furin

Summary

Gene Symbol: furin
Description: furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme
Alias: FUR, PACE, PCSK3, SPC1, furin, FES upstream region, FURIN/ADAMTS1 fusion, dibasic processing enzyme, furin, membrane associated receptor protein, paired basic amino acid residue-cleaving enzyme, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 3
Species: human
Products:     furin

Top Publications

  1. Molloy S, Thomas L, VanSlyke J, Stenberg P, Thomas G. Intracellular trafficking and activation of the furin proprotein convertase: localization to the TGN and recycling from the cell surface. EMBO J. 1994;13:18-33 pubmed
    b>Furin is a membrane-associated endoprotease that efficiently cleaves precursor proteins on the C-terminal side of the consensus sequence, Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg1, and has been proposed to catalyze these reactions in both exocytic and ..
  2. Zhang X, Fugere M, Day R, Kielian M. Furin processing and proteolytic activation of Semliki Forest virus. J Virol. 2003;77:2981-9 pubmed
    ..which forms a stable heterodimer with E1 and is processed late in the secretory pathway by a cellular furin-like protease...
  3. Crump C, Xiang Y, Thomas L, Gu F, Austin C, Tooze S, et al. PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic. EMBO J. 2001;20:2191-201 pubmed
    ..correct subcellular localization of integral membrane proteins that contain acidic cluster sorting motifs, such as furin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NEF: We have now investigated the interaction of PACS-1 with ..
  4. Schafer W, Stroh A, Berghöfer S, Seiler J, Vey M, Kruse M, et al. Two independent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic domain determine trans-Golgi network localization and endosomal trafficking of the proprotein convertase furin. EMBO J. 1995;14:2424-35 pubmed
    b>Furin, a subtilisin-like eukaryotic endoprotease, is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of cellular and viral proteins transported via the constitutive secretory pathway...
  5. Mbikay M, Sirois F, Yao J, Seidah N, Chretien M. Comparative analysis of expression of the proprotein convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2 in human lung tumours. Br J Cancer. 1997;75:1509-14 pubmed
    ..b>Furin mRNA was expressed in all the tumours; its level in squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas was on average ..
  6. Takahashi S, Kasai K, Hatsuzawa K, Kitamura N, Misumi Y, Ikehara Y, et al. A mutation of furin causes the lack of precursor-processing activity in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;195:1019-26 pubmed
    b>Furin has been proposed to be the endoprotease responsible for precursor cleavage at Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg (RXK/RR) sites within the constitutive secretory pathway...
  7. Seidah N. The proprotein convertases, 20 years later. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;768:23-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The family of PCs comprises nine members, PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4, PC7, SKI-1/S1P, and PCSK9 (Fig. 3.1)...
  8. Dahlen J, Jean F, Thomas G, Foster D, Kisiel W. Inhibition of soluble recombinant furin by human proteinase inhibitor 8. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1851-4 pubmed
    b>Furin is a ubiquitous prototypical mammalian kexin/subtilisin-like endoproteinase that is involved in the proteolytic processing of a variety of proteins in the exocