galectin 3


Gene Symbol: galectin 3
Description: galectin 3
Alias: CBP35, GAL3, GALBP, GALIG, L31, LGALS2, MAC2, galectin-3, 35 kDa lectin, IgE-binding protein, MAC-2 antigen, advanced glycation end-product receptor 3, carbohydrate-binding protein 35, galactose-specific lectin 3, laminin-binding protein, lectin L-29, lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3
Species: human
Products:     galectin 3

Top Publications

  1. Balan V, Nangia Makker P, Jung Y, Wang Y, Raz A. Galectin-3: A novel substrate for c-Abl kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:1198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is needed to better understand the functional significance of the novel tyrosine phosphorylated sites of galectin-3. ..
  2. Lok D, Lok S, Bruggink André de la Porte P, Badings E, Lipsic E, van Wijngaarden J, et al. Galectin-3 is an independent marker for ventricular remodeling and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Res Cardiol. 2013;102:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Gal-3 is associated with left ventricular remodeling determined by serial echocardiography and predicts long-term mortality in patients with severe chronic HF. ..
  3. Knapp J, Lokeshwar S, Vogel U, Hennenlotter J, Schwentner C, Kramer M, et al. Galectin-3 expression in prostate cancer and benign prostate tissues: correlation with biochemical recurrence. World J Urol. 2013;31:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study that showed a decreasing gradient of Gal-3 expression in benign, adjacent-benign and tumor tissues. Gal-3 expression may be useful in predicting biochemical recurrence. ..
  4. Alves P, Godoy G, Gomes D, Medeiros A, de Souza L, da Silveira E, et al. Significance of galectins-1, -3, -4 and -7 in the progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:236-40 pubmed publisher
  5. Saussez S, Glinoer D, Chantrain G, Pattou F, Carnaille B, Andre S, et al. Serum galectin-1 and galectin-3 levels in benign and malignant nodular thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2008;18:705-12 pubmed publisher
  6. Shi Y, He B, Kuchenbecker K, You L, Xu Z, Mikami I, et al. Inhibition of Wnt-2 and galectin-3 synergistically destabilizes beta-catenin and induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1175-81 pubmed
    ..The combined inhibition of Wnt-2 and Gal-3 may be of superior therapeutic advantage to inhibition by either one of them, giving rise to a potential development of novel drugs for the targeted treatment of colorectal cancer. ..
  7. Lin C, Whang E, Abramson M, Donner D, Bertagnolli M, Moore F, et al. Galectin-3 regulates apoptosis and doxorubicin chemoresistance in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations support further evaluation of Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with aggressive PTC. ..
  8. Merseburger A, Kramer M, Hennenlotter J, Serth J, Kruck S, Gracia A, et al. Loss of galectin-3 expression correlates with clear cell renal carcinoma progression and reduced survival. World J Urol. 2008;26:637-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a loss of galectin-3 expression is involved in renal carcinogenesis. ..
  9. Cheng Y, Huang W, Chen C, Tsai C, Wang C, Chiu W, et al. Increased galectin-3 facilitates leukemia cell survival from apoptotic stimuli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that GSK-3? upregulated galectin-3 and stabilized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, which is important for the escape of leukemia cells from apoptotic stimuli. ..

More Information


  1. Dhirapong A, Lleo A, Leung P, Gershwin M, Liu F. The immunological potential of galectin-1 and -3. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, understanding the role of galectins in achieving appropriate proliferative and effector responses to antigens will yield important insights to autoimmune diseases and delineate novel strategies for disease intervention. ..
  2. Zeng Y, Danielson K, Albert T, Shapiro I, Risbud M. HIF-1 alpha is a regulator of galectin-3 expression in the intervertebral disc. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1851-61 pubmed
    ..In nucleus pulposus cells, suppression of gal-3 expression promoted FasL-mediated apoptosis. Together, these studies showed that gal-3 is a HIF-1-regulated lectin that plays an important role in nucleus pulposus cell survival. ..
  3. Sakaki M, Oka N, Nakanishi R, Yamaguchi K, Fukumori T, Kanayama H. Serum level of galectin-3 in human bladder cancer. J Med Invest. 2008;55:127-32 pubmed
    ..Higher expression of galectin-3 was observed in bladder cancer tissue than in normal bladder tissue. We suggest the measurement of serum galectin-3 is useful for diagnosis of bladder cancer. ..
  4. Yamaki S, Fujii T, Yajima R, Hirakata T, Yamaguchi S, Fujisawa T, et al. Clinicopathological significance of decreased galectin-3 expression and the long-term prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Surg Today. 2013;43:901-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, reduced expression of galectin-3 is useful for predicting a long-term poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. ..
  5. Yamamoto Sugitani M, Kuroda J, Ashihara E, Nagoshi H, Kobayashi T, Matsumoto Y, et al. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induced by leukemia microenvironment promotes drug resistance and bone marrow lodgment in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that Gal-3 may be a candidate therapeutic target to help overcome BMME-mediated therapeutic resistance. ..
  6. Boscher C, Zheng Y, Lakshminarayan R, Johannes L, Dennis J, Foster L, et al. Galectin-3 protein regulates mobility of N-cadherin and GM1 ganglioside at cell-cell junctions of mammary carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32940-52 pubmed
  7. Blanquart C, Gueugnon F, Nguyen J, Roulois D, Cellerin L, Sagan C, et al. CCL2, galectin-3, and SMRP combination improves the diagnosis of mesothelioma in pleural effusions. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9680), when compared with SMRP alone. The combination of SMRP/CCL2/galectin-3 seems to represent a promising panel of biomarkers for the reliable diagnosis of MPM in pleural fluids. ..
  8. Balan V, Nangia Makker P, Kho D, Wang Y, Raz A. Tyrosine-phosphorylated galectin-3 protein is resistant to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the ratio of phosphorylated/dephosphorylated galectin-3 might be used as a complementary value to that of PSA for prognosis of prostate cancer and a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  9. Calvier L, Miana M, Reboul P, Cachofeiro V, Martínez Martínez E, de Boer R, et al. Galectin-3 mediates aldosterone-induced vascular fibrosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Gal-3 is required for inflammatory and fibrotic responses to Aldo in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role for Gal-3 in vascular fibrosis. ..
  10. Haudek K, Voss P, Locascio L, Wang J, Patterson R. A mechanism for incorporation of galectin-3 into the spliceosome through its association with U1 snRNP. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify galectin-3 as a polypeptide associated with snRNPs in the absence of splicing substrate and describe a mechanism for the assembly of galectin-3 onto the forming spliceosome. ..
  11. Lin Y, Lin L, Wu Y, Chien K, Lee C, Hsu R, et al. The relationship between serum galectin-3 and serum markers of cardiac extracellular matrix turnover in heart failure patients. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;409:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Galectin-3 is significantly correlated with serum markers of cardiac ECM turnover in HF patients. This implies a relationship between macrophage activation and ECM turnover in patients with HF. ..
  12. Ríos Moreno M, Galera Ruiz H, de Miguel M, López M, Illanes M, Galera Davidson H. Inmunohistochemical profile of solid cell nest of thyroid gland. Endocr Pathol. 2011;22:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Parathormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid transcription factor (TTF-1), galectin 3 (GAL3), cytokeratin 19 (CK 19), p63, bcl-2, OCT4, and SALL4 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
  13. Wang Y, Nangia Makker P, Tait L, Balan V, Hogan V, Pienta K, et al. Regulation of prostate cancer progression by galectin-3. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The data obtained here implicate galectin-3 in prostate cancer progression and suggest that galectin-3 may serve as both a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for future disease treatments. ..
  14. Mazurek N, Byrd J, Sun Y, Hafley M, Ramirez K, Burks J, et al. Cell-surface galectin-3 confers resistance to TRAIL by impeding trafficking of death receptors in metastatic colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify a novel TRAIL-resistance mechanism in which galectin-3 impedes trafficking of death receptor by anchoring them in glycan nano-clusters, blocking the execution of the apoptosis signal. ..
  15. Dawson H, Andre S, Karamitopoulou E, Zlobec I, Gabius H. The growing galectin network in colon cancer and clinical relevance of cytoplasmic galectin-3 reactivity. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:3053-9 pubmed
    ..These results encourage further testing of labeled human galectins as probes and immunohistochemical fingerprinting instead of measuring single or few activities, in colon cancer and other tumor types. ..
  16. Margadant C, van den Bout I, Van Boxtel A, Thijssen V, Sonnenberg A. Epigenetic regulation of galectin-3 expression by ?1 integrins promotes cell adhesion and migration. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:44684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identify a functional feedback-loop between ?1 integrins and Gal-3 that involves the epigenetic induction of Gal-3 expression during integrin-induced EMT and cell scattering. ..
  17. Mourad Zeidan A, Melnikova V, Wang H, Raz A, Bar Eli M. Expression profiling of Galectin-3-depleted melanoma cells reveals its major role in melanoma cell plasticity and vasculogenic mimicry. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1839-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Gal-3 plays an essential role during the acquisition of vasculogenic mimicry and angiogenic properties associated with melanoma progression. ..
  18. Liang Y, Li H, Hou S, Hu B, Miao J, Li T, et al. [The expression of galectin-3 and osteopontin in occult metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:1061-3 pubmed
    ..2 +/- 24.0) microg/L. High serum levels of Gal-3 and OPN and high expression of Gal-3 and OPN mRNA in NSCLC are closely related to the occurrence and metastasis of NSCLC. They may be indexes of evaluating the occult metastasis in NSCLC. ..
  19. Kobayashi T, Shimura T, Yajima T, Kubo N, Araki K, Wada W, et al. Transient silencing of galectin-3 expression promotes both in vitro and in vivo drug-induced apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011;28:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that gal-3 might provide a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. ..
  20. Zaia Povegliano L, Oshima C, De Oliveira Lima F, Andrade Scherholz P, Manoukian Forones N. Immunoexpression of galectin-3 in colorectal cancer and its relationship with survival. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2011;42:217-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a higher risk of death was not found on this group. ..
  21. Kim D, Kim K, Yoo B, Hong S, Lim Y, Shin Y, et al. Identification of mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase interacting with galectin-3 in colon cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1884-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of cell cycle synchronizing drugs, doxorubicin, etoposide, or nocodazole, suppression of galectin-3 induced cell cycle progression to G0/G1 phase. ..
  22. Vladimirova V, Waha A, Lückerath K, Pesheva P, Probstmeier R. Runx2 is expressed in human glioma cells and mediates the expression of galectin-3. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:2450-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their expression patterns only partially overlap with that of Runx2. These data suggest a functional contribution of Runx-2-regulated galectin-3 expression to glial tumor malignancy. ..
  23. Savman K, Heyes M, Svedin P, Karlsson A. Microglia/macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators galectin-3 and quinolinic acid are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from newborn infants after birth asphyxia. Transl Stroke Res. 2013;4:228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The potentially neurotoxic macrophage/microglia-derived mediators galectin-3 and QUIN are increased in CSF after birth asphyxia and could serve as markers and may contribute to injury. ..
  24. van der Velde A, Gullestad L, Ueland T, Aukrust P, Guo Y, Adourian A, et al. Prognostic value of changes in galectin-3 levels over time in patients with heart failure: data from CORONA and COACH. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:219-26 pubmed publisher
  25. Saravanan C, Liu F, Gipson I, Panjwani N. Galectin-3 promotes lamellipodia formation in epithelial cells by interacting with complex N-glycans on alpha3beta1 integrin. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Gal-3 promotes epithelial cell migration by cross-linking MGAT5-modified complex N-glycans on alpha3beta1 integrin and subsequently activating alpha3beta1-integrin-Rac1 signaling to promote lamellipodia formation. ..
  26. Xie L, Ni W, Chen X, Xiao M, Chen B, He S, et al. The expressions and clinical significances of tissue and serum galectin-3 in pancreatic carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum galectin-3 is higher in cases with pancreatic carcinoma than in benign pancreatic diseases and healthy persons. Combined determination of serum galectin-3, CEA and CA199 may improve the diagnostic power for pancreatic carcinoma. ..
  27. Isic T, Savin S, Cvejic D, Marečko I, Tatic S, Havelka M, et al. Serum Cyfra 21.1 and galectin-3 protein levels in relation to immunohistochemical cytokeratin 19 and galectin-3 expression in patients with thyroid tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, a tendency toward higher serum levels of Cyfra 21.1 in the small number of PDTC patients examined adds weight to previous reports postulating a role for cytokeratins in predicting a high degree of malignancy. ..
  28. Peng W, Wang H, Miyahara Y, Peng G, Wang R. Tumor-associated galectin-3 modulates the function of tumor-reactive T cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Gal-3 may function as an immune regulator to inhibit T-cell immune responses and promote tumor growth, thus providing a new mechanism for tumor immune tolerance. ..
  29. Cheng C, Hou H, Lee M, Liu C, Jhuang J, Lai Y, et al. Higher bone marrow LGALS3 expression is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2013;121:3172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In conclusion, BM LGALS3 expression may serve as a new biomarker to predict clinical outcome in patients with AML, and galectin-3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in those patients with higher expression of this protein...
  30. Sanchez Ruderisch H, Fischer C, Detjen K, Welzel M, Wimmel A, Manning J, et al. Tumor suppressor p16 INK4a: Downregulation of galectin-3, an endogenous competitor of the pro-anoikis effector galectin-1, in a pancreatic carcinoma model. FEBS J. 2010;277:3552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A previously undescribed orchestrated fine-tuning of this effector system by a tumor suppressor is discovered. ..
  31. Levy R, Grafi Cohen M, Kraiem Z, Kloog Y. Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:2208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that wild-type K-Ras.GTP in association with Gal-3 contributes to thyroid carcinoma malignancy and that Ras inhibition might be a useful treatment strategy against these deadly tumors. ..
  32. Berbís M, Andre S, Canada F, Pipkorn R, Ippel H, Mayo K, et al. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;443:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein. ..
  33. Chiu C, Strugnell S, Griffith O, Jones S, Gown A, Walker B, et al. Diagnostic utility of galectin-3 in thyroid cancer. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2067-81 pubmed publisher
  34. Demmert M, Faust K, Bohlmann M, Troger B, Gopel W, Herting E, et al. Galectin-3 in cord blood of term and preterm infants. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;167:246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..agalactiae induced expression of galectin-3. Galectin-3 is expressed constitutively in cord blood of neonates and seems to play a role in the innate immunity of this population...
  35. Merseburger A, Kramer M, Hennenlotter J, Simon P, Knapp J, Hartmann J, et al. Involvement of decreased Galectin-3 expression in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2008;68:72-7 pubmed
    ..5%). The present investigation clearly indicates decreased expression of Gal-3 to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis and further progression of CaP from benign prostate glands to a finally hormone-refractory malignant disease. ..
  36. Cederfur C, Salomonsson E, Nilsson J, Halim A, Oberg C, Larson G, et al. Different affinity of galectins for human serum glycoproteins: galectin-3 binds many protease inhibitors and acute phase proteins. Glycobiology. 2008;18:384-94 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhao Q, Guo X, Nash G, Stone P, Hilkens J, Rhodes J, et al. Circulating galectin-3 promotes metastasis by modifying MUC1 localization on cancer cell surface. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides insight into the molecular regulation of metastasis and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. ..
  38. Carvalho R, Fernandes V, Nepomuceno T, Rodrigues D, Woods N, Suarez Kurtz G, et al. Characterization of LGALS3 (galectin-3) as a player in DNA damage response. Cancer Biol Ther. 2014;15:840-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Galectin-3 (GAL3) is the unique member of the chimeric galectins subfamily and is reported to be involved in several cancer ..
