GALR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GALR2
Description: galanin receptor 2
Alias: GAL2-R, GALNR2, GALR-2, galanin receptor type 2
Species: human
Products:     GALR2

Top Publications

  1. Kanazawa T, Misawa K, Misawa Y, Maruta M, Uehara T, Kawada K, et al. Galanin receptor 2 utilizes distinct signaling pathways to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in HNSCC. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10:1289-94 pubmed publisher
    Galanin and its receptors, GALR1 and GALR2, are tumor suppressors and represent therapeutic targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)...
  2. Yang Y, Zhang Y, Li X, Li Y, Qian R, Li J, et al. Involvements of galanin and its receptors in antinociception in nucleus accumbens of rats with inflammatory pain. Neurosci Res. 2015;97:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot also showed, that the expression of galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) and galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) were significantly upregulated in NAc at 3 hour after a subcutaneous injection of carrageenin...
  3. Kolodziejski P, Pruszynska Oszmalek E, Micker M, Skrzypski M, Wojciechowicz T, Szwarckopf P, et al. Spexin: A novel regulator of adipogenesis and fat tissue metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2018;1863:1228-1236 pubmed publisher
    ..SPX and its receptors, GALR2 and GALR3, are present at mRNA and protein levels in murine 3T3-L1 cells and human adipocytes...
  4. Metcalf C, Klein B, McDougle D, Zhang L, Smith M, Bulaj G, et al. Analgesic properties of a peripherally acting and GalR2 receptor-preferring galanin analog in inflammatory, neuropathic, and acute pain models. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015;352:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..studies of a monodisperse oligoethylene glycol-containing galanin analog, NAX 409-9 (previously reported as GalR2-dPEG24), in rodent analgesic and safety models...
  5. Diaz Cabiale Z, Flores Burgess A, Parrado C, Narvaez M, Millón C, Puigcerver A, et al. Galanin receptor/neuropeptide y receptor interactions in the central nervous system. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2014;15:666-72 pubmed
    ..The galanin fragment (Gal 1-15) preferring receptors may instead be formed by the GalR1-GalR2 heteromer which in the NTS may interact with Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptors...
  6. Fang P, He B, Yu M, Shi M, Zhu Y, Zhang Z, et al. Central galanin receptor 2 mediates galanin action to promote systemic glucose metabolism of type 2 diabetic rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;156:241-247 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether central type 2 of GAL receptors (GALR2) are involved in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and its underlying mechanisms...
  7. SCANLON C, Banerjee R, Inglehart R, Liu M, Russo N, Hariharan A, et al. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6885 pubmed publisher
    ..the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-..
  8. Borroto Escuela D, Narvaez M, Di Palma M, Calvo F, Rodriguez D, Millón C, et al. Preferential activation by galanin 1-15 fragment of the GalR1 protomer of a GalR1-GalR2 heteroreceptor complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..was introduced that these N-terminal galanin fragment preferring sites are formed through the formation of GalR1-GalR2 heteromers which may play a significant role in mediating galanin fragment (1-15) signaling...
  9. Misawa K, Misawa Y, Kondo H, Mochizuki D, Imai A, Fukushima H, et al. Aberrant methylation inactivates somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118588 pubmed publisher
    ..043), stage (P = 0.008), galanin receptor type 2 (GALR2) methylation (P = 0.041), and tachykinin-1 (TAC1) (P = 0.040)...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Kinney J, Sanchez Alavez M, Barr A, Criado J, Crawley J, Behrens M, et al. Impairment of memory consolidation by galanin correlates with in vivo inhibition of both LTP and CREB phosphorylation. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;92:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo inhibition of dentate gyrus-LTP and of CREB phosphorylation by the agonist occupancy of GalR1 and GalR2-type galanin receptors provides strong in vivo cellular and molecular correlates to galanin-induced learning ..
  2. Garcia Rosa S, Trivella D, Marques V, Serafim R, Pereira J, Lorenzi J, et al. A non-functional galanin receptor-2 in a multiple sclerosis patient. Pharmacogenomics J. 2019;19:72-82 pubmed publisher
    ..single nucleotide variant (SNV; rs61745847) of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) galanin-receptor 2 (GALR2) that alters an important amino acid in the TM6 molecular toggle switch region (W249L)...
