duden R, et al. Crn7 interacts with AP-1 and is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology and protein export from the Golgi. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31070-8 pubmed
    ..We identify tyrosine 288-based motif as part of a canonical YXXPhi sorting signal and a major mu1-adaptin binding site in vitro. This study provides the first insight into the function of mammalian Crn7 protein in the Golgi complex. ..