GAL

Summary

Gene Symbol: GAL
Description: galanin and GMAP prepropeptide
Alias: ETL8, GAL-GMAP, GALN, GLNN, GMAP, galanin peptides, galanin prepropeptide, galanin-message-associated peptide, galanin-related peptide, galanin/GMAP prepropeptide
Species: human
Products:     GAL

Top Publications

  1. Belfer I, Hipp H, McKnight C, Evans C, Buzas B, Bollettino A, et al. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:301-11 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is widely expressed in the central nervous system...
  2. Levran O, Londono D, O Hara K, Nielsen D, Peles E, Rotrosen J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction: a candidate gene association study. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..rs6473797) and delta (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951) opioid receptors; the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066); the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CSNK1E; ..
  3. Bersani M, Johnsen A, Højrup P, Dunning B, Andreasen J, Holst J. Human galanin: primary structure and identification of two molecular forms. FEBS Lett. 1991;283:189-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, human galanin includes two peptides of 19 and 30 amino acids that share the sequence of the N-terminal 15 residues with other mammalian galanins, but exhibit characteristic differences in the remaining part of the molecules. ..
  4. Schäuble N, Reichwald K, Grassl W, Bechstein H, Müller H, Scherag A, et al. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. J Nutr. 2005;135:1387-92 pubmed
    The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is involved in food intake and in fat ingestion. Presumably, these effects are conveyed via the galanin 1 receptor (GALR1)...
  5. Unschuld P, Ising M, Erhardt A, Lucae S, Kohli M, Kloiber S, et al. Polymorphisms in the galanin gene are associated with symptom-severity in female patients suffering from panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008;105:177-84 pubmed
    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide, which is expressed primarily in limbic nuclei in the brain and mediates miscellaneous physiological processes and behaviors...
  6. Mechenthaler I. Galanin and the neuroendocrine axes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of new, selective and potent antagonists of GALRs should keep advancing our knowledge not only in the physiology but also the pathophysiology of galanin as well. ..
  7. Unschuld P, Ising M, Roeske D, Erhardt A, Specht M, Kloiber S, et al. Gender-specific association of galanin polymorphisms with HPA-axis dysregulation, symptom severity, and antidepressant treatment response. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1583-92 pubmed publisher
    Galanin (GAL) is an estrogen-inducible neuropeptide, highly expressed in brain regions reported to be involved in regulation of mood and anxiety...
  8. Wray N, Pergadia M, Blackwood D, Penninx B, Gordon S, Nyholt D, et al. Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..3) and galanin (GAL, 11q13...
  9. Stevenson L, Allen W, Turkington R, Jithesh P, Proutski I, Stewart G, et al. Identification of galanin and its receptor GalR1 as novel determinants of resistance to chemotherapy and potential biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:5412-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have identified a novel role for the GalR1/galanin receptor-ligand axis in chemoresistance, providing evidence to support its further evaluation as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker in CRC. ..

More Information

Publications133 found, 100 shown here

  1. Burleigh D, Furness J. Distribution and actions of galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the human colon. Neuropeptides. 1990;16:77-82 pubmed
    Responses to galanin (GAL) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and their distribution were investigated in muscularis externa from the human sigmoid colon...
  2. Berger A, Santic R, Hauser Kronberger C, Schilling F, Kogner P, Ratschek M, et al. Galanin and galanin receptors in human cancers. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:353-9 pubmed
    ..The co-expression of galanin and its receptors supports a role for galanin in tumor cell pathology via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. ..
  3. Davidson S, Lear M, Shanley L, Hing B, Baizan Edge A, Herwig A, et al. Differential activity by polymorphic variants of a remote enhancer that supports galanin expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala: implications for obesity, depression and alcoholism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2211-21 pubmed publisher
    The expression of the galanin gene (GAL) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in the amygdala of higher vertebrates suggests the requirement for highly conserved, but unidentified, regulatory sequences that are critical to allow the ..
  4. Juhasz G, Hullám G, Eszlari N, Gonda X, Antal P, Anderson I, et al. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of ..
  5. Sárközy M, Szűcs G, Pipicz M, Zvara Ã, Éder K, Fekete V, et al. The effect of a preparation of minerals, vitamins and trace elements on the cardiac gene expression pattern in male diabetic rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:85 pubmed publisher
    ..g. resistin; FK506 binding protein 5; galanin/GMAP prepropeptide)...
