furin

Summary

Gene Symbol: furin
Description: furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme)
Alias: FUR, PACE, PCSK3, SPC1, FES upstream region, dibasic processing enzyme, dibasic-processing enzyme, furin, furin, membrane associated receptor protein, paired basic amino acid residue-cleaving enzyme, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 3
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc Intracellular trafficking and activation of the furin proprotein convertase: localization to the TGN and recycling from the cell surface
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Portland, OR
    EMBO J 13:18-33. 1994
  2. ncbi Increased expression of the pro-protein convertase furin predicts decreased survival in ovarian cancer
    Robert E Page
    Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA
    Cell Oncol 29:289-99. 2007
  3. ncbi Processing of transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor by human furin convertase
    C M Dubois
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 270:10618-24. 1995
  4. pmc In vivo evidence that furin from hepatocytes inactivates PCSK9
    Rachid Essalmani
    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 286:4257-63. 2011
  5. pmc Thyroid hormone promotes cell invasion through activation of furin expression in human hepatoma cell lines
    Ruey Nan Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen hwa 1 Road, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Endocrinology 149:3817-31. 2008
  6. pmc Two independent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic domain determine trans-Golgi network localization and endosomal trafficking of the proprotein convertase furin
    W Schafer
    Institut fur Virologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Germany
    EMBO J 14:2424-35. 1995
  7. pmc Furin: a mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like endoprotease involved in processing of a wide variety of precursor proteins
    K Nakayama
    Institute of Biological Sciences and Gene Experiment Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305, Japan
    Biochem J 327:625-35. 1997
  8. ncbi Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160
    S Hallenberger
    Institut fur Virologie, Philips Universität Marburg, Germany
    Nature 360:358-61. 1992
  9. pmc Comparative analysis of expression of the proprotein convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2 in human lung tumours
    M Mbikay
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Br J Cancer 75:1509-14. 1997
  10. pmc Intracellular trafficking of furin is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site in its cytoplasmic tail
    B G Jones
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098, USA
    EMBO J 14:5869-83. 1995

Detail Information

Publications215 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Intracellular trafficking and activation of the furin proprotein convertase: localization to the TGN and recycling from the cell surface
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Portland, OR
    EMBO J 13:18-33. 1994
    b>Furin is a membrane-associated endoprotease that efficiently cleaves precursor proteins on the C-terminal side of the consensus sequence, Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg1, and has been proposed to catalyze these reactions in both exocytic and ..
  2. ncbi Increased expression of the pro-protein convertase furin predicts decreased survival in ovarian cancer
    Robert E Page
    Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA
    Cell Oncol 29:289-99. 2007
    ..We sought to determine if there was an association between the expression of the ubiquitously expressed PCs, furin, PACE-4, PC-5 and PC-7, and ovarian tumor progression.
  3. ncbi Processing of transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor by human furin convertase
    C M Dubois
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 270:10618-24. 1995
    ..To determine whether cleavage of pro-TGF beta 1 can be achieved by the furin convertase in vitro, purified precursor was incubated in the presence of a truncated/secreted form of the enzyme...
  4. pmc In vivo evidence that furin from hepatocytes inactivates PCSK9
    Rachid Essalmani
    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 286:4257-63. 2011
    ..Ex vivo data showed that human PCSK9 is inactivated by cleavage at Arg(218)↓ by the overexpressed convertases furin and PC5/6A...
  5. pmc Thyroid hormone promotes cell invasion through activation of furin expression in human hepatoma cell lines
    Ruey Nan Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen hwa 1 Road, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Endocrinology 149:3817-31. 2008
    ..The gene encoding furin, as previously identified by cDNA microarray, is known to be up-regulated by T(3) treatment, and stimulated furin ..
  6. pmc Two independent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic domain determine trans-Golgi network localization and endosomal trafficking of the proprotein convertase furin
    W Schafer
    Institut fur Virologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Germany
    EMBO J 14:2424-35. 1995
    b>Furin, a subtilisin-like eukaryotic endoprotease, is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of cellular and viral proteins transported via the constitutive secretory pathway...
  7. pmc Furin: a mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like endoprotease involved in processing of a wide variety of precursor proteins
    K Nakayama
    Institute of Biological Sciences and Gene Experiment Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305, Japan
    Biochem J 327:625-35. 1997
    ..Seven distinct proprotein convertases of this family (furin, PC2, PC1/PC3, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, LPC/PC7/PC8/SPC7) have been identified in mammalian species, some having ..
  8. ncbi Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160
    S Hallenberger
    Institut fur Virologie, Philips Universität Marburg, Germany
    Nature 360:358-61. 1992
    ..found that the enzyme activating the haemagglutinin of fowl plague virus (FPV), an avian influenza virus, is furin. Furin, a subtilisin-like eukaryotic endoprotease, has a substrate specificity for the consensus amino-acid ..
  9. pmc Comparative analysis of expression of the proprotein convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2 in human lung tumours
    M Mbikay
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Br J Cancer 75:1509-14. 1997
    ..b>Furin mRNA was expressed in all the tumours; its level in squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas was on average ..