  39. Lavra L, Ulivieri A, Rinaldo C, Dominici R, Volante M, Luciani E, et al. Gal-3 is stimulated by gain-of-function p53 mutations and modulates chemoresistance in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. J Pathol. 2009;218:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Interference with Gal-3 expression in these cells stimulated their chemosensitivity. In conclusion, gain-of-function p53 mutant acquires the de novo ability to stimulate Gal-3 expression and to increase chemoresistance in ATCs. ..
  40. Zhang D, Chen Z, Liu S, Dong Z, Dalin M, Bao S, et al. Galectin-3 gene silencing inhibits migration and invasion of human tongue cancer cells in vitro via downregulating ?-catenin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Gal-3 in human tongue cancer progression...
  41. Wu Z, Gan L. [Association of galectin-3 and E-cadherin expressions with lymph node metastasis of colon cancer]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:1731-3 pubmed
    ..Galectin-3 and E-cadherin expressions are associated with lymph node metastasis of colon cancer and may serve as potential prognostic indicators for colon cancer patients. ..
  42. Dumont P, Berton A, Nagy N, Sandras F, Tinton S, Demetter P, et al. Expression of galectin-3 in the tumor immune response in colon cancer. Lab Invest. 2008;88:896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest an involvement of gal-3 in the response of colon cancer cells to proinflammatory stimuli, such as the conditioned medium from activated macrophages. ..
  43. Veschi V, Petroni M, Cardinali B, Dominici C, Screpanti I, Frati L, et al. Galectin-3 impairment of MYCN-dependent apoptosis-sensitive phenotype is antagonized by nutlin-3 in neuroblastoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49139 pubmed publisher
  44. Straube T, Elli A, Greb C, Hegele A, Elsässer H, Delacour D, et al. Changes in the expression and subcellular distribution of galectin-3 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study suggests that the increase in the proportion of galectin-3 affects the balance from a cytosolic distribution towards translocation into the nucleus. ..
  45. Yang E, Shim J, Woo H, Kim K, Kwon H. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 induces angiogenesis through interaction with a pro-angiogenic protein, galectin-3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;363:336-41 pubmed
    ..Finally, exogenous addition of galectin-3 into HUVECs induced angiogenesis in an APN-dependent manner, implying that APN is a crucial mediator of galectin-3-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells. ..
  46. Wang Y, Balan V, Kho D, Hogan V, Nangia Makker P, Raz A. Galectin-3 regulates p21 stability in human prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5058-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a unique insight into the relationship of these two molecules during prostate cancer progression, and may provide a novel therapeutic target. ..
  47. Hann A, Gruner A, Chen Y, Gress T, Buchholz M. Comprehensive analysis of cellular galectin-3 reveals no consistent oncogenic function in pancreatic cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20859 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus do not support a direct functional role of Gal-3 in the malignant transformation of pancreatic epithelial cells, although paracrine or systemic effects of Gal-3 expression are not excluded. ..
  48. Song S, Ji B, Ramachandran V, Wang H, Hafley M, Logsdon C, et al. Overexpressed galectin-3 in pancreatic cancer induces cell proliferation and invasion by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42699 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Gal-3 contributes to pancreatic cancer progression, in part, by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling. Gal-3 may therefore be a potential novel target for this deadly disease. ..
  49. Zhuo Y, Chammas R, Bellis S. Sialylation of beta1 integrins blocks cell adhesion to galectin-3 and protects cells against galectin-3-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22177-85 pubmed publisher
  50. Kim S, Lee S, Sung H, Choi I, Choi C, Kim B, et al. Increased serum 90K and Galectin-3 expression are associated with advanced stage and a worse prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Acta Haematol. 2008;120:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, serum 90K and galectin-3 expression might be useful markers to indicate the extent of lymphoma involvement and prognosis in DLBCL. ..
  51. Cheong T, Shin J, Chun K. Silencing of galectin-3 changes the gene expression and augments the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that galectin-3 is involved in cancer progression and malignancy by modulating the expression of several relevant genes, and inhibition of galectin-3 may be an approach to improve chemotherapy of gastric cancers. ..