  3. Bai Y, Ma H, Liu L, Li H, Li X, Yang Y, et al. Activation of galanin receptor 1 inhibits locus coeruleus neurons via GIRK channels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..a dose-dependent hyperpolarization of LC neurons and this effect was attenuated by knockdown of Galr1, but not Galr2, confirming that mainly GALR1 mediates the inhibition effect of GAL...
  4. Borroto Escuela D, Narvaez M, Ambrogini P, Ferraro L, Brito I, Romero Fernandez W, et al. Receptor⁻Receptor Interactions in Multiple 5-HT1A Heteroreceptor Complexes in Raphe-Hippocampal 5-HT Transmission and Their Relevance for Depression and Its Treatment. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..was reported to enhance the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine through the putative formation of GalR1⁻GalR2⁻5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes...
  5. Petschner P, Juhasz G, Tamasi V, Adori C, Tothfalusi L, Hökfelt T, et al. Chronic venlafaxine treatment fails to alter the levels of galanin system transcripts in normal rats. Neuropeptides. 2016;57:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors (GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3) are among the promising targets...
  6. Gajewska A, Zielińska Górska M, Wasilewska Dziubinska E, Baran M, Kotarba G, Gorski K. Pituitary galaninergic system activity in female rats: the regulatory role of gonadal steroids. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:423-9 pubmed
    ..Relative GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3 mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR, and pituitary galanin concentration was ..
  7. Zhang X, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Yu L. Involvement of galanin receptor 2 and CaMKII in galanin-induced antinociception in periaqueductal grey of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;604:124-7 pubmed publisher
    The present study was performed to explore the effect of the galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) antagonist M871 on the galanin-induced antinociception in periaqueductal grey (PAG), and an involvement of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (..
  8. Schrödl F, Kaser Eichberger A, Trost A, Strohmaier C, Bogner B, Runge C, et al. Distribution of galanin receptors in the human eye. Exp Eye Res. 2015;138:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In the retina, GALR1 was present in fibers of the IPL, OPL, NFL, many cells of the INL and few cells of the ONL. GALR2 and GALR3 were present in few neurons of the INL, while GALR2 was also found surrounding retinal vessels...
  9. Flores Burgess A, Millón C, Gago B, Narvaez M, Borroto Escuela D, Mengod G, et al. Galanin (1-15) enhancement of the behavioral effects of Fluoxetine in the forced swimming test gives a new therapeutic strategy against depression. Neuropharmacology. 2017;118:233-241 pubmed publisher
    ..enhances the antidepressant-like effects induced by FLX in the FST, and we demonstrate the involvement of GALR1/GALR2 heteroreceptor complex in the GAL(1-15)-mediated effect using in vivo rat models for siRNA GALR1 or GALR2 ..
  10. Zalecki M, Sienkiewicz W, Franke Radowiecka A, Klimczuk M, Kaleczyc J. The Influence of Gastric Antral Ulcerations on the Expression of Galanin and GalR1, GalR2, GalR3 Receptors in the Pylorus with Regard to Gastric Intrinsic Innervation of the Pyloric Sphincter. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155658 pubmed publisher
    ..there is lack of data considering antral ulcerations in relation to changes in the expression of Gal and GalR1, GalR2, GalR3 receptors in the pyloric wall tissue and galaninergic intramural innervation of the pylorus...
  11. Ma A, Bai J, He M, Wong A. Spexin as a neuroendocrine signal with emerging functions. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:90-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, different isoforms of SPX and their binding with their cognate receptors GalR2 and GalR3, the biological functions of SPX reported in mammals including GI tract movement, energy balance and ..
  12. Zhang Z, Fang P, Shi M, Zhu Y, Bo P. Elevated galanin may predict the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus for development of Alzheimer's disease. Mech Ageing Dev. 2015;150:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The current data support that activating central GalR2 attenuates insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease feature in animal models...
  13. Wang P, Li H, Barde S, Zhang M, Sun J, Wang T, et al. Depression-like behavior in rat: Involvement of galanin receptor subtype 1 in the ventral periaqueductal gray. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4726-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcripts for galanin and two of its receptors, galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) and GALR2, were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR using laser capture microdissection in the following brain regions: ..
  14. Mensah E, Blanco A, Donini A, Unniappan S. Brain and intestinal expression of galanin-like peptide (GALP), galanin receptor R1 and galanin receptor R2, and GALP regulation of food intake in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Neurosci Lett. 2017;637:126-135 pubmed publisher
    ..Since its discovery, GALP and its receptors (GALR1 and GALR2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on GALP in fish and other non-mammals...
  15. Metcalf C, Smith M, Klein B, McDougle D, Zhang L, Bulaj G. Preclinical Analgesic and Safety Evaluation of the GalR2-preferring Analog, NAX 810-2. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:1983-1994 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the lead galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2)-preferring analog, NAX 810-2, in various pain assays, as well as determine any potential for ..
  16. Freimann K, Kurrikoff K, Langel Ã. Galanin receptors as a potential target for neurological disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2015;19:1665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Galanin exerts its biological activities through three different G protein-coupled receptors, GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3...
  17. Lin C, Zhang M, Huang T, Yang L, Fu H, Zhao L, et al. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12095 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, spexin dose-dependently stimulated the intestinal/colonic smooth muscle contraction. Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) antagonist M871, but not Galanin receptor 3 (GALR3) antagonist SNAP37899, effectively suppressed the stimulatory ..
  18. Kawa L, Barde S, Arborelius U, Theodorsson E, AGOSTON D, Risling M, et al. Expression of galanin and its receptors are perturbed in a rodent model of mild, blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Exp Neurol. 2016;279:159-167 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ventral periaqueductal gray GalR1 mRNA levels were increased, while GalR2 were decreased...
  19. Medel Matus J, Shin D, Sankar R, Mazarati A. Galanin contributes to monoaminergic dysfunction and to dependent neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy. Exp Neurol. 2017;289:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Galanin receptor type 1 (GalR1)/type 2 (GalR2) antagonist M40, and a preferential GalR2 antagonist M871 were administered over 3days locally into either RN or ..
  20. Patai Ã, Barták B, Péterfia B, Micsik T, Horváth R, Sumánszki C, et al. Comprehensive DNA Methylation and Mutation Analyses Reveal a Methylation Signature in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Adenomas. Pathol Oncol Res. 2017;23:589-594 pubmed publisher
    ..12 genes (CALCA, DKK2, GALR2, OPCML, PCDH10, SFRP1, SFRP2, SLIT3, SST, TAC1, VIM, WIF1) were hypermethylated in all SSAs and 2 additional genes ..
  21. Millón C, Flores Burgess A, Narváez M, Borroto Escuela D, Santín L, Gago B, et al. Galanin (1-15) enhances the antidepressant effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT: involvement of the raphe-hippocampal 5-HT neuron system. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:4491-4504 pubmed
    ..The involvement of the GALR2 was demonstrated with the GALR2 antagonist M871...
  22. Kanazawa T, Misawa K, Misawa Y, Uehara T, Fukushima H, Kusaka G, et al. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Next Generation Therapeutic Targets in Head and Neck Cancer?. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:2959-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the roles that galanin receptor type 1 (GALR1) and type 2 (GALR2), tachykinin receptor type 1 (TACR1), and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SST1) play in HNSCC...
  23. Kim E, Jeong I, Kim S, Kim H, Lee D, Kim B, et al. Distribution of galanin receptor 2b neurons and interaction with galanin in the zebrafish central nervous system. Neurosci Lett. 2016;628:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..e., GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3...
  24. Narváez M, Borroto Escuela D, Millón C, Gago B, Flores Burgess A, Santín L, et al. Galanin receptor 2-neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor interactions in the dentate gyrus are related with antidepressant-like effects. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:4129-4139 pubmed
    ..The present study examined the interaction between Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Hippocampus in relation to depression-..