  10. pmc Intracellular trafficking of furin is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site in its cytoplasmic tail
    B G Jones
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201 3098, USA
    EMBO J 14:5869-83. 1995
    Human furin catalyzes the proteolytic maturation of many proproteins in the exocytic and endocytic secretory pathways by cleavage at the C-terminal side of the consensus sequence-ArgXaaLys/ArgArg decreases -...
  11. ncbi The proprotein convertase (PC) PCSK9 is inactivated by furin and/or PC5/6A: functional consequences of natural mutations and post-translational modifications
    Suzanne Benjannet
    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:30561-72. 2006
    ..mutations R218S, F216L, and D374Y associated with hypercholesterolemia result in total or partial loss of furin/PC5/6A processing at the motif RFHR218 downward arrow...
  12. pmc PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic
    C M Crump
    Vollum Institute, L 474, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201 3098, USA
    EMBO J 20:2191-201. 2001
    ..correct subcellular localization of integral membrane proteins that contain acidic cluster sorting motifs, such as furin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NEF: We have now investigated the interaction of PACS-1 with ..
  13. ncbi The proprotein convertases furin and PACE4 play a significant role in tumor progression
    D E Bassi
    Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19006, USA
    Mol Carcinog 28:63-9. 2000
    ..This family of PCs is currently comprised of fewer than a dozen members, known as furin/paired basic amino-acid-cleaving enzyme (PACE), PC1/PC3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, and PC7/PC8/lymphoma proprotein ..
  14. ncbi Furin directly cleaves proMMP-2 in the trans-Golgi network resulting in a nonfunctioning proteinase
    Jian Cao
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5200, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:10974-80. 2005
    ..Here, we report that a dibasic amino acid convertase, furin, directly cleaves proMMP-2 within the trans-Golgi network leading to an inactive form of matrix metalloproteinase-..
  15. pmc The Notch1 receptor is cleaved constitutively by a furin-like convertase
    F Logeat
    Unité de Biologie Moléculaire de l Expression Génique, Unité de Recherche Associée 1773 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:8108-12. 1998
    ..We report here that constitutive processing of murine Notch1 involves a furin-like convertase...
  16. ncbi Single amino acid substitution in the PC1/3 propeptide can induce significant modifications of its inhibitory profile toward its cognate enzyme
    Nadia Rabah
    Neuropeptides Structure and Metabolism, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:7556-67. 2006
    ..To examine the specificity of mutants, we studied their reactivity toward furin, a closely related convertase...
  17. pmc Propeptide cleavage conditions sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 for ligand binding
    C Munck Petersen
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Ole Worms Alle, Building 170, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    EMBO J 18:595-604. 1999
    ..The luminal N-terminus of sortilin comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin, R41WRR44, which precedes a truncation originally found in sortilin isolated from human brain...
  18. pmc Furin processing and proteolytic activation of Semliki Forest virus
    Xinyong Zhang
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 77:2981-9. 2003
    ..p62," which forms a stable heterodimer with E1 and is processed late in the secretory pathway by a cellular furin-like protease...
  19. pmc Increased furin activity enhances the malignant phenotype of human head and neck cancer cells
    Daniel E Bassi
    Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA
    Am J Pathol 162:439-47. 2003
    ..b>Furin, the prototype of this family, has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes...
  20. pmc Expression of a human proprotein processing enzyme: correct cleavage of the von Willebrand factor precursor at a paired basic amino acid site
    R J Wise
    Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA 02140
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:9378-82. 1990
    ..The encoded protein, called PACE (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme), has structural homology to the well-characterized subtilisin-like ..
  21. pmc The status of community water fluoridation in the United States
    M W Easley
    Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, University of Detroit, School of Dentistry
    Public Health Rep 105:348-53. 1990
    ..This paper documents the lagging pace of community fluoridation by reviewing and analyzing data reported in "Fluoridation Census, 1985," a document ..
  22. ncbi The family of subtilisin/kexin like pro-protein and pro-hormone convertases: divergent or shared functions
    N G Seidah
    JA DeSève Laboratories of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Que, Canada
    Biochimie 76:197-209. 1994
    ..These subtilisin/kexin-like convertases were called furin/PACE, PC1/PC3, PC2, PACE4, PC4 and PC5/PC6...
  23. pmc Comparative study of the binding pockets of mammalian proprotein convertases and its implications for the design of specific small molecule inhibitors
    Sun Tian
    Institute of Biomechanics School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
    Int J Biol Sci 6:89-95. 2010
    ..Seven mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like proprotein convertases have been identified: furin, PC1, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5 and PC7...
  24. pmc An arthropod enzyme, Dfurin1, and a vertebrate furin homolog display distinct cleavage site sequence preferences for a shared viral proprotein substrate
    Gina L Cano-Monreal
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249 0662, USA
    J Insect Sci 10:29. 2010
    Alphaviruses replicate in vertebrate and arthropod cells and utilize a cellular enzyme called furin to process the PE2 glycoprotein precursor during virus replication in both cell types...
  25. ncbi Insulin delivery with plasmid DNA
    A M Abai
    Department of Molecular Biology, Vical, Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 10:2637-49. 1999
    ..rat proinsulin I with the B10 aspartic acid point mutation (VR-3502), and a derivative of VR-3502 with a furin cleavage site added at the B-chain and C-peptide junction (VR-3503)...
