Gene Symbol: gag
Description: Pr55(Gag)
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     gag

Top Publications

  1. Tareen S, Emerman M. Trim5 TAKes on pattern recognition. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:349-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study in Nature (Pertel et al., 2011) shows that, upon sensing of the retrovirus capsid lattice, Trim5? generates free ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 kinase and downstream innate immune response genes. ..
  2. Dordor A, Poudevigne E, Gottlinger H, Weissenhorn W. Essential and supporting host cell factors for HIV-1 budding. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 employs its structural proteins to orchestrate assembly and budding at the plasma membrane of host cells. The Gag polyprotein is sufficient to form virus-like particles in the absence of other viral proteins and provides a platform ..
  3. Shah V, Aiken C. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog. Viruses. 2010;2:1190-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus's dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle. ..
  4. Lochmann T, Bann D, Ryan E, Beyer A, Mao A, Cochrane A, et al. NC-mediated nucleolar localization of retroviral gag proteins. Virus Res. 2013;171:304-18 pubmed publisher
    The assembly and release of retrovirus particles from the cell membrane is directed by the Gag polyprotein. The Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) traffics through the nucleus prior to plasma membrane localization...
  5. Effantin G, Dordor A, Sandrin V, Martinelli N, Sundquist W, Schoehn G, et al. ESCRT-III CHMP2A and CHMP3 form variable helical polymers in vitro and act synergistically during HIV-1 budding. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:213-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus indicate that the CHMP2A-CHMP3 polymer observed in vitro contributes to HIV-1 budding by assembling on CHMP4B polymers. ..
  6. Checkley M, Luttge B, Freed E. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:582-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic data support a major role for the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 and the matrix domain of Gag in Env glycoprotein incorporation...
  7. Caccuri F, Giagulli C, Bugatti A, Benetti A, Alessandri G, Ribatti D, et al. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 promotes angiogenesis via chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognizing p17 interaction with CXCR1 and CXCR2 as the key event in sustaining EC aberrant angiogenesis could help us to identify new treatment strategies in combating AIDS-related vascular diseases. ..
  8. Lin D, Zimmermann S, Stuwe T, Stuwe E, Hoelz A. Structural and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Nup358/RanBP2. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we demonstrate that the CTD is dispensable for nuclear envelope localization of Nup358, suggesting that the CTD does not interact with other nucleoporins. ..
  9. Alter G, Heckerman D, Schneidewind A, Fadda L, Kadie C, Carlson J, et al. HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure. Nature. 2011;476:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..NK cells might therefore have a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution. ..

More Information


  1. Di Nunzio F. New insights in the role of nucleoporins: a bridge leading to concerted steps from HIV-1 nuclear entry until integration. Virus Res. 2013;178:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it will be reviewed both what is known and what is speculated about the link between HIV translocation through the nuclear pore and the proviral integration in the host chromatin. ..
  2. Zhao G, Ke D, Vu T, Ahn J, Shah V, Yang R, et al. Rhesus TRIM5? disrupts the HIV-1 capsid at the inter-hexamer interfaces. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002009 pubmed publisher
  3. Meng B, Lever A. Wrapping up the bad news: HIV assembly and release. Retrovirology. 2013;10:5 pubmed publisher
    ..viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.
  4. Datta S, Temeselew L, Crist R, Soheilian F, Kamata A, Mirro J, et al. On the role of the SP1 domain in HIV-1 particle assembly: a molecular switch?. J Virol. 2011;85:4111-21 pubmed publisher
    Expression of a retroviral protein, Gag, in mammalian cells is sufficient for assembly of immature virus-like particles (VLPs)...
  5. Ku P, Miller A, Ballew J, Sandrin V, Adler F, Saffarian S. Identification of pauses during formation of HIV-1 virus like particles. Biophys J. 2013;105:2262-72 pubmed publisher
    HIV Gag polymerizes on the plasma membrane to form virus like particles (VLPs) that have similar diameters to wild-type viruses...