  52. Righi A, Jin L, Zhang S, Stilling G, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, et al. Identification and consequences of galectin-3 expression in pituitary tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;326:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its role in pituitary tumor cell proliferation and in apoptosis, galectin-3 may be a target for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. ..
  53. Lok D, van der Meer P, de la Porte P, Lipsic E, van Wijngaarden J, Hillege H, et al. Prognostic value of galectin-3, a novel marker of fibrosis, in patients with chronic heart failure: data from the DEAL-HF study. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010;99:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..026). Plasma galectin-3 is a novel prognostic marker in patients with chronic HF. Its prognostic value is independent of severity of HF, as assessed by NT-proBNP levels, and it may potentially be used in the management of such patients. ..
  54. Bartolazzi A, Bellotti C, Sciacchitano S. Methodology and technical requirements of the galectin-3 test for the preoperative characterization of thyroid nodules. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2012;20:2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The final goal is to decrease unnecessary thyroid surgery and its related social costs. ..
  55. Frol ová L, Smetana K, Borovská D, Kitanovicova A, Klimesova K, Janatkova I, et al. Detection of galectin-3 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: new serum marker of active forms of IBD?. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced concentration of galectin-3 in serum reflects presence of disease and points to its involvement in the pathogenesis. ..
  56. Chen H, Fermin A, Vardhana S, Weng I, Lo K, Chang E, et al. Galectin-3 negatively regulates TCR-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation at the immunological synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14496-501 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the function of endogenous galectin-3 in T cells. Galectin-3-deficient (gal3(-/-)) CD4(+) T cells secreted more IFN-gamma and IL-4 than gal3(+/+)CD4(+) T cells after T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement...
  57. Delaine T, Cumpstey I, Ingrassia L, Le Mercier M, Okechukwu P, Leffler H, et al. Galectin-inhibitory thiodigalactoside ester derivatives have antimigratory effects in cultured lung and prostate cancer cells. J Med Chem. 2008;51:8109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the compounds were selected for testing in cell culture and were shown to have potent antimigratory effects on human PC-3 prostate and human A549 nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells. ..
  58. Chen H, Zheng Z, Yuan B, Liu Z, Jing J, Wang S. The effect of galectin-3 genetic variants on the susceptibility and prognosis of gliomas in a Chinese population. Neurosci Lett. 2012;518:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest the SNPs at +292 A>C, not SNPs at +191 A>C, of galectin-3 gene were associated with the tumor grade and prognosis of gliomas. ..
  59. Weigert J, Neumeier M, Wanninger J, Bauer S, Farkas S, Scherer M, et al. Serum galectin-3 is elevated in obesity and negatively correlates with glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic galectin-3 is elevated in obesity and negatively correlates with glycated hemoglobin in T2D patients, pointing to a modifying function of galectin-3 in human metabolic diseases. ..
  60. Bartolazzi A, Orlandi F, Saggiorato E, Volante M, Arecco F, Rossetto R, et al. Galectin-3-expression analysis in the surgical selection of follicular thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration cytology: a prospective multicentre study. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:543-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The galectin-3 test proposed here does not replace conventional FNA cytology, but represents a complementary diagnostic method for those follicular nodules that remain indeterminate. ..
  61. Zhao Q, Barclay M, Hilkens J, Guo X, Barrow H, Rhodes J, et al. Interaction between circulating galectin-3 and cancer-associated MUC1 enhances tumour cell homotypic aggregation and prevents anoikis. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:154 pubmed publisher
  62. Fukumori T, Kanayama H, Raz A. The role of galectin-3 in cancer drug resistance. Drug Resist Updat. 2007;10:101-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that targeting galectin-3 could improve the efficacy of anticancer drug chemotherapy in several types of cancer. ..