  6. Misawa K, Misawa Y, Kondo H, Mochizuki D, Imai A, Fukushima H, et al. Aberrant methylation inactivates somatostatin and somatostatin receptor type 1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118588 pubmed publisher
    ..CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of SST and SSTR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that SST and SSTR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker. ..
  7. Lang R, Gundlach A, Holmes F, Hobson S, Wynick D, Hökfelt T, et al. Physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of galanin peptides and receptors: three decades of emerging diversity. Pharmacol Rev. 2015;67:118-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These in turn will help identify potential targets of the galanin/galanin-receptor systems in a diverse range of human diseases, including pain, mood disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions, diabetes, and cancer. ..
  8. Vaudry H, Leprince J, Chatenet D, Fournier A, Lambert D, Le Mével J, et al. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCII. Urotensin II, urotensin II-related peptide, and their receptor: from structure to function. Pharmacol Rev. 2015;67:214-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current knowledge concerning the pleiotropic actions of UII and discusses the possible use of antagonists for future therapeutic applications. ..
  9. Masliukov P, Budnik A, Nozdrachev A. [Developmental changes of neurotransmitter properties in sympathetic neurons]. Adv Gerontol. 2017;30:347-355 pubmed
    ..no-???????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ..
  10. McMillin M, Frampton G, Grant S, Demorrow S. The Neuropeptide Galanin Is Up-Regulated during Cholestasis and Contributes to Cholangiocyte Proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:819-830 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that targeting galanin signaling may be effective for the maintenance of biliary mass during cholestatic liver diseases. ..
  11. Gan L, England E, Yang J, Toulme N, Ambati S, Hartzell D, et al. A 72-hour high fat diet increases transcript levels of the neuropeptide galanin in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat. BMC Neurosci. 2015;16:51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence for a distinct response in specific functional regions of the hippocampus following acute HFD intake. ..
  12. Misawa Y, Misawa K, Kanazawa T, Uehara T, Endo S, Mochizuki D, et al. Tumor suppressor activity and inactivation of galanin receptor type 2 by aberrant promoter methylation in head and neck cancer. Cancer. 2014;120:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..GALR2 is a potentially significant therapeutic target and prognostic factor for this cancer type. ..
  13. Kerr N, Holmes F, Hobson S, Vanderplank P, Leard A, Balthasar N, et al. The generation of knock-in mice expressing fluorescently tagged galanin receptors 1 and 2. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015;68:258-71 pubmed publisher
  14. Kanazawa T, Misawa K, Misawa Y, Uehara T, Fukushima H, Kusaka G, et al. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Next Generation Therapeutic Targets in Head and Neck Cancer?. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:2959-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that further study of GPCRs is a promising strategy that will enrich pharmacogenomics and prognostic research in HNSCC. ..
  15. Dobolyi A, Kékesi K, Juhasz G, Szekely A, Lovas G, Kovacs Z. Receptors of peptides as therapeutic targets in epilepsy research. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21:764-87 pubmed
  16. Studneva I, Palkeeva M, Veselova O, Molokoedov A, Ovchinnikov M, Sidorova M, et al. Protective Effects of a Novel Agonist of Galanin Receptors Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019;19:136-146 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that peptide G may be a potential pharmacological agent that attenuates the cardiotoxic effects of DOX. ..
  17. Sand E, Roth B, Weström B, Bonn P, Ekblad E, Ohlsson B. Structural and functional consequences of buserelin-induced enteric neuropathy in rat. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:209 pubmed publisher
    ..A marked enteric neuronal loss with modest effects on GI function is found after buserelin treatment. Increased feces fat content is suggested an early sign of dysfunction. ..
  18. Medel Matus J, Shin D, Sankar R, Mazarati A. Galanin contributes to monoaminergic dysfunction and to dependent neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy. Exp Neurol. 2017;289:64-72 pubmed publisher
  19. Zandawala M, Orchard I. Identification and functional characterization of FGLamide-related allatostatin receptor in Rhodnius prolixus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;57:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we tested various FGLa/AST analogs in our heterologous assay. These compounds also activated the receptor and thus have the potential to serve as insect growth regulators and aid in pest control. ..