  6. Giagulli C, Magiera A, Bugatti A, Caccuri F, Marsico S, Rusnati M, et al. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 binds to the IL-8 receptor CXCR1 and shows IL-8-like chemokine activity on monocytes through Rho/ROCK activation. Blood. 2012;119:2274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have highlighted the role of IL-8 and CXCR1 in HIV-1 replication and AIDS pathogenesis. Our findings herein call for an exploration of the therapeutic potential of blocking the p17/IL-8/CXCR1 axis in HIV-1 infection. ..
  7. Schaller T, Ocwieja K, Rasaiyaah J, Price A, Brady T, Roth S, et al. HIV-1 capsid-cyclophilin interactions determine nuclear import pathway, integration targeting and replication efficiency. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002439 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment. ..
  8. Larue R, Gupta K, Wuensch C, Shkriabai N, Kessl J, Danhart E, et al. Interaction of the HIV-1 intasome with transportin 3 protein (TNPO3 or TRN-SR2). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:34044-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide important information for future genetic analysis to better understand the role of TNPO3 and its interacting partners for HIV-1 replication. ..
  9. Hilditch L, Towers G. A model for cofactor use during HIV-1 reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Curr Opin Virol. 2014;4:32-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Kerviel A, Thomas A, Chaloin L, Favard C, Muriaux D. Virus assembly and plasma membrane domains: which came first?. Virus Res. 2013;171:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism involves the trapping of acidic lipids by the viral Gag protein by means of ionic protein-lipid interactions, inducing thereby formation of acidic lipid-enriched ..
  11. Yufenyuy E, Aiken C. The NTD-CTD intersubunit interface plays a critical role in assembly and stabilization of the HIV-1 capsid. Retrovirology. 2013;10:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the NTD-CTD intersubunit interface is present in the mature HIV-1 capsid and is critical for proper capsid assembly and stability. ..
  12. Sette P, Nagashima K, Piper R, Bouamr F. Ubiquitin conjugation to Gag is essential for ESCRT-mediated HIV-1 budding. Retrovirology. 2013;10:79 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 relies on the host ESCRTs for release from cells. HIV-1 Gag engages ESCRTs by directly binding TSG101 or Alix. ESCRTs also sort ubiquitinated membrane proteins through endosomes to facilitate their lysosomal degradation...
  13. Hogue I, Llewellyn G, Ono A. Dynamic Association between HIV-1 Gag and Membrane Domains. Mol Biol Int. 2012;2012:979765 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 particle assembly is driven by the structural protein Gag. Gag binds to and multimerizes on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, eventually resulting in formation of spherical particles...
  14. Luban J. TRIM5 and the Regulation of HIV-1 Infectivity. Mol Biol Int. 2012;2012:426840 pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding of the complex interaction between TRIM5 and the retrovirus capsid lattice may someday lead to exploitation of this interaction for the development of potent HIV-1 inhibitors. ..
  15. Nasr N, Maddocks S, Turville S, Harman A, Woolger N, Helbig K, et al. HIV-1 infection of human macrophages directly induces viperin which inhibits viral production. Blood. 2012;120:778-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus viperin may contribute to persistent noncytopathic HIV-1 infection of macrophages and possibly to biologic differences with HIV-1-infected T cells. ..
  16. Battivelli E, Migraine J, Lecossier D, Yeni P, Clavel F, Hance A. Gag cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations can increase sensitivity of HIV-1 to human TRIM5alpha, linking intrinsic and acquired immunity. J Virol. 2011;85:11846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that CTL mutations may influence HIV-1 replication by modifying both viral infectivity and sensitivity to TRIM5?. ..
  17. Pace M, Graf E, Agosto L, Mexas A, Male F, Brady T, et al. Directly infected resting CD4+T cells can produce HIV Gag without spreading infection in a model of HIV latency. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002818 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that resting cells were capable of producing HIV Gag without supporting spreading infection...
  18. Carlson L, Hurley J. In vitro reconstitution of the ordered assembly of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport at membrane-bound HIV-1 Gag clusters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16928-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The myristylated full-length Gag protein of HIV-1 was purified to monodispersity...
  19. Lee K, Mulky A, Yuen W, Martin T, Meyerson N, Choi L, et al. HIV-1 capsid-targeting domain of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6. J Virol. 2012;86:3851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the sensitivity of different primate lentiviruses to CPSF6-358 and apparent conservation of this interaction, our data suggest that CPSF6-358-mediated targeting of HIV-1 could provide a broadly effective antiviral strategy...
  20. Watanabe S, Chen M, Khan M, Ehrlich L, Kemal K, Weiser B, et al. The S40 residue in HIV-1 Gag p6 impacts local and distal budding determinants, revealing additional late domain activities. Retrovirology. 2013;10:143 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 budding is directed primarily by two motifs in Gag p6 designated as late domain-1 and -2 that recruit ESCRT machinery by binding Tsg101 and Alix, respectively, and by poorly characterized determinants in the capsid (CA) domain...
  21. Grover J, Llewellyn G, Soheilian F, Nagashima K, Veatch S, Ono A. Roles played by capsid-dependent induction of membrane curvature and Gag-ESCRT interactions in tetherin recruitment to HIV-1 assembly sites. J Virol. 2013;87:4650-64 pubmed publisher
    ..recruitment of tetherin to assembly sites has been observed as its colocalization with the viral structural protein Gag or its accumulation in virus particles...
  22. Thys W, De Houwer S, Demeulemeester J, Taltynov O, Vancraenenbroeck R, Gerard M, et al. Interplay between HIV entry and transportin-SR2 dependency. Retrovirology. 2011;8:7 pubmed publisher
  23. Giagulli C, Marsico S, Magiera A, Bruno R, Caccuri F, Barone I, et al. Opposite effects of HIV-1 p17 variants on PTEN activation and cell growth in B cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17831 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it provides the first evidence on the presence of a p17 natural variant mimicking the p17?36-induced signalling in B cells and displaying the capacity of promoting B cell growth and tumorigenesis. ..
  24. De Iaco A, Santoni F, Vannier A, Guipponi M, Antonarakis S, Luban J. TNPO3 protects HIV-1 replication from CPSF6-mediated capsid stabilization in the host cell cytoplasm. Retrovirology. 2013;10:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, an equal number of investigators have failed to obtain evidence that supports this model. Here, a series of experiments were performed to better elucidate the mechanism by which TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 infectivity...
  25. Hori T, Takeuchi H, Saito H, Sakuma R, Inagaki Y, Yamaoka S. A carboxy-terminally truncated human CPSF6 lacking residues encoded by exon 6 inhibits HIV-1 cDNA synthesis and promotes capsid disassembly. J Virol. 2013;87:7726-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could facilitate an increased understanding of viral cDNA synthesis in light of the viral capsid disassembly...
  26. Bichel K, Price A, Schaller T, Towers G, Freund S, James L. HIV-1 capsid undergoes coupled binding and isomerization by the nuclear pore protein NUP358. Retrovirology. 2013;10:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Isomerization by NUP358 may be preserved by HIV-1 to target the nuclear pore and synchronize nuclear entry with capsid uncoating. ..
  27. Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Renaud J, Caillet M, Marsh M, Berlioz Torrent C. The ESCRT-0 component HRS is required for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST-2/tetherin down-regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001265 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide further insight into the mechanism by which Vpu counteracts BST-2/tetherin and promotes HIV-1 dissemination, and they highlight an additional role for the ESCRT machinery in virus release. ..
  28. Ku P, Bendjennat M, Ballew J, Landesman M, Saffarian S. ALIX is recruited temporarily into HIV-1 budding sites at the end of gag assembly. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96950 pubmed publisher
    Polymerization of Gag on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane drives the assembly of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)...
  29. Inlora J, Chukkapalli V, Derse D, Ono A. Gag localization and virus-like particle release mediated by the matrix domain of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Gag are less dependent on phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate than those mediated by the matrix domain of HIV-1 Gag. J Virol. 2011;85:3802-10 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag matrix (MA) domain facilitates Gag targeting and binding to the plasma membrane (PM) during virus assembly...
  30. Takemura T, Kawamata M, Urabe M, Murakami T. Cyclophilin A-dependent restriction to capsid N121K mutant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a broad range of cell lines. J Virol. 2013;87:4086-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified a CA N121K mutant whose infection of 293T, Jurkat, and HeLa cells was impaired by CypA. The N121K mutant could be a useful tool for analyzing the mechanisms underlying CypA-dependent restriction. ..
  31. de Breyne S, Soto Rifo R, Lopez Lastra M, Ohlmann T. Translation initiation is driven by different mechanisms on the HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomic RNAs. Virus Res. 2013;171:366-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This genomic RNA is used both for the production of the viral structural and enzymatic proteins (Gag and Pol, respectively) and as genome for encapsidation in the newly formed viral particle...
  32. Ohmine S, Sakuma R, Sakuma T, Thatava T, Takeuchi H, Ikeda Y. The antiviral spectra of TRIM5? orthologues and human TRIM family proteins against lentiviral production. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16121 pubmed publisher
    ..we have shown that TRIM5?rh blocks HIV-1 production through the N-terminal RBCC domain by the recognition of Gag polyproteins...
  33. Pertel T, Hausmann S, Morger D, Züger S, Guerra J, Lascano J, et al. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice. Nature. 2011;472:361-5 pubmed publisher
  34. Klein K, Reed J, Tanaka M, Nguyen V, Giri S, Lingappa J. HIV Gag-leucine zipper chimeras form ABCE1-containing intermediates and RNase-resistant immature capsids similar to those formed by wild-type HIV-1 Gag. J Virol. 2011;85:7419-35 pubmed publisher
    During HIV-1 assembly, Gag polypeptides multimerize to form an immature capsid and also package HIV-1 genomic RNA...
  35. Yang Y, Brandariz Nu ez A, Fricke T, IVANOV D, Sarnak Z, Diaz Griffero F. Binding of the rhesus TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain to capsid is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 restriction. Virology. 2014;448:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall this work suggested that the PRYSPRY domain serves an unknown function, distinct from the binding of TRIM5?rh to the HIV-1 core, to block HIV-1 infection...
  36. Kula A, Guerra J, Knezevich A, Kleva D, Myers M, Marcello A. Characterization of the HIV-1 RNA associated proteome identifies Matrin 3 as a nuclear cofactor of Rev function. Retrovirology. 2011;8:60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we exploited a novel proteomic method to identify MATR3 as a cellular cofactor of Rev activity. MATR3 binds viral RNA and is required for the Rev/RRE mediated nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 RNAs. ..
  37. Valiente Echeverría F, Melnychuk L, Vyboh K, Ajamian L, Gallouzi I, Bernard N, et al. eEF2 and Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP1) modulate stress granule assembly during HIV-1 infection. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4819 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that HIV-1 Gag blocks SG assembly irrespective of eIF2α phosphorylation and even when SG assembly is forced by overexpression ..
  38. Nakayama E, Shioda T. TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV. Front Microbiol. 2012;3:13 pubmed publisher
    ..As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models. ..
  39. Munro J, Nath A, Farber M, Datta S, Rein A, Rhoades E, et al. A conformational transition observed in single HIV-1 Gag molecules during in vitro assembly of virus-like particles. J Virol. 2014;88:3577-85 pubmed publisher
    The conformational changes within single HIV-1 Gag molecules that occur during assembly into immature viruses are poorly understood...
  40. Fassati A. Multiple roles of the capsid protein in the early steps of HIV-1 infection. Virus Res. 2012;170:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the different functions of CA and how they may be integrated into one or more coherent models that illuminate the early events in HIV-1 infection and their relations with the host cell. ..
  41. Ding S, Pan Q, Liu S, Liang C. HIV-1 mutates to evade IFITM1 restriction. Virology. 2014;454-455:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrate that HIV-1 can mutate to evade IFITM1 restriction by increasing cell-to-cell transmission. ..
  42. Sundquist W, Kräusslich H. HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006924 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these stages are coordinated by the Gag polyprotein and its proteolytic maturation products, which function as the major structural proteins of the virus...