  63. Gopal D, Kommineni M, Ayalon N, Koelbl C, Ayalon R, Biolo A, et al. Relationship of plasma galectin-3 to renal function in patients with heart failure: effects of clinical status, pathophysiology of heart failure, and presence or absence of heart failure. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000760 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the relationship between GAL-3 and renal function seems to be affected little or not at all by the presence or absence of clinical HF. ..
  64. Markowska A, Liu F, Panjwani N. Galectin-3 is an important mediator of VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenic response. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1981-93 pubmed publisher vitro and that VEGF- and bFGF-mediated angiogenic response is reduced in galectin-3 knockdown cells and Gal3(-/-) animals...
  65. Salomonsson E, Carlsson M, Osla V, Hendus Altenburger R, Kahl Knutson B, Oberg C, et al. Mutational tuning of galectin-3 specificity and biological function. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35079-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the mutants have helped to define the differences in fine specificity shown by Xenopus, mouse, and human galectin-3 and, as such, the evidence for adaptive change during evolution...
  66. Balan V, Wang Y, Nangia Makker P, Kho D, Bajaj M, Smith D, et al. Galectin-3: a possible complementary marker to the PSA blood test. Oncotarget. 2013;4:542-9 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that galectin-3 serum level may be a useful serum complementary marker to the PSA blood test to be used for initial and follow-up PSA complimentary diagnostic/prognostic tool for recurrence in PCa patients. ..
  67. Lee Y, Lin T, Chang C, Lo Y. Galectin-3 silencing inhibits epirubicin-induced ATP binding cassette transporters and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via ?-catenin/GSK-3? modulation in colorectal carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82478 pubmed publisher
  68. Song L, Tang J, Owusu L, Sun M, Wu J, Zhang J. Galectin-3 in cancer. Clin Chim Acta. 2014;431:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Gal-3 is gaining its attraction as a potential new biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain tumors. ..
  69. Lakshminarayan R, Wunder C, Becken U, Howes M, Benzing C, Arumugam S, et al. Galectin-3 drives glycosphingolipid-dependent biogenesis of clathrin-independent carriers. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:595-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal3), triggered the glycosphingolipid (GSL)-dependent biogenesis of a morphologically distinct class of endocytic ..
  70. Kim S, Choi I, Cheong T, Lee S, Lotan R, Park S, et al. Galectin-3 increases gastric cancer cell motility by up-regulating fascin-1 expression. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1035-45.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Galectin-3 increases cell motility by up-regulating fascin-1 expression. Galectin-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer progression. ..
  71. Kang E, Moon K, Lee E, Lee Y, Lee E, Ahn C, et al. Renal expression of galectin-3 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis. Lupus. 2009;18:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Gal-3 might contribute to the inflammatory process in SLE. ..
  72. Jiang H, Xu M, Wang X. Pancreatic stellate cells promote proliferation and invasiveness of human pancreatic cancer cells via galectin-3. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2023-8 pubmed
    ..The supernatant fluid of PSCs enhanced the invasiveness of SW1990 cells through interaction with GAL-3. GAL-3 and PSCs were involved in the proliferation and infiltration process of pancreatic cancer cells. ..
  73. Lepur A, Salomonsson E, Nilsson U, Leffler H. Ligand induced galectin-3 protein self-association. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21751-6 pubmed publisher
  74. Mazurek N, Sun Y, Liu K, Gilcrease M, Schober W, Nangia Makker P, et al. Phosphorylated galectin-3 mediates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand signaling by regulating phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 in human breast carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21337-48 pubmed
    Galectin-3 (GAL3), a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, confers chemoresistance to a wide variety of cancer cell types. It may exhibit anti- or pro-apoptotic activity depending on the nature of the stimulus...
  75. Mayoral M, Mayoral C, Meneses A, Villalvazo L, Guzman A, Espinosa B, et al. Identification of galectin-3 and mucin-type O-glycans in breast cancer and its metastasis to brain. Cancer Invest. 2008;26:615-23 pubmed publisher
  76. Voss P, Gray R, Dickey S, Wang W, Park J, Kasai K, et al. Dissociation of the carbohydrate-binding and splicing activities of galectin-1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;478:18-25 pubmed publisher
    Galectin-1 (Gal1) and galectin-3 (Gal3) are two members of a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are found in the nucleus and that participate in pre-mRNA splicing assayed in a cell-free system...