  20. Adori C, Glück L, Barde S, Yoshitake T, Kovacs G, Mulder J, et al. Critical role of somatostatin receptor 2 in the vulnerability of the central noradrenergic system: new aspects on Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2015;129:541-63 pubmed publisher
  21. Kim E, Jeong I, Kim S, Kim H, Lee D, Kim B, et al. Distribution of galanin receptor 2b neurons and interaction with galanin in the zebrafish central nervous system. Neurosci Lett. 2016;628:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To further analyze the distribution of GALR2b neurons and their interaction with GAL, we generated Tg(galr2b:egfp) zebrafish, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control ..
  22. Lin C, Zhang M, Huang T, Yang L, Fu H, Zhao L, et al. Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12095 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence for important physiological roles of spexin in GI functions. Selective action on spexin pathway might have therapeutic effects on GI diseases with motility disorders. ..
  23. Podlasz P, Jakimiuk A, Chmielewska Krzesinska M, Kasica N, Nowik N, Kaleczyc J. Galanin regulates blood glucose level in the zebrafish: a morphological and functional study. Histochem Cell Biol. 2016;145:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings suggest that, like in mammals, in the zebrafish galanin is involved in the regulation of blood glucose level. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the galanin action. ..
  24. Fang P, Shi M, Zhu Y, Bo P, Zhang Z. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance. Exp Gerontol. 2016;73:72-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Fang P, He B, Yu M, Shi M, Zhu Y, Zhang Z, et al. Central galanin receptor 2 mediates galanin action to promote systemic glucose metabolism of type 2 diabetic rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;156:241-247 pubmed publisher
    Although recent results of our and other studies have showed that galanin (GAL) is an antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, the molecular mechanism how central GAL regulates energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity is still ..
  26. Tilley D, Cedeño D, Kelley C, DeMaegd M, Benyamin R, Vallejo R. Changes in Dorsal Root Ganglion Gene Expression in Response to Spinal Cord Stimulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017;42:246-251 pubmed publisher
    ..ITGAM), sodium/potassium ATP-ase (Na/K ATPase), fos proto-oncogene (cFOS), serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3r), galanin (Gal), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NpY), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and brain ..
  27. Gajewska A, Zielińska Górska M, Wasilewska Dziubinska E, Baran M, Kotarba G, Gorski K. Pituitary galaninergic system activity in female rats: the regulatory role of gonadal steroids. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:423-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results revealed that progesterone regulates the activity of the pituitary galaninergic system by facilitating estradiol-induced galanin synthesis in the female rat anterior pituitary gland. ..
  28. Metcalf C, Klein B, McDougle D, Zhang L, Smith M, Bulaj G, et al. Analgesic properties of a peripherally acting and GalR2 receptor-preferring galanin analog in inflammatory, neuropathic, and acute pain models. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015;352:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies illustrate that this nonbrain-penetrating galanin analog reduces pain behaviors in several models and does not produce some of the dose-limiting toxicities associated with other analgesics. ..
  29. Kim D, Yun S, Son G, Hwang J, Park C, Kim J, et al. Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1864-73 pubmed publisher
    ..ancestral chromosomes revealed that SPXs reside in the near vicinity of the kisspeptin (KISS) and galanin (GAL) family genes on the chromosomes...
  30. Peng H, Xu X, Zhang L, Zhang X, Peng H, Zheng Y, et al. GLA variation p.E66Q identified as the genetic etiology of Fabry disease using exome sequencing. Gene. 2016;575:363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..E66 allele, as indicated by XCI analysis. By measuring α-Gal A activity, we found that male patients in the pedigree had just little enzymatic activity while female patients ..
  31. Fernandez S, Cauli B, Cabezas C, Muzerelle A, Poncer J, Gaspar P. Multiscale single-cell analysis reveals unique phenotypes of raphe 5-HT neurons projecting to the forebrain. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:4007-4025 pubmed
  32. Bauer P, Zalis M, Abdshill H, Deierborg T, Johansson F, Englund Johansson U. Inflamed In Vitro Retina: Cytotoxic Neuroinflammation and Galectin-3 Expression. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161723 pubmed publisher
    ..the explanted retina as a model to explore the immune response and expression of the immune modulator galectin-3 (Gal-3), induced by the cultivation per se and after additional immune stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and ..
  33. Zhang L, Wang P, Qin Y, Cong Q, Shao C, Du Z, et al. RN1, a novel galectin-3 inhibitor, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via blocking galectin-3 associated signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2017;36:1297-1308 pubmed publisher
    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its candidacy as a therapeutic target has been evaluated...