  43. Woods M, Kelly J, Hattlmann C, Tong J, Xu L, Coleman M, et al. Human HERC5 restricts an early stage of HIV-1 assembly by a mechanism correlating with the ISGylation of Gag. Retrovirology. 2011;8:95 pubmed publisher
    ..of the late stages of HIV-1 replication, we assessed the ability of IFNbeta-induced genes to restrict HIV-1 Gag particle production and have identified a potentially novel host factor called HECT domain and RCC1-like domain-..
  44. Bhattacharya A, Alam S, Fricke T, Zadrozny K, Sedzicki J, Taylor A, et al. Structural basis of HIV-1 capsid recognition by PF74 and CPSF6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:18625-30 pubmed publisher
  45. Valle Casuso J, Di Nunzio F, Yang Y, Reszka N, Lienlaf M, Arhel N, et al. TNPO3 is required for HIV-1 replication after nuclear import but prior to integration and binds the HIV-1 core. J Virol. 2012;86:5931-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this work suggests that TNPO3 interacts with the incoming HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm to assist a process that is important for HIV-1 infection after nuclear import. ..
  46. Mamede J, Sitbon M, Battini J, Courgnaud V. Heterogeneous susceptibility of circulating SIV isolate capsids to HIV-interacting factors. Retrovirology. 2013;10:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings warrant a closer evaluation of other potential defenses against circulating SIV. ..
  47. Goujon C, Moncorgé O, Bauby H, Doyle T, Ward C, Schaller T, et al. Human MX2 is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2013;502:559-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The Capsid region of the viral Gag protein dictates susceptibility to MX2, and the block to infection occurs at a late post-entry step, with both the ..
  48. Yedavalli V, Jeang K. Matrin 3 is a co-factor for HIV-1 Rev in regulating post-transcriptional viral gene expression. Retrovirology. 2011;8:61 pubmed publisher
    ..This binding interaction stabilizes unspliced and partially spliced HIV-1 transcripts leading to increased cytoplasmic expression of these viral RNAs. ..
  49. Lindqvist M, van Lunzen J, Soghoian D, Kuhl B, Ranasinghe S, Kranias G, et al. Expansion of HIV-specific T follicular helper cells in chronic HIV infection. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, GAG-specific TFH cells were detected at significantly higher levels in the lymph nodes compared with those of GP120-..
  50. De Iaco A, Luban J. Cyclophilin A promotes HIV-1 reverse transcription but its effect on transduction correlates best with its effect on nuclear entry of viral cDNA. Retrovirology. 2014;11:11 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also support the hypothesis that a cell-type specific CypA-dependent restriction factor blocks HIV-1 replication by delaying CA core uncoating and hindering nuclear entry. ..
  51. Fricke T, White T, Schulte B, de Souza Aranha Vieira D, Dharan A, Campbell E, et al. MxB binds to the HIV-1 core and prevents the uncoating process of HIV-1. Retrovirology. 2014;11:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall our work establishes that MxB binds to the HIV-1 core and inhibits the uncoating process of HIV-1. Moreover, we demonstrated that HIV-1 restriction by MxB requires capsid binding and oligomerization. ..
  52. Fricke T, Valle Casuso J, White T, Brandariz Nuñez A, Bosche W, Reszka N, et al. The ability of TNPO3-depleted cells to inhibit HIV-1 infection requires CPSF6. Retrovirology. 2013;10:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Fate of the capsid assays revealed that cytosolic expression of CPSF6 enhances stability of the HIV-1 core during infection. These results suggested that inhibition of HIV-1 by TNPO3-depleted cells requires CPSF6. ..
  53. Van Engelenburg S, Shtengel G, Sengupta P, Waki K, Jarnik M, Ablan S, et al. Distribution of ESCRT machinery at HIV assembly sites reveals virus scaffolding of ESCRT subunits. Science. 2014;343:653-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the driving force for HIV release may derive from initial scaffolding of ESCRT subunits within the viral bud interior followed by plasma membrane association and selective remodeling of ESCRT subunits. ..
  54. Veillette M, Bichel K, Pawlica P, Freund S, Plourde M, Pham Q, et al. The V86M mutation in HIV-1 capsid confers resistance to TRIM5? by abrogation of cyclophilin A-dependent restriction and enhancement of viral nuclear import. Retrovirology. 2013;10:25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, V86M does not seem to relieve restriction of a spreading HIV-1 infection by TRIM5?hu mutants, underscoring context-specific restriction mechanisms. ..
  55. De Francesco M, Baronio M, Poiesi C. HIV-1 p17 matrix protein interacts with heparan sulfate side chain of CD44v3, syndecan-2, and syndecan-4 proteoglycans expressed on human activated CD4+ T cells affecting tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 production. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we observed a stimulatory or inhibitory activity when CD4(+) T cells were activated with mitogens together with nanomolar or micromolar concentrations of the matrix protein. ..
  56. Sette P, Mu R, Dussupt V, Jiang J, Snyder G, Smith P, et al. The Phe105 loop of Alix Bro1 domain plays a key role in HIV-1 release. Structure. 2011;19:1485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..and surrounding residues at the tip of the loop compromise the function of Alix in HIV-1 budding without affecting its interactions with Gag or CHMP4. These studies identify a new functional determinant in the Bro1 domain of Alix.
  57. Koh Y, Wu X, Ferris A, Matreyek K, Smith S, Lee K, et al. Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid and cellular factors nucleoporin 153 and LEDGF/p75 on the efficiency and specificity of viral DNA integration. J Virol. 2013;87:648-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A role for the CA protein in determining the dependency of HIV-1 on LEDGF/p75 during infection highlights a connection between the viral capsid and chromosomal DNA integration. ..
  58. Di Nunzio F, Fricke T, Miccio A, Valle Casuso J, Perez P, Souque P, et al. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Virology. 2013;440:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. ..
  59. Fenton May A, Dibben O, Emmerich T, Ding H, Pfafferott K, Aasa Chapman M, et al. Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alpha. Retrovirology. 2013;10:146 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that it may be possible to harness the antiviral activity of type 1 IFNs in prophylactic and potentially also therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 infection. ..
  60. Kane M, Yadav S, Bitzegeio J, Kutluay S, Zang T, Wilson S, et al. MX2 is an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2013;502:563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings indicate that MX2 is an effector of the anti-HIV-1 activity of type-I IFN, and suggest that MX2 inhibits HIV-1 infection by inhibiting capsid-dependent nuclear import of subviral complexes. ..
  61. Weiss E, Gottlinger H. The role of cellular factors in promoting HIV budding. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Gag directly interacts with early-acting components of this pathway, which ultimately triggers the assembly of the ..
  62. Bell N, Lever A. HIV Gag polyprotein: processing and early viral particle assembly. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:136-44 pubmed publisher
    Over the past several decades, extensive research into the Gag polyprotein, the main structural protein of HIV-1 and all other retroviruses, has changed the way that we describe Gag's role within viral lifecycles...
  63. Hahn S, Setz C, Wild J, Schubert U. The PTAP sequence within the p6 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag regulates its ubiquitination and MHC class I antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2011;186:5706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the HIV-1 Gag protein represents a bona fide substrate for the DRiP pathway and that the amount of Gag-DRiPs can be enhanced by ..
  64. Guth C, Sodroski J. Contribution of PDZD8 to stabilization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid. J Virol. 2014;88:4612-23 pubmed publisher
    ..PDZD8 has been previously reported to bind the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein and to make a positive contribution to the efficiency of HIV-1 infection (M. S. Henning, S. G...
  65. Duncan C, Williams J, Schiffner T, Gärtner K, Ochsenbauer C, Kappes J, et al. High-multiplicity HIV-1 infection and neutralizing antibody evasion mediated by the macrophage-T cell virological synapse. J Virol. 2014;88:2025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for viral spread in vivo and the specificities of neutralizing antibody elicited by antibody-based vaccines. ..