  25. Khan D, Khan M, Runesson J, Zaben M, Gray W. GalR3 mediates galanin proliferative effects on postnatal hippocampal precursors. Neuropeptides. 2017;63:14-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the GalR2/3 receptor agonist Gal 2-11 is proliferative and proneurogenic for postnatal hippocampal progenitor cells; however,..
  26. Li Y, Mei Z, Liu S, Wang T, Li H, Li X, et al. Galanin Protects from Caspase-8/12-initiated Neuronal Apoptosis in the Ischemic Mouse Brain via GalR1. Aging Dis. 2017;8:85-100 pubmed publisher
    ..GalR1 was confirmed as the receptor responsible for GAL-induced neuroprotection by using GalR2/3 agonist AR-M1896 and Lentivirus-based RNAi knockdown of GalR1...
  27. Gonda X, Hullám G, Antal P, Eszlari N, Petschner P, Hökfelt T, et al. Significance of risk polymorphisms for depression depends on stress exposure. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3946 pubmed publisher
    ..Rank order of genes was GALR2 > BDNF > P2RX7 > HTR1A > SLC6A4 >â..
  28. Constantin S, Wray S. Galanin Activates G Protein Gated Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels and Suppresses Kisspeptin-10 Activation of GnRH Neurons. Endocrinology. 2016;157:3197-212 pubmed publisher
    ..This inhibition was mimicked by a GalR1 agonist but not by GalR2 or GalR2/3 agonists...
  29. Hui W, Cheng Q, Liu T, Ouyang Q. Homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation of the receptor GALR2 and its interactions with galanin and a positive allosteric modulator. J Mol Model. 2016;22:90 pubmed publisher
    b>Galanin receptor type 2 (GALR2) is a class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and it has been reported that orthosteric ligands and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GALR2 could potentially be used to treat epilepsy...
  30. Bovell D, Holub B, Odusanwo O, Brodowicz B, Rauch I, Kofler B, et al. Galanin is a modulator of eccrine sweat gland secretion. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22:141-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, human sweat glands expressed galanin receptors GalR2 and GalR3...
  31. Millón C, Flores Burgess A, Castilla Ortega E, Gago B, Garcia Fernandez M, Serrano A, et al. Central administration of galanin N-terminal fragment 1-15 decreases the voluntary alcohol intake in rats. Addict Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..GAL receptor (GALR) 2 was involved in these effects, because the specific GALR2 antagonist M871 blocked GAL(1-15) mediated actions in preference and ethanol intake...
  32. Sipkova J, Kramáriková I, Hynie S, Klenerova V. The galanin and galanin receptor subtypes, its regulatory role in the biological and pathological functions. Physiol Res. 2017;66:729-740 pubmed
    ..The effect of these peptides is mediated through three galanin receptors subtypes, GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3 belonging to G protein coupled receptors, and signaling via multiple transduction pathways, including ..
  33. Pan N, Bai Y, Yang Y, Hokfelt T, Xu Z. Activation of galanin receptor 2 stimulates large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channels through the IP3 pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;446:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the whole-cell currents and single-channel activities in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells co-expressing GalR2 and the BK alpha subunit...
  34. Tofighi R, Barde S, Palkovits M, Höög A, Hokfelt T, Ceccatelli S, et al. Galanin and its three receptors in human pituitary adenoma. Neuropeptides. 2012;46:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Galanin, GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA, but not GalR3 mRNA, were found in the twelve human post-mortem pituitaries...
  35. Banerjee R, Van Tubergen E, Scanlon C, Vander Broek R, Lints J, Liu M, et al. The G protein-coupled receptor GALR2 promotes angiogenesis in head and neck cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014;13:1323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that induces aggressive tumor growth in SCCHN...
  36. Le Maitre E, Barde S, Palkovits M, Diaz Heijtz R, Hökfelt T. Distinct features of neurotransmitter systems in the human brain with focus on the galanin system in locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..at the LC level ranked the transcripts in the following order in the LC: galanin > GalR3 > GalR1 > GalR2; in the DRN the ranking was galanin > GalR3 > GalR1 = GalR2...