  26. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases in human atherosclerosis
    Philipp Stawowy
    Department of Medicine Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany
    Virchows Arch 446:351-9. 2005
    ..In vitro, the subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases (PCs), namely PC5 and furin, have been shown to be responsible for the endoproteolytic activation of the alpha(v) integrin subunit...
  27. pmc A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen
    V M Gordon
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 65:3370-5. 1997
    ..that anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) are cleaved by furin C-terminal to the sequences RKKR, RQPR, and RVRR, respectively...
  28. ncbi Furin and prohormone convertase 1/3 are major convertases in the processing of mouse pro-growth hormone-releasing hormone
    Arunangsu Dey
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Endocrinology 145:1961-71. 2004
    We investigated the proteolytic processing of mouse pro-GHRH [84 amino acids (aa)] by furin, PC1/3, PC2, and PC5/6A...
  29. ncbi The CDX2 transcription factor regulates furin expression during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation
    Fernand Pierre Gendron
    Département d Anatomie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1H5N4
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G310-8. 2006
    ..In this study, we show that the proprotein convertase furin, involved in proteolytic maturation of proprotein substrates including LPH and cell surface proteins, is a CDX2 ..
  30. pmc Molluscum contagiosum virus interleukin-18 (IL-18) binding protein is secreted as a full-length form that binds cell surface glycosaminoglycans through the C-terminal tail and a furin-cleaved form with only the IL-18 binding domain
    Yan Xiang
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    J Virol 77:2623-30. 2003
    ..This C-terminal fragment resulted from the cleavage of MC54L by cellular furin, as it was greatly diminished when furin was specifically inhibited or when a furin-deficient cell line was used ..
  31. ncbi Processing specificity and biosynthesis of the Drosophila melanogaster convertases dfurin1, dfurin1-CRR, dfurin1-X, and dfurin2
    I De Bie
    J A DeSève Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 270:1020-8. 1995
    ..Six members of this family of enzymes have been identified in mammals and named furin (also called PACE), PC1 (also called PC3), PC2, PACE4, PC4, and PC5 (also called PC6)...
  32. ncbi Prohormone convertases 1/3, 2, furin and protein 7B2 (Secretogranin V) in endocrine cells of the human pancreas
    Guida Maria Portela-Gomes
    Department of Gastroenterology, Lisbon University, Portugal
    Regul Pept 146:117-24. 2008
    ..been identified; two of them, PC1/3 and PC2, have only been localized in neuroendocrine (NE) tissues; a third, furin, in both endocrine and exocrine tissues...
  33. doi Characterization of proADAMTS5 processing by proprotein convertases
    Jean Michel Longpre
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que J1H 5N4, Canada
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1116-26. 2009
    ..Using furin-deficient cells and a furin inhibitor, we found that proADAMTS5 was processed by proprotein convertases, ..
  34. ncbi Proprotein-processing endoprotease furin controls growth of pancreatic beta-cells
    T Kayo
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan
    Diabetes 46:1296-304. 1997
    ..PC2 and PC3, and glucose-regulated insulin secretion, diminished when the proprotein-processing endoprotease furin was highly expressed...
  35. pmc In vivo bioluminescence imaging of furin activity in breast cancer cells using bioluminogenic substrates
    Anca Dragulescu-Andrasi
    Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Bioconjug Chem 20:1660-6. 2009
    b>Furin, a proprotein convertases family endoprotease, processes numerous physiological substrates and is overexpressed in cancer and inflammatory conditions...
  36. pmc Selective and potent furin inhibitors protect cells from anthrax without significant toxicity
    Albert G Remacle
    Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 42:987-95. 2010
    b>Furin and related proprotein convertases cleave the multibasic motifs R-X-R/K/X-R in the precursor proteins and, as a result, transform the latent proproteins into biologically active proteins and peptides...
  37. ncbi Limited redundancy of the proprotein convertase furin in mouse liver
    Anton J M Roebroek
    Experimental Mouse Genetics, University of Leuven and Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 279:53442-50. 2004
    b>Furin is an endoprotease of the family of mammalian proprotein convertases and is involved in the activation of a large variety of regulatory proteins by cleavage at basic motifs...
  38. ncbi Human furin is a calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that recognizes the sequence Arg-X-X-Arg and efficiently cleaves anthrax toxin protective antigen
    S S Molloy
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
    J Biol Chem 267:16396-402. 1992
    Previous work demonstrated that human furin is a predominantly Golgi membrane-localized endoprotease that can efficiently process precursor proteins at paired basic residues (-Lys-Arg- or -Arg-Arg-) in transfected cells...
  39. pmc Potent inhibitors of furin and furin-like proprotein convertases containing decarboxylated P1 arginine mimetics
    Gero L Becker
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps University Marburg, Marbacher Weg 6, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    J Med Chem 53:1067-75. 2010
    b>Furin belongs to the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) and is involved in numerous normal physiological and pathogenic processes, such as viral propagation, bacterial toxin activation, cancer, and metastasis...