  66. Zhou L, Sokolskaja E, Jolly C, James W, Cowley S, Fassati A. Transportin 3 promotes a nuclear maturation step required for efficient HIV-1 integration. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002194 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also provide evidence for a novel tRNA nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathway in human cells. ..
  67. Harris R, Hultquist J, Evans D. The restriction factors of human immunodeficiency virus. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40875-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These HIV restriction and counter-restriction mechanisms suggest strategies for new therapeutic interventions...
  68. Izquierdo Useros N, Lorizate M, Puertas M, Rodriguez Plata M, Zangger N, Erikson E, et al. Siglec-1 is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosides. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001448 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Siglec-1 as a key factor for HIV-1 spread via infectious DC/T-cell synapses, highlighting a novel mechanism that mediates HIV-1 dissemination in activated tissues. ..
  69. Jouvenet N, Zhadina M, Bieniasz P, Simon S. Dynamics of ESCRT protein recruitment during retroviral assembly. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulated at viral assembly sites, coincident with the accumulation of the main viral structural protein, Gag, and was not recycled after assembly...
  70. Ambrose Z, Aiken C. HIV-1 uncoating: connection to nuclear entry and regulation by host proteins. Virology. 2014;454-455:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding uncoating will be valuable toward developing novel antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected individuals. ..
  71. Malim M, Bieniasz P. HIV Restriction Factors and Mechanisms of Evasion. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006940 pubmed publisher
  72. Chu H, Wang J, Qi M, Yoon J, Chen X, Wen X, et al. Tetherin/BST-2 is essential for the formation of the intracellular virus-containing compartment in HIV-infected macrophages. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, tetherin is essential for VCC formation and may account for morphologic differences in the apparent HIV assembly sites in macrophages versus T cells. ..
  73. Ambrose Z, Lee K, Ndjomou J, Xu H, Oztop I, Matous J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid mutation N74D alters cyclophilin A dependence and impairs macrophage infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4708-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data indicate that N74D HIV-1 replication in transformed cells requires cyclophilin A but is dependent on other interactions in macrophages. ..
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    To produce progeny virus, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Gag assembles into capsids that package the viral genome and bud from the infected cell...
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    ..We show that AGO2 interacts with the retroviral Group Specific Antigen (GAG) core proteins and preferentially binds unspliced RNAs through the RNA packaging sequences without affecting RNA ..
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    ..Targeting and binding of Gag to the PM are the first steps in this assembly process and are mediated by the matrix domain of Gag...
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    ..This occurs by miRNA binding to the nucleocapsid domain of the Gag protein, the main structural component of HIV-1 virions...
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    The morphogenesis of retroviral particles is driven by Gag and GagPol proteins that provide the major structural component and enzymatic activities required for particle assembly and maturation...
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    ..HIV-1 Gag trafficking and release as virus-like particles (VLPs) require the participation of ESCRTs; however, its use of ..
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    ..These findings suggest that the presence of structural plasticity at the CTD dimer interface permits pleiotropic HIV-1 capsid assembly, resulting in varied capsid morphologies. ..
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    The matrix (MA) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) precursor Gag (PrGag) protein plays multiple roles in the viral replication cycle...
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    ..In this regard, we hypothesized that a likely interaction of MAPK/ERK-2 with Gag(p55) may enable its packaging into virus particles...
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    ..Overall, our findings suggested that cellular extracts specifically stabilize the HIV-1 core. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 core stability in vitro. ..
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    ..HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans. ..
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    HIV-1 recruits members of ESCRT, the cell membrane fission machinery that promotes virus exit. HIV-1 Gag protein gains access to ESCRT directly by binding Alix, an ESCRT-associated protein that promotes budding...
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    ..mechanisms, we used a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genetic screen to identify mutant strains in which HIV-1 Gag targeting to the plasma membrane was aberrant...
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    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is the main structural protein driving assembly and release of virions from infected cells...
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    ..TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 infectivity at a step in the virus life cycle that is detectable after the preintegration complex arrives in the nucleus and CA is the viral determinant for TNPO3 dependence. ..
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    ..This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of 'anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus. ..