  77. Kim S, Shin J, Cheong T, Choi I, Lee Y, Park S, et al. Galectin-3 germline variant at position 191 enhances nuclear accumulation and activation of ?-catenin in gastric cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011;28:743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we elucidated in this study that germline variant of gal-3H(64) increases nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin and promotes TCF transcriptional activity and enhances more the galectin-3's role in gastric cancer progression. ..
  78. Tsai T, Sung P, Chang L, Sun C, Yeh K, Chung S, et al. Value and level of galectin-3 in acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:1073-82 pubmed
    ..0001). A high circulating galectin-3 level may serve as a useful biomarker for predicting 30-day MACO in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. ..
  79. Kim M, Sung C, Do I, Jeon H, Song T, Park H, et al. Overexpression of Galectin-3 and its clinical significance in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2011;16:352-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Gal-3 expression can be a prognostic factor for PFS and may be involved in regulating the response to paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in the treatment of EOC. ..
  80. Zhang H, Jin L, Stilling G, Ruebel K, Coonse K, Tanizaki Y, et al. RUNX1 and RUNX2 upregulate Galectin-3 expression in human pituitary tumors. Endocrine. 2009;35:101-11 pubmed publisher
  81. de Boer R, Lok D, Jaarsma T, van der Meer P, Voors A, Hillege H, et al. Predictive value of plasma galectin-3 levels in heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Ann Med. 2011;43:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). galectin-3 is an independent marker for outcome in HF and appears to be particularly useful in HF patients with preserved LVEF. ..
  82. Markowska A, Jefferies K, Panjwani N. Galectin-3 protein modulates cell surface expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observed reduced suture-induced neovascularization in the corneas of Gal3(-/-) and Mgat5(-/-) mice...
  83. Kim S, Shin J, Lee K, Bae Y, Choi I, Park S, et al. Galectin-3 facilitates cell motility in gastric cancer by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25103 pubmed publisher
    ..Galectin-3 has the potential to serve as a useful pharmacological target for prevention of gastric cancer metastasis. ..
  84. Nangia Makker P, Raz T, Tait L, Hogan V, Fridman R, Raz A. Galectin-3 cleavage: a novel surrogate marker for matrix metalloproteinase activity in growing breast cancers. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11760-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that galectin-3 cleavage is an active process during tumor progression and could be used as a simple, rapid, and reliable surrogate marker for the activities of MMPs in growing breast cancers. ..
  85. Filer A, Bik M, Parsonage G, Fitton J, Trebilcock E, Howlett K, et al. Galectin 3 induces a distinctive pattern of cytokine and chemokine production in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts via selective signaling pathways. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1604-14 pubmed publisher
    High expression of galectin 3 at sites of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests that galectin 3 plays a role in RA pathogenesis...
  86. Chen C, Duckworth C, Zhao Q, Pritchard D, Rhodes J, Yu L. Increased circulation of galectin-3 in cancer induces secretion of metastasis-promoting cytokines from blood vascular endothelium. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:1693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the actions of circulating galectin-3 in patients with cancer therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce metastasis and improve survival. ..
  87. Canesin G, Gonzalez Peramato P, Palou J, Urrutia M, Cordon Cardo C, Sanchez Carbayo M. Galectin-3 expression is associated with bladder cancer progression and clinical outcome. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary protein levels served to identify bladder cancer patients. These observations suggest a role for galectin-3 as a biomarker for bladder cancer diagnostics, staging, and outcome prognosis. ..
  88. Braeuer R, Zigler M, Kamiya T, Dobroff A, Huang L, Choi W, et al. Galectin-3 contributes to melanoma growth and metastasis via regulation of NFAT1 and autotaxin. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5757-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data elucidate a previously unidentified mechanism by which galectin-3 regulates autotaxin and assign a novel role for NFAT1 during melanoma progression. ..