  40. pmc Endoproteolytic processing of integrin pro-alpha subunits involves the redundant function of furin and proprotein convertase (PC) 5A, but not paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE) 4, PC5B or PC7
    J C Lissitzky
    CNRS UPRESA 6032, Faculte de Pharmacie, 27 Boulevard J Moulin, 13385 Marseille 5 Cedex, France
    Biochem J 346:133-8. 2000
    ..endoproteolytic processing at pairs of basic amino acids that is mediated by the proprotein convertase furin. Here we ask whether other convertase family members can participate in these processing events...
  41. pmc Maturation of the trans-Golgi network protease furin: compartmentalization of propeptide removal, substrate cleavage, and COOH-terminal truncation
    M Vey
    Institut f Virologie, Philipps Universitat Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 127:1829-42. 1994
    We have cloned a bovine cDNA encoding the trans-Golgi network (TGN) protease furin and expressed it via recombinant vaccinia viruses to investigate intracellular maturation...
  42. ncbi The impact of dietary fats, photoperiod, temperature and season on morphological variables, torpor patterns, and brown adipose tissue fatty acid composition of hamsters, Phodopus sungorus
    F Geiser
    , Marburg, Germany
    J Comp Physiol B 165:406-15. 1995
    ..how dietary fats and oils of different fatty acid composition influence the seasonal change of body mass, fur colour, testes size and torpor in Djungarian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, maintained from autumn to winter under ..
  43. pmc Characterization of structural determinants and molecular mechanisms involved in pro-stromelysin-3 activation by 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and furin-type convertases
    M Santavicca
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U184 Université Louis Pasteur, C U de Strasbourg, France
    Biochem J 315:953-8. 1996
    ..Weiss (1995) Nature (London) 375, 244-247], we find that the requirement for activation of the ST3 proform by the furin convertase is entirely contained within a stretch of 10 amino acids located at the junction between the ST3 pro- ..
  44. pmc Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is proteolytically activated by furin
    V M Gordon
    National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4350, USA
    Infect Immun 65:4130-4. 1997
    ..A conspicuous feature of this site is a recognition site (RGKR) for the eukaryotic protease furin. Pro-alpha-toxin (AT[pro]) that was digested with trypsin or recombinant soluble furin yielded the 41,327-Da ..
  45. pmc 10mM glucosamine prevents activation of proADAMTS5 (aggrecanase-2) in transfected cells by interference with post-translational modification of furin
    D R McCulloch
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 18:455-63. 2010
    ....
  46. pmc Proteolytic processing of the Cryptosporidium glycoprotein gp40/15 by human furin and by a parasite-derived furin-like protease activity
    Jane W Wanyiri
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Infect Immun 75:184-92. 2007
    ..We identified a putative furin cleavage site RSRR downward arrow in the deduced amino acid sequence of gp40/15 from C...
  47. doi The proprotein convertase furin in human trophoblast: Possible role in promoting trophoblast cell migration and invasion
    Z Zhou
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
    Placenta 30:929-38. 2009
    b>Furin, a proprotein convertase (PC), is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. This study is aimed to identify the role of furin in human trophoblast invasion and migration...
  48. pmc Proteolytic activation of the spike protein at a novel RRRR/S motif is implicated in furin-dependent entry, syncytium formation, and infectivity of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cultured cells
    Yoshiyuki Yamada
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673
    J Virol 83:8744-58. 2009
    ..S) protein of the coronavirus (CoV) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits at the furin consensus motif RRFRR(537)/S in virus-infected cells...
  49. ncbi Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain
    W E Hoogendoorn
    Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 25:2114-25. 2000
    ..Insufficient evidence was found for an effect of a high work pace, high qualitative demands, low job content, low job control, and psychosocial factors in private life...
  50. ncbi Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP/MMP-2 in cardiac fibroblasts by TGF-beta1 involves furin-convertase
    Philipp Stawowy
    Department of Medicine Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 63:87-97. 2004
    ..b>Furin, a subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertase (PC), activates TGF-beta1 and membrane-bound MT1-MMP, which ..
  51. ncbi Inhibition of HIV-1 gp160-dependent membrane fusion by a furin-directed alpha 1-antitrypsin variant
    E D Anderson
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
    J Biol Chem 268:24887-91. 1993
    b>Furin is a membrane-associated calcium-dependent serine endoprotease that cleaves proproteins on the carboxyl side of the consensus sequence -Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg-...
  52. ncbi Furin interacts with proMT1-MMP and integrin alphaV at specialized domains of renal cell plasma membrane
    Gaetan Mayer
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
    J Cell Sci 116:1763-73. 2003
    ..Both membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and the integrin alphaV subunit are fully activated upon cleavage at a furin recognition site...
  53. pmc Inhibition of furin/proprotein convertase-catalyzed surface and intracellular processing by small molecules
    Tomoko Komiyama
    Departments of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0606, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:15729-38. 2009
    b>Furin is a ubiquitously expressed proprotein convertase (PC) that plays a vital role in numerous disease processes including cancer metastasis, bacterial toxin activation (e.g. anthrax and Pseudomonas), and viral propagation (e.g...
  54. ncbi A novel polymorphism of the gene encoding furin, a TGF-beta1 activator, and the influence on cardiac allograft vasculopathy formation
    C G Densem
    Cardiothoracic Transplant Unit, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Transpl Immunol 13:185-90. 2004
    ..b>Furin is a proprotein convertase enzyme important in TGF-beta1 activation...