  34. Hay E, Khalaf A, Marini P, Brown A, Heath K, Sheppard D, et al. An analysis of possible off target effects following CAS9/CRISPR targeted deletions of neuropeptide gene enhancers from the mouse genome. Neuropeptides. 2017;64:101-107 pubmed publisher
  35. Xu J, Li C, Li Z, Yang C, Lei L, Ren W, et al. Protective effects of oxymatrine against lipopolysaccharide/D?galactosamine?induced acute liver failure through oxidative damage, via activation of Nrf2/HO?1 and modulation of inflammatory TLR4?signaling pathways. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to investigate the protective effects of oxymatrine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D?galactosamine (D?GalN)?induced acute liver failure and the associated underlying mechanisms...
  36. Gehrke N, Hövelmeyer N, Waisman A, Straub B, Weinmann Menke J, Wörns M, et al. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of IL1-RI attenuates liver injury by blocking IL-1 driven autoinflammation. J Hepatol. 2018;68:986-995 pubmed publisher
    ..ALF induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly attenuated in Il1r1Hep-/- mice leading to reduced ..
  37. Vassilieva I, Reshetnikova G, Shatrova A, Tsupkina N, Kharchenko M, Alekseenko L, et al. Senescence-messaging secretome factors trigger premature senescence in human endometrium-derived stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:1162-1168 pubmed publisher
    ..cell proliferation along with emerging senescence phenotype, including increase in both the cell size and SA-β-Gal activity...
  38. Bauer F, Christofides N, Hacker G, Blank M, Polak J, Bloom S. Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the genitourinary tract of man and rat. Peptides. 1986;7:5-10 pubmed
    ..The presence and distribution of galanin in the genitourinary system suggest the possibility that this neuropeptide could play a role in the regulation of smooth muscle tone, blood flow and motility. ..
  39. Bosi G, Shinn A, Giari L, Sayyaf Dezfuli B. Enteric neuromodulators and mucus discharge in a fish infected with the intestinal helminth Pomphorhynchus laevis. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:359 pubmed publisher
    ..The mucous cells hyperplasia and enhanced mucus secretion in the helminth-infected intestines could be elicited by the increase in the number of ECs which release these regulatory substances. ..
  40. Jiang C, Hu X, Wang L, Cheng H, Lin Y, Pang Y, et al. Excessive proliferation and impaired function of primitive hematopoietic cells in bone marrow due to senescence post chemotherapy in a T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia model. J Transl Med. 2015;13:234 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β gal) status showed higher levels in L(-)K(+)S(+) hematopoietic cells post therapy when compared with the control...
  41. Ren G, Li K, Hu Y, Yu M, Qu J, Xu X. Optimization of selenizing conditions for Seleno-Lentinan and its characteristics. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;81:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..administration of Seleno-Lentinan (SL2-1) markedly alleviated oxidative damage in the liver of mice induced by D-gal. In addition, SL2-1 significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, activities and protein expressions of ..
  42. Hall B, Balan V, Gleiberman A, Strom E, Krasnov P, Virtuoso L, et al. Aging of mice is associated with p16(Ink4a)- and β-galactosidase-positive macrophage accumulation that can be induced in young mice by senescent cells. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8:1294-315 pubmed publisher
    ..0 (β-gal(pH6)), thus resembling SCs...
  43. Huang P, Chang J, Horng J. Effects of glycosylated (2S,4R)-hydroxyproline on the stability and assembly of collagen triple helices. Amino Acids. 2016;48:2765-2772 pubmed
    ..and synthesized a series of glycosylated CMPs in which 4-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl]-(2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp(Gal)) was incorporated to explore the effects of glycosylation on the stability and assembly of collagen triple helices...
  44. VanHoy G, Carman M, Habing G, Lakritz J, Hinds C, Niehaus A, et al. Safety and serologic response to a Haemonchus contortus vaccine in alpacas. Vet Parasitol. 2018;252:180-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Barbervax®is an adjuvanted vaccine containing natural H-11, H-gal-GP antigens obtained from Haemonchus contortus adults via a proprietary process and solubilized in Quil A...
  45. Wollman A, Leake M. Millisecond single-molecule localization microscopy combined with convolution analysis and automated image segmentation to determine protein concentrations in complexly structured, functional cells, one cell at a time. Faraday Discuss. 2015;184:401-24 pubmed publisher
    ..It uses the multi-copy expression inhibitor of the GAL gene family, Mig1, to repress unwanted genes in the presence of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations...