  37. Banerjee R, Henson B, Russo N, Tsodikov A, D Silva N. Rap1 mediates galanin receptor 2-induced proliferation and survival in squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and survival, we investigated the effect of GAL on SCCHN progression via induction of galanin receptor 2 (GALR2)-mediated rap1 activation...
  38. Berger A, Tuechler C, Almer D, Kogner P, Ratschek M, Kerbl R, et al. Elevated expression of galanin receptors in childhood neuroblastic tumors. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;75:130-8 pubmed
    ..021) in this limited analysis of neuroblastic tumor samples. These results raise the possibility that the expression of GAL binding sites may play a role in neuroblastic tumor biology and behavior. ..
  39. Kim J, Lee H, Cho D, Choi E, Cho Y, Ha Y, et al. Genome-wide identification of possible methylation markers chemosensitive to targeted regimens in colorectal cancers. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:1571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Five methylation genes related to sensitivity to bevacizumab regimens (RASSF1, MMP25, KCNQ1, ESR1, and GALR2) or cetuximab regimens (SCL18A2, GPX7, NID2, IGFBP3, and ALX4) were chosen during the first step...
  40. Bono F, De Smet F, Herbert C, De Bock K, Georgiadou M, Fons P, et al. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth by a small-molecule multi-FGF receptor blocker with allosteric properties. Cancer Cell. 2013;23:477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, orally-active extracellularly acting small-molecule modulators of RTKs with allosteric properties can be developed and may offer opportunities to improve anticancer treatment. ..
  41. da Conceição Machado F, de Souza L, Rangel M, Jara Z, do Carmo Franco M. Implication of galanin gene rs948854 polymorphism in depressive symptoms in adolescents. Horm Behav. 2018;97:14-17 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs, both located within the promoter region of the GAL gene, rs11665337 in the GALR1 receptor, and rs8836 in the GALR2 receptor on depressive symptoms were examined. The results indicated that 30.4% of the participants had depression...
  42. Guipponi M, Chentouf A, Webling K, Freimann K, Crespel A, Nobile C, et al. Galanin pathogenic mutations in temporal lobe epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3082-91 pubmed publisher
    ..galanin receptor 1 (GalR1)-mediated response, and decreased binding affinity and reduced agonist properties for GalR2. These findings suggest that the p...
  43. Bloomquist B, Beauchamp M, Zhelnin L, Brown S, Gore Willse A, Gregor P, et al. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;243:474-9 pubmed
    ..Two galanin receptor subtypes, GalR1 and GalR2, have been cloned; however, for GalR2 only the rat sequence has been reported in the literature...
  44. Jurkowski W, Yazdi S, Elofsson A. Ligand binding properties of human galanin receptors. Mol Membr Biol. 2013;30:206-16 pubmed publisher
    The galanin receptor family comprises of three members, GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3, all belonging to the G-protein-couple receptor superfamily...
  45. Borowsky B, Walker M, Huang L, Jones K, Smith K, Bard J, et al. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. Peptides. 1998;19:1771-81 pubmed
    ..By RT-PCR, GALR2 mRNA was abundant in human hippocampus, hypothalamus, heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine...
  46. Misawa Y, Misawa K, Kanazawa T, Uehara T, Endo S, Mochizuki D, et al. Tumor suppressor activity and inactivation of galanin receptor type 2 by aberrant promoter methylation in head and neck cancer. Cancer. 2014;120:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..on the hypothesis that cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) hypermethylation might silence the galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) gene...
  47. Holub B, Kloepper J, Tóth B, Biro T, Kofler B, Paus R. The neuropeptide galanin is a novel inhibitor of human hair growth. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Galanin receptor transcripts (GalR2, GalR3) were also detected in selected samples...
  48. Berger A, Lang R, Moritz K, Santic R, Hermann A, Sperl W, et al. Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:500-7 pubmed
    ..affinity binding sites for galanin in SH-SY5Y cells transfected with the galanin receptors GalR1 (SY5Y/GalR1) and GalR2 (SY5Y/GalR2)...