  55. ncbi Identification of a pH sensor in the furin propeptide that regulates enzyme activation
    Sylvain F Feliciangeli
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Valbonne, France
    J Biol Chem 281:16108-16. 2006
    The folding and activation of furin occur through two pH- and compartment-specific autoproteolytic steps...
  56. pmc Synthetic small molecule furin inhibitors derived from 2,5-dideoxystreptamine
    Guan Sheng Jiao
    Departments of Chemistry, PanThera Biopharma LLC, 99 193 Aiea Heights Drive, Suite 136, Aiea, HI 96701, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19707-12. 2006
    b>Furin plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and homeostasis and in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and viral and bacterial infections...
  57. ncbi The structure of the TGF-beta latency associated peptide region determines the ability of the proprotein convertase furin to cleave TGF-betas
    Makoto Kusakabe
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Cell Biochem 103:311-20. 2008
    ..TGF-beta 1, for instance, is predominantly processed by a substilisin-like proprotein convertase, furin. TGF-beta 2 has a consensus cleavage site for furin and therefore has been presumed to be cleaved by furin...
  58. pmc alpha1-Antitrypsin Portland, a bioengineered serpin highly selective for furin: application as an antipathogenic agent
    F Jean
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7293-8. 1998
    The important role of furin in the proteolytic activation of many pathogenic molecules has made this endoprotease a target for the development of potent and selective antiproteolytic agents...
  59. ncbi Blockade of furin activity and furin-induced tumor cells malignant phenotypes by the chemically synthesized human furin prodomain
    A Basak
    Chronic Diseases Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, U Ottawa, Canada
    Curr Med Chem 17:2214-21. 2010
    Processing of cancer-associated precursor proteins such as growth factors by the Proprotein Convertase furin is an important cellular process for acquisition of malignant phenotype and metastatic potential of tumor cells...
  60. pmc Ovarian furin (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type3): expression, localization, and potential role in ovulation in the rat
    Brian P Kelty
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Biol Reprod 83:147-54. 2010
    ..The function of FURIN (also known as PCSK3) is to activate various proteolytic enzymes...
  61. pmc A small-molecule furin inhibitor inhibits cancer cell motility and invasiveness
    Julia M Coppola
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Neoplasia 10:363-70. 2008
    b>Furin, a member the proprotein convertase (PC) family, processes inactive precursor proteins to functional proteins within the Golgi/trans-Golgi network secretory pathway...
  62. ncbi Failure of ventral closure and axial rotation in embryos lacking the proprotein convertase Furin
    A J Roebroek
    Laboratory for Molecular Oncology, Experimental Genetics Group, Center for Human Genetics, University of Leuven and Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven
    Development 125:4863-76. 1998
    We have examined the role of Furin in postimplantation-stage mouse embryos by analyzing both the expression pattern of fur mRNA and the developmental consequences of a loss-of-function mutation at the fur locus. At early stages (day 7...
  63. ncbi Tissue-specific requirements for the proprotein convertase furin/SPC1 during embryonic turning and heart looping
    D B Constam
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 127:245-54. 2000
    b>Furin, the mammalian prototype of a family of serine proteases, is required for ventral closure and axial rotation, and formation of the yolk sac vasculature...
  64. ncbi Familial British dementia: colocalization of furin and ABri amyloid
    Claudia Schwab
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Acta Neuropathol 106:278-84. 2003
    ..Kim and colleagues demonstrated in vitro that furin can process both the normal protein BriPP and the extended protein ABriPP to produce C-terminal fragments of 23 ..
  65. ncbi A furin-like convertase mediates propeptide cleavage of BACE, the Alzheimer's beta -secretase
    B D Bennett
    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, and Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:37712-7. 2000
    ..BACE propeptide cleavage occurs at the sequence RLPR downward arrowE, a potential furin recognition motif. Here, we explore the role of furin in BACE propeptide domain processing...
  66. pmc Evidence that furin is an authentic transforming growth factor-beta1-converting enzyme
    C M Dubois
    Immunology Division and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Am J Pathol 158:305-16. 2001
    ..PC) recognition motifs and has previously demonstrated that this PC-like cleavage site is correctly cleaved by furin, a member of the PC family...
  67. pmc Preferential assembly of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits in Xenopus oocytes: role of furin-mediated endogenous proteolysis
    Michael Harris
    Departement de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Universite de Lausanne, CH 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 283:7455-63. 2008
    ..The alpha and gamma (not beta) subunits undergo proteolytic cleavage by endogenous furin-like activity correlating with increased ENaC function...
  68. ncbi The neuroendocrine precursor 7B2 is a sulfated protein proteolytically processed by a ubiquitous furin-like convertase
    L Paquet
    Laboratory of Structure and Metabolism of Neuropeptides, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Biol Chem 269:19279-85. 1994
    ..found in constitutively secreted precursor proteins and recognized by the ubiquitously expressed convertase, furin. pro7B2 (30 kDa), when expressed in endocrine (AtT-20, PC12, and GH4C1) or non-endocrine (Ltk-) cell lines using ..