  46. Shahi P, Trebicz Geffen M, Nagaraja S, Alterzon Baumel S, Hertz R, Methling K, et al. Proteomic Identification of Oxidized Proteins in Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Role of Arginase in Resistance to Oxidative Stress. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004340 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that oxidation of the Gal/GalNAc impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E. histolytica adherence to host cells...
  47. Sasaguri K, Yamada K, Narimatsu Y, Oonuki M, Oishi A, Koda K, et al. Stress-induced galectin-1 influences immune tolerance in the spleen and thymus by modulating CD45 immunoreactive lymphocytes. J Physiol Sci. 2017;67:489-496 pubmed publisher
    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is differentially expressed in normal and pathological tissues and regulates immune cell homeostasis. Restraint stress increases serum Gal-1 in rats. However, the function of stress-induced Gal-1 in serum is unknown...
  48. Oh S, Park H, Yoon H, Yang S. Long-Term Treatment of Native LDL Induces Senescence of Cultured Human Endothelial Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:6487825 pubmed publisher
    ..The G1-arrested cells showed increase in cytosolic senescence-associated-?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) activity, a biomarker of cellular senescence...
  49. Yan Y, Hu Y, Simpson D, Ganzle M. Enzymatic Synthesis and Purification of Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Reducing Adhesion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:5142-5150 pubmed publisher
    ..Galactosylated chitosan-oligosaccharides (Gal-COS) were synthesized through transgalactosylation by ?-galactosidase...
  50. Arafa N, Ali E, Hassan M. Canagliflozin prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats: Comparison with galantamine hydrobromide action. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;277:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to estimate the effect of CAN as compared to galantamine (GAL) treatments for two weeks on scopolamine hydrobromide (SCO)-induced memory dysfunction in experimental rats...
  51. Trujillo Ochoa J, Corral Jara K, Charles Niño C, Panduro A, Fierro N. Conjugated Bilirubin Upregulates TIM-3 Expression on CD4+CD25+ T Cells: Anti-Inflammatory Implications for Hepatitis A Virus Infection. Viral Immunol. 2018;31:223-232 pubmed publisher
    ..T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), via its interactions with galectin-9 (GAL-9), is a receptor associated with enhanced Treg function...
  52. Venturini M, Lobera T, Sebastian A, Portillo A, Oteo J. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in foresters and forest workers from La Rioja, North of Spain. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prevalence and associated factors to the presence of alpha-gal-specific IgE in a risk group of foresters and forest workers from La Rioja and in a control group.
  53. Chen K, Xu M, Zhang Z, Chang W, Gaj T, Schaffer D, et al. A Hypothalamic Switch for REM and Non-REM Sleep. Neuron. 2018;97:1168-1176.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, REM/NREM switch is regulated antagonistically by DMH galaninergic neurons with intermingled cell bodies but distinct axon projections. ..
  54. Amin A, Bashir A, Zaki N, McCarthy D, Ahmed S, Lotfy M. Insights into glycan biosynthesis in chemically-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats: A glycomic analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:6167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-glycomic analysis revealed 5 glycans; Glc₁Man₉GlcNAc₂, Gal₂Man₃GlcNac₄Fuc₁Neu₁, Man₄GlcNac₂, Gal₂Man₃GlcNac₄..
  55. Tao Y, Lin F, Yan X, Gao X, Teng F, Fu Z, et al. Galectin-9 in Combination With EX-527 Prolongs the Survival of Cardiac Allografts in Mice After Cardiac Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2015;47:2003-9 pubmed publisher
    Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a member of the galectin family, has a variety of biologic activities. However, its role in allografts is not fully clarified yet...
  56. Marazita M, Dugour A, Marquioni Ramella M, Figueroa J, Suburo A. Oxidative stress-induced premature senescence dysregulates VEGF and CFH expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration. Redox Biol. 2016;7:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..damage was followed by premature senescence as shown by positive senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining, and p16(INK4a) and p21(Waf-Cip1) protein upregulation...