  49. Fathi Z, Battaglino P, Iben L, Li H, Baker E, Zhang D, et al. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;58:156-69 pubmed
    ..By fluorescence in situ hybridization, the gene encoding human GALR2 (GALNR2) has been localized to chromosome 17q25.3...
  50. Tofighi R, Joseph B, Xia S, Xu Z, Hamberger B, Hokfelt T, et al. Galanin decreases proliferation of PC12 cells and induces apoptosis via its subtype 2 receptor (GalR2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2717-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied the effects of galanin in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells stably transfected with GFP-tagged GalR2. Galanin at 100 nM inhibited cell proliferation in both nontransfected and transfected cells...
  51. Yamamoto H, Arai T, Ben S, Iguchi K, Hoshino M. Expression of galanin and galanin receptor mRNA in skin during the formation of granulation tissue. Endocrine. 2011;40:400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, galanin receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (GALR1 and GALR2)-expressing cells were observed around microvessels and were found to produce desmin...
  52. Uehara T, Kanazawa T, Mizukami H, Uchibori R, Tsukahara T, Urabe M, et al. Novel anti-tumor mechanism of galanin receptor type 2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cancer Sci. 2014;105:72-80 pubmed publisher
    Galanin and its receptors, GALR1 and GALR2, are known tumor suppressors and potential therapeutic targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)...
  53. Belfer I, Hipp H, Bollettino A, McKnight C, Evans C, Virkkunen M, et al. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:473-81 pubmed
    ..Four genes encoding galanin and its receptors have been identified (GAL, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3)...
  54. Kolakowski L, O Neill G, Howard A, Broussard S, Sullivan K, Feighner S, et al. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. J Neurochem. 1998;71:2239-51 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning of the human GALR2 and GALR3 genes, an initial characterization of their pharmacology with respect to radioligand binding and signal ..
  55. Juhasz G, Hullám G, Eszlari N, Gonda X, Antal P, Anderson I, et al. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who ..
  56. Misawa K, Mochizuki D, Endo S, Mima M, Misawa Y, Imai A, et al. Site-specific methylation patterns of the GAL and GALR1/2 genes in head and neck cancer: Potential utility as biomarkers for prognosis. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:1107-1116 pubmed publisher
    ..Among patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, promoter hypermethylation of GAL, GALR1, or GALR2 was statistically correlated with a decrease in disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.036 and P = 0...
  57. Misawa K, Misawa Y, Kanazawa T, Mochizuki D, Imai A, Endo S, et al. Epigenetic inactivation of galanin and GALR1/2 is associated with early recurrence in head and neck cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2016;33:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The methylation status of three genes-GAL, GALR1, and GALR2 was examined in HNSCC patient tumors using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP)...
  58. Coronel M, Villar M, Brumovsky P, Gonzalez S. Spinal neuropeptide expression and neuropathic behavior in the acute and chronic phases after spinal cord injury: Effects of progesterone administration. Peptides. 2017;88:189-195 pubmed publisher
    ..temporal changes in the expression of the neuropeptides galanin and tyrosine (NPY) and their receptors (GalR1 and GalR2; Y1R and Y2R, respectively) in the injured spinal cord and evaluated the impact of PG administration on both ..
  59. Yamamoto H, Okada R, Tanaka R, Unno K, Iguchi K. Expression of a urokinase-type plasminogen activator during tumor growth leads to angiogenesis via galanin activation in tumor-bearing mice. FEBS Open Bio. 2017;7:1784-1792 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, galanin had no effect on the hemoglobin content of tumors derived from cells lacking GALR2. These results demonstrate the regulation of urokinase expression in tumors through progalanin activation in ..
  60. Fang P, Zhang L, Yu M, Sheng Z, Shi M, Zhu Y, et al. Activiated galanin receptor 2 attenuates insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of obese mice. Peptides. 2018;99:92-98 pubmed publisher
    ..But no literature are available regarding the effect of galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) on insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes...
  61. Kim D, Yun S, Son G, Hwang J, Park C, Kim J, et al. Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1864-73 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors, and synteny revealed the presence of 3 distinct receptor families KISS receptor, GALR1, and GALR2/3 before 2R...