  69. ncbi Proprotein-processing endoprotease furin decreases regulated secretory pathway-specific proteins in the pancreatic beta cell line MIN6
    T Kayo
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan
    J Biol Chem 271:10731-7. 1996
    ..b>Furin, another yeast Kex2 endoprotease, exists in the trans-Golgi networks of many cell types...
  70. ncbi Localization of endogenous furin in cultured cell lines
    J Shapiro
    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Histochem Cytochem 45:3-12. 1997
    b>Furin is a dibasic endopeptidase responsible for the proteolytic maturation of many precursor proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways of mammalian cells...
  71. doi Pro-hepcidin is unable to degrade the iron exporter ferroportin unless maturated by a furin-dependent process
    Bruno Gagliardo
    Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8601, Paris, France
    J Hepatol 50:394-401. 2009
    ..hepcidin is synthesized in the liver as an 84-aa pre-pro-hormone maturated by proteolysis through a consensus furin cleavage site to generate the bioactive 25-aa peptide secreted in the circulation...
  72. doi Soluble form of the (pro)renin receptor generated by intracellular cleavage by furin is secreted in plasma
    Christelle Cousin
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale and Collège de France, Paris, France
    Hypertension 53:1077-82. 2009
    ..We identified furin as the protease responsible for the shedding of endogenous (P)RR based on the following: LoVo colon carcinoma ..
  73. pmc Calcium antagonistic and antiarrhythmic actions of CPU-23, a substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline
    H Dong
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong
    Br J Pharmacol 109:113-9. 1993
    ..at 10(-6)-10(-4) M markedly inhibited slow action potential characteristics in guinea-pig papillary muscles and pace-maker action potential of rabbit sinoatrial node. It affected fast action potential only at 10(-4) M...
  74. ncbi Sleep deprivation in the rat: XIII. The effect of hypothyroidism on sleep deprivation symptoms
    J J Pilcher
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Illinois
    Sleep 14:201-10. 1991
    ..just prior to death, but had shown signs of severe pathology, including severely debilitated appearance, disheveled fur, and severe lesions on their tails and on the plantar surfaces of their paws...
  75. ncbi Fiscal conditions and state government policy choices
    R J Newcomer
    Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco 94143
    Compr Gerontol B 1:122-8. 1987
    ..persons and a high per capita tax base were likely to increase minimum income eligibility standards to keep pace with inflation. All other states, regardless of fiscal condition, tended toward more restrictive income standards...
  76. ncbi [Positive rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis on pharynx and rectum of patients with gonococcal or chlamydial genital infections]
    H Kojima
    Department of Urology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 68:1237-42. 1994
    ..trachomatis-free subjects were tested by Gonozyme, Chlamydiazyme, Ideia Chlamydia, Gen-Probe and Gen Probe Pace 2. As N. gonorrhoeae- and C...
  77. ncbi Trends in patterns of care for breast cancer in Italy (1979-1987)
    R Grilli
    Laboratorio di Epidemiologia Clinica, Istituto di Richerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy
    Tumori 76:184-9. 1990
    ..Among more narrowly defined clinical issues, there appeared to be some dissonance between the rapid acceptance of adjuvant treatments and the still slow pace of acceptance of less aggressive procedures by surgeons.
  78. ncbi [Aorta-left ventricular relationship evaluated by Doppler echocardiography and ambulatory arterial prsesure monitoring]
    P Abassade
    Service de cardiologie, , 33, rue O-de-Serres, 75015 Paris
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:767-70. 2001
    ..cardiac disease were prospectively enrolled excepted those with atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block pace maker, or valvulopathy...
  79. ncbi Expert ratings of primary care goals and objectives
    A S Robbins
    Sepulveda Veterans Health Administration Medical Center, CA 91343, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 10:429-35. 1995
    ..was developed at the Sepulveda Veterans Health Administration Medical Center Pilot Ambulatory Care and Education (PACE) Program as part of a local and regional primary care curricular review...
  80. ncbi Sleep deprivation: effects on work capacity, self-paced walking, contractile properties and perceived exertion
    C D Rodgers
    School of Physical and Health Education, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Sleep 18:30-8. 1995
    ..Only SD subjects demonstrated a decline in cardiorespiratory function. Self-selected walking pace decreased and perceived exertion increased significantly in the SDW group...
  81. ncbi Caries treatment through 30 years in children and adolescents in Asker, Norway
    F R von der Fehr
    Department of Cariology, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 23:193-9. 1995
    ..The higher grades came later and at a slower pace. The great number of fillings inserted in 1966-72, oscillating around 60 surfaces for the nine school years, ..
  82. ncbi [Risk of bacterial endocarditis after cardiac surgery]
    G de Gevigney
    , Louis-Pradel, BP Lyon-Montchat
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 86:1883-8. 1993
    ..The risk of IE on endocavitary catheters (pace-maker, defibrillator) after interventional cardiac procedures and after cardiac transplantation, seems to be very ..
  83. ncbi Consequences of skin color and fur properties for solar heat gain and ultraviolet irradiance in two mammals
    G E Walsberg
    Department of Zoology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287 1501
    J Comp Physiol B 158:213-21. 1988
    In animals with fur or feather coats, heat gain from solar radiation is a function of coat optical, structural, and insulative characteristics, as well as skin color and the optical properties of individual hairs or feathers...