  57. Silva G, Abbas M, Khemais Benkhiat S, Burban M, Ribeiro T, Toti F, et al. Replicative senescence promotes prothrombotic responses in endothelial cells: Role of NADPH oxidase- and cyclooxygenase-derived oxidative stress. Exp Gerontol. 2017;93:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..induced acquisition of markers of senescence including increased senescence-associated-?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity and p53, p21, p16 expression...
  58. Riou C, Cordeiro L, Gerard N. Eggshell matrix proteins OC-116, OC-17 and OCX36 in hen's sperm storage tubules. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;185:28-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Using lectin and calcium staining, we examined the presence in SSTs of Gal/GalNAc (Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine) and Glc/GlcNAc (Glucose/N-acetylglucosamine) glycans, as well as calcium ..
  59. Chávez Galán L, Ramon Luing L, Carranza C, Garcia I, Sada Ovalle I. Lipoarabinomannan Decreases Galectin-9 Expression and Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway in Macrophages Favoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis Intracellular Growth. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1659 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that TIM3 and galectin (GAL)9 interaction induces anti-mycobacterial activity, and the expression levels of TIM3 and GAL9 are downregulated ..
  60. Holub B, Kloepper J, Tóth B, Biro T, Kofler B, Paus R. The neuropeptide galanin is a novel inhibitor of human hair growth. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its hair growth-inhibitory properties in vitro, galanin application deserves further exploration as a potential new treatment strategy for unwanted hair growth (hirsutism, hypertrichosis). ..
  61. Li K, Yu M, Hu Y, Ren G, Zang T, Xu X, et al. Three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate DDC-induced chronic pancreatitis in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;247:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4%, 92.2% and 91.8% respectively. GLPS3-â… , GLPS3-â…¡ and GLPS3-â…¢ were composed of Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl, Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl:Man:Rha, and Glu:Gal:Xyl:Man:Rha:Fuc, with molar ratio of 2.82: 1.33: 1.26: 0.87, 5.84: 2...
  62. Schluter A, Horstmann M, Diaz Cano S, Plöhn S, Stahr K, Mattheis S, et al. Genetic immunization with mouse thyrotrophin hormone receptor plasmid breaks self-tolerance for a murine model of autoimmune thyroid disease and Graves' orbitopathy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..muscle and optic nerve, but orbital fat showed no difference in inflammatory signs in comparison to control ?-Gal-immunized animals...
  63. Oyanadel C, Holmes C, Pardo E, Retamal C, Shaughnessy R, Smith P, et al. Galectin-8 induces partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition with invasive tumorigenic capabilities involving a FAK/EGFR/proteasome pathway in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2018;29:557-574 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycan-binding protein galectin-8 (Gal-8) activates selective β1-integrins involved in EMT and is overexpressed by certain carcinomas...
  64. De Marinis L, Mancini A, Valle D, Bianchi A, Gentilella R, Milardi D, et al. Effects of galanin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in anorexia nervosa. Metabolism. 2000;49:155-9 pubmed
    Galanin (GAL) elicits growth hormone (GH) release in normal subjects through interaction with hypothalamic somatostatin. GAL also stimulates GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion in vitro...
  65. Zhang S, Wei T, Tianv H, Cheng J, Xiao J, Wang M, et al. Small intestinal injury in mice infected with respiratory influenza A virus: evidence for virus induced gastroenteritis. Biotechnol Lett. 2015;37:1585-92 pubmed publisher
    ..staining with the sialic acid (SA) receptor demonstrated that the small intestine mainly expressed SA α2, 3 Gal instead of SA α2, 6 Gal which preferentially binds to avian IAV...
  66. Platts Mills T, Schuyler A, Erwin E, Commins S, Woodfolk J. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:1662-1670 pubmed publisher
    ..Peanut and galactose ?-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively...
  67. Salama A, Mosser M, Lévêque X, Perota A, Judor J, Danna C, et al. Neu5Gc and α1-3 GAL Xenoantigen Knockout Does Not Affect Glycemia Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Pigs. Diabetes. 2017;66:987-993 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, however, natural and elicited antibodies specific for pig xenoantigens, α-(1,3)-galactose (GAL) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), are likely to significantly contribute to xenoislet rejection...
  68. Liu Y, Lu Y, Han C, Hou W. Inhibitory activities of acteoside, isoacteoside, and its structural constituents against protein glycation in vitro. Bot Stud. 2013;54:6 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-CML), using bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose (glc) and BSA/galactose (gal) as models, or by anti-argpyrimidine (anti-AP), using BSA/methylglyoxal (MGO) as models...