  84. pmc Sunlight and age-related eye disease
    R W Young
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California
    J Natl Med Assoc 84:353-8. 1992
    ..sunglasses that block all ultraviolet radiation and severely attenuate high-energy visible radiation will slow the pace of ocular deterioration and delay the onset of age-related disease, thereby reducing its prevalence...
  85. ncbi Sleep deprivation in the rat: XIX. Effects of thyroxine administration
    B M Bergmann
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637-1891, USA
    Sleep 18:317-24. 1995
    ..However, TSD rats also undergo weight loss and progressive deterioration of skin and fur, suggesting TSD-induced pathological catabolic activity, possibly secondary to increased metabolic rate, that could ..
  86. pmc Electrophysiological effects of S 16257, a novel sino-atrial node modulator, on rabbit and guinea-pig cardiac preparations: comparison with UL-FS 49
    C Thollon
    Division Pathologies Cardiaques et Vasculaires, Institut de Recherches Servier, Suresnes, France
    Br J Pharmacol 112:37-42. 1994
    ..SAN mainly by a reduction of the diastolic depolarization of the cells, which suggests an inhibition of the pace-maker current (If)...
  87. ncbi [Effect of potassium dichromate on histopathologic changes in testicles of white rats and results of atomic pilograms on fur]
    W Bulikowski

    Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med 46:69-73. 1991
    ..The highest concentration of chrome was in the hair of the animals receiving K2Cr2O7 in a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight...
  88. ncbi The role of cell population kinetics in the efficacy of penicillin--an experimental analysis and stochastic modeling of the tumour tetanus and wound tetanus of the mouse
    U Schneeweiss
    Central Institute of Cancer Research, Academy of Sciences of the GDR
    Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 266:506-21. 1987
    ..schedule, is determined by the generation time of the tetanus rods as a function of the mitotic cycle of the "pace-making" tumour cells or wound fibroblasts...
  89. ncbi Mapping techniques and catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia due to coronary artery disease
    S C Krishnan
    Harvard Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 91:21-6. 1998
    ..The indirect methods include analysis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram, endocardial pace-mapping, and analysis of electrograms recorded from different parts of the heart during sinus rhythm...
  90. ncbi Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia
    M Nývltová-Fisáková
    Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Sciences of Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic fisakovaprfdec natur cuni cz
    Acta Univ Carol Med (Praha) 41:37-40. 2000
    ..The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow...
  91. ncbi Left posterior fascicular tachycardia: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge
    H Peeters
    Department of Cardiology, AZ Damiaan Hospital, Oostende, Belgium
    Acta Cardiol 54:45-8. 1999
    ..The presence of a Purkinje potential preceding the QRS complex during tachycardia and optimal pace mapping may guide radio-frequency ablation resulting in a definite cure.
  92. ncbi [Have the incidence and resistance of tuberculosis increased? Epidemiologic follow-up based on diseases confirmed by culture]
    C Schneider
    Abt für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt am Main
    Pneumologie 48:803-8. 1994
    ..In the light of the regional incidence and resistance rates determined by us, a special position or even pace-setting function of our conurbation within the epidemiological tuberculosis situation in Germany cannot be ..
  93. ncbi Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a guideline to prevention in daily life
    Y Sugishita
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Acta Cardiol 43:677-88. 1988
    ..2%) than in the other autopsied cardiac patients (22.7%). Sudden changes in pace or movement accompanied by mental excitement, such as hurrying to board a train, were more frequent causes of SD in ..
  94. ncbi [Syncope, conduction disorders. Controversial indications for cardiac stimulation]
    D Lamaison
    , Clermont-Ferrand
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 93:47-55. 2000
    ..We try to clarify when to pace or not to pace in such conditions as first degree AV block, type I second degree AV block, intracardiac conduction ..
  95. ncbi Morpho-tribo-mechanical characteristics of the articular cartilage in animals under conditions of hypokinesis
    N A Slesarenko
    Veterinary Academy, Central Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Moscow, Russia
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H 205:251-6. 1991
    ..of activity upon the structure and properties of articular cartilage has been examined in two populations of fur-bearing animals. Morphological changes in cartilage of the caged animals were noted...
  96. ncbi [Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and double-chamber pacing. Long-term results in a consecutive series of 22 patients]
    D Lellouche
    , CHU Henri-Mondor,
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 92:1737-44. 1999
    ..22 patients (14 women and 8 men) mean age 60 +/- 13 years were implanted between 1992 and 1998. The criteria for pace-maker implantation were the presence of severe symptoms related with hypertrophy obstructive cardiomyopathy (..
  97. ncbi [Carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Medium and long-term development in patients treated by ventricular pacing]
    D Deschamps
    , CHU Saint-Jacques, Clermont-Ferrand
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 83:63-7. 1990
    ..The patient had a mixed form of CSH (B.P. drop of 65 mmHg) associated with a "pace maker syndrome" (drop of 50 mmHg in systolic blood pressure at the onset of VVI pacing without any sino carotid ..
  98. ncbi Emerging new frontiers in cardiac pacing: cardiac pacing in heart failure
    N Luqman
    First Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei
    Chang Gung Med J 24:141-50. 2001
    ..or by multi chamber pacing using the coronary sinus as portal of entry of the electrode into the cardiac vein to pace the left ventricle. Pacing leads and generators have been designed to suit the new found methods of pacing...
  99. ncbi Folliculitis ulerythematosus reticulata: a report of four cases and brief review of the literature
    D R Barron
    Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH 45267
    Pediatr Dermatol 4:85-9. 1987
    Folliculitis ulerythematosus reticulata (FUR) is an uncommon genodermatosis best classified as one of the keratosis pilaris atrophicans group of disorders...
  100. ncbi Work pace, stress, and cumulative trauma disorders
    R Arndt
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison
    J Hand Surg Am 12:866-9. 1987
    This paper discusses the potential roles of work pace and work pressure as risk factors in the development of cumulative trauma disorders...
  101. pmc Designing an international policy and legal framework for the control of emerging infectious diseases: first steps
    B J Plotkin
    School of Law, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7660, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 3:1-9. 1997
    As the pace of emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases quickens, the International Health Regulations, which have served as the legal and policy framework of epidemic control for 45 years, are being revised by the World Health ..

Research Grants69

  1. Blockade of Anthrax Cytotoxicity Using Furin Inhibitors
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Previous research has shown that this cleavage is performed by a cellular surface enzyme known as furin, a member of the family of eukaryotic subtilisins...
  2. A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Gelsolin Amyloid Disease
    Jeffery Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have discovered that the protease furin (found in the Golgi and endocytic compartments) and, potentially, related members of the prohormone convertase ..
  3. REGULATION OF PROTEIN TRAFFIC IN NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS
    Gary Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..For example, furin, a ubiquitously expressed, type-I membrane PC, is localized to the trans- Golgi network (TGN) and processes many ..
  4. Furin and the Etiopathogenesis of UV-Induced Skin Cancer
    Andres J Klein Szanto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Furin is a protein processing enzyme of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs), which has a significant role in cancer etiopathogenesis...
  5. Furin Inhibition in HIV Disease
    Seth Pincus; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..envelope glycoprotein precursor, gpl60, is cleaved into the mature forms, gp120 and gp41, by the cellular protease furin and furin-like proprotein convertases (PPCs)...
  6. Role of Inter-alpha Inhibitors in Anthrax Intoxication
    Steven Opal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have obtained evidence that lalp inhibit furin, a key enzyme that activates PA by removing a small 20 kDa fragment at the N-terminal yielding the active subunit ..
  7. Specificity and Structure: The Kex 2 and Furin Proteases
    Robert Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The first known human Kex2 homologue, furin, is implicated in maturation of growth factors and growth factor receptors, coagulation factors, viral ..
  8. SPECIFICITY AND STRUCTURE--THE KEX2 AND FURIN PROTEASES
    Robert Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The first known human Kex2 homologue, furin, is implicated in many physiology/medically important processes: maturation of precursors of growth factors and ..
  9. OPIOID PEPTIDE SYNTHESIZING ENZYMES
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with Wolfram Bode and Manuel Than, we obtained the first crystal structure of a related family member, furin. Our long-standing collaboration with the Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies has identified potent furin ..
  10. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Furin
    NORA GREEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Recent experimental findings by the Kelly and Balch groups indicate that the proprotein convertase furin is responsible for the first proteolytic cleavage event in the DI 87N and DI 87Y mutants of gelsolin...
  11. Hexa-D-Arg: A Furin Inhibitor for Anthrax Biodefense
    Prasad Sunkara; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..cleavage of the anthrax toxin-PA (protective antigen) residue by a ubiquitously expressed mammalian cell protease furin, such that it now is able to form a multimeric complex (pore) that enables entry of the LF (lethal factor) and EF (..
  12. Developing a mouse model to study Notch furin processing
    GERALDINE WEINMASTER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..following ligand binding to a heterodimeric form of Notch that is generated through proteolytic processing by furin. In addition to CSL-dependent Notch signaling we have identified another pathway that functions independently of ..
  13. Analysis of BMP-4 activity in Cleavage mutant mice
    Jan Christian; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..ProBMP-4 is initially cleaved at a consensus furin motif adjacent to the mature ligand domain and this allows for subsequent cleavage at an upstream nonconsensus ..
  14. Unihemispheric sleep: implications for mechanisms of sleep control and function i
    Jerome M Siegel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Of particular interest is sleep in the fur seal and other otariids...
  15. Hemin Receptor Gene Family of Bartonella quintana
    MICHAEL MINNICK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will also analyze the potential ferric uptake regulator (fur) box using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA footprinting, and we will map hbp transcription initiation ..
  16. Hemin Receptor Gene Family of Bartonella quintana
    MICHAEL MINNICK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will also analyze the potential ferric uptake regulator (fur) box using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA footprinting, and we will map hbp transcription initiation ..
  17. Qualitative Study of Mental Health Recovery in Dual Diagnosed Homeless
    DEBORAH KAY PADGETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a transformation of services for psychiatrically disabled persons, yet empirical research on recovery has not kept pace with its rhetorical appeal...
  18. BACTERIAL PROTEINS CONTAINING NOVEL IRON SITES
    DONALD KURTZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The gene for a proposed regulator of the oxidative stress response, Fur, will be probed by deletion of the gene encoding Fur in the D...