  69. Chen H, Carter K. Characterization of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for wells located in the Marcellus Shale Play. J Environ Manage. 2017;200:312-324 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed a total of 5071 wells, with average water volumes of 5,383,743 ± 2,789,077 gal (mean ± standard deviation)...
  70. Shang D, Wu Y, Ding Y, Lu Z, Shen Y, Zhu F, et al. Identification of a Pyridine Derivative Inducing Senescence in Ovarian Cancer Cell lines via P21 Activation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..candidate compounds on cancer cell growth, cell proliferation assays, senescence associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining, and flow cytometry assay were performed...
  71. Manojlović Gacić E, Skender Gazibara M, Popovic V, Soldatovic I, Boricic N, Raičević S, et al. Oncogene-Induced Senescence in Pituitary Adenomas--an Immunohistochemical Study. Endocr Pathol. 2016;27:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..the immunohistochemical expression of the OIS markers, senescence-associated lysosomal β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL), p16, and p21 in different types of 345 pituitary adenomas and compared it with the expression in the normal ..
  72. Jiang Z, Ma Y, Li M, Zhan X, Zhang X, Wang M. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural protects against ER stress-induced apoptosis in GalN/TNF-α-injured L02 hepatocytes through regulating the PERK-eIF2α signaling pathway. Chin J Nat Med. 2015;13:896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..was designed to investigate the protective effect of 5-HMF in human L02 hepatocytes injured by D-galactosamine (GalN) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro and to explore the underlying mechanisms of action...
  73. Nguyen T, McKelvey K, March L, Hunter D, Xue M, Jackson C, et al. Aberrant levels of natural IgM antibodies in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to healthy controls. Immunol Lett. 2016;170:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the levels of nIgM specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and galactosyl (anti-Gal) in persons with OA, RA and healthy controls (HC)...
  74. Kastin A, Pan W. Involvement of the Blood-Brain Barrier in Metabolic Regulation. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2016;15:1118-1128 pubmed
    ..Thus, the BBB plays a dynamic role in modulating the passage of ingestive peptides from blood to brain. ..
  75. Huang W, Wu H, Li D, Song J, Xiao Y, Liu C, et al. Protective Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injuries in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2018;66:1638-1648 pubmed publisher
    ..anthocyanin extract (BAE), malvidin (Mv), malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glc), and malvidin-3-galactoside (Mv-3-gal) all reduced H2O2-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen ..
  76. Wang X, Xiao H, Liu L, Cheng D, Li X, Si L. FGF21 represses cerebrovascular aging via improving mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibiting p53 signaling pathway in an AMPK-dependent manner. Exp Cell Res. 2016;346:147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Ang II induced remarkable aging-phenotypes in hBVSMCs, including enhanced SA-?-gal staining and NBS1 protein expression...
  77. Díez Revuelta N, Higuero A, Velasco S, Peñas de la Iglesia M, Gabius H, Abad Rodriguez J. Neurons define non-myelinated axon segments by the regulation of galectin-4-containing axon membrane domains. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12246 pubmed publisher
    ..Why these segments remain unmyelinated is still an unresolved issue. The bifunctional lectin galectin-4 (Gal-4) organizes the transport of axon glycoproteins by binding to N-acetyllactosamine (LacNac) termini of N-glycans...
  78. Stiasny A, Freier C, Kuhn C, Schulze S, Mayr D, Alexiou C, et al. The involvement of E6, p53, p16, MDM2 and Gal-3 in the clinical outcome of patients with cervical cancer. Oncol Lett. 2017;14:4467-4476 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study was to analyse the expression levels of E6, p53, p16, MDM2 proto-oncogene (MDM2) and galectin-3 (gal-3) in cervical cancer specimens. A total of 250 cervical cancer tissue slides were used...
  79. Legakis I, Mantzouridis T, Mountokalakis T. Positive correlation of galanin with glucose in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:759-60 pubmed
  80. Tham H, Hohl S, Copeland W, Briant K, MARQUEZ MAGANA L, Thompson B. Enhancing Biospecimen Knowledge Among Health Care Providers and Representatives From Community Organizations. Health Promot Pract. 2017;18:715-725 pubmed publisher
    ..The Geographic Management of Cancer Health Disparities Program (GMaP) Region 6 implemented a series of biospecimen education seminars adapted from the Biospecimen and Biobanking module ..
  81. Han B, Hwang S, Lee M. A progressive reduction in autophagic capacity contributes to induction of replicative senescence in Hs68 cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;92:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..senescence in aged cells (at passage 40) was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity that represents a sensitive and reliable marker for quantifying senescent cells...
  82. Estevam R, Wood da Silva N, Wood da Silva -, Fonseca F, Oliveira A, Nogueira -, et al. Modulation of Galectin-3 and Galectin 9 in gastric mucosa of patients with chronic gastritis and positive Helicobacter pylori infection. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:1276-1281 pubmed publisher
    ..that play an important role in the inflammatory response and in this study we analyzed the expression of Galectins (Gal) -1, -3 and -9 in biopsies of the gastric antrum of patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms...
  83. Pirmoradi S, Fathi E, Farahzadi R, Pilehvar Soltanahmadi Y, Zarghami N. Curcumin Affects Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging Through TERT Gene Expression. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of SA-ß-gal staining showed that curcumin significantly decreased the number of senescent cells in the 5 and 7 cell passages...
  84. Bird I, Kim S, Schweppe D, Caetano Lopes J, Robling A, Charles J, et al. The skeletal phenotype of achondrogenesis type 1A is caused exclusively by cartilage defects. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    Inactivating mutations in the ubiquitously expressed membrane trafficking component GMAP-210 (encoded by Trip11) cause achondrogenesis type 1A (ACG1A). ACG1A is surprisingly tissue specific, mainly affecting cartilage development...
  85. Hamana A, Takahashi Y, Tanioka A, Nishikawa M, Takakura Y. Safe and effective interferon-beta gene therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis by regulating biological activity through the design of interferon-beta-galectin-9 fusion proteins. Int J Pharm. 2018;536:310-317 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we designed a series of novel IFN-? fusion proteins containing galectin-9 (gal-9), which exerts immunosuppressive effects through the binding to its receptor on activated Th1 cells...
  86. Lynch T, Anderson P, Xie W, Crooke A, Liu X, Tyler S, et al. Wnt Signaling Regulates Airway Epithelial Stem Cells in Adult Murine Submucosal Glands. Stem Cells. 2016;34:2758-2771 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that two Wnt-reporters in mice (BAT-gal and TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP) are coexpressed in actively cycling SCs of primordial glandular placodes and in a small subset ..
  87. Kaser Eichberger A, Trost A, Strohmaier C, Bogner B, Runge C, Brückner D, et al. Distribution of the neuro-regulatory peptide galanin in the human eye. Neuropeptides. 2017;64:85-93 pubmed publisher
    Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes...
  88. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..In light, Prok2 overexpression increases sleep and induces expression of galanin (galn), a hypothalamic sleep-inducing peptide...
  89. Jensen T, Pogrebnyakov I, Falkenberg K, Redl S, Nielsen A. Application of the thermostable ?-galactosidase, BgaB, from Geobacillus stearothermophilus as a versatile reporter under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. AMB Express. 2017;7:169 pubmed publisher
    ..This protein functions both as a marker, promoting colony color development in the presence of a lactose analogue S-gal, and as a reporter enabling quantitative measurement by a simple colorimetric assay...
  90. Huang Q, Ning Y, Liu D, Zhang Y, Li D, Zhang Y, et al. A young blood environment decreases aging of senile mice kidneys. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of aging-related protein p16 and SA-?-gal in the O-HP group was significantly reduced compared with the Ocon and O-IP groups...
  91. Pustovalova M, Astrelina Т, Grekhova A, Vorobyeva N, Tsvetkova A, Blokhina T, et al. Residual γH2AX foci induced by low dose x-ray radiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells do not cause accelerated senescence in the progeny of irradiated cells. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:2397-2410 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of γН2АХ foci and the fraction of nonproliferating (Кi67-) and senescent (SA-β-gal+) cells measured at passage 11 were increased in cultures exposed to an intermediate dose compared to unirradiated ..
  92. Kask K, Berthold M, Kahl U, Nordvall G, Bartfai T. Delineation of the peptide binding site of the human galanin receptor. EMBO J. 1996;15:236-44 pubmed
    ..interacts with the Zn2+ sensitive pair of His264 and His267 of transmembrane domain VI, and Tyr9 of galanin interacts with Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII, while the C-terminus of galanin is pointing towards the N-terminus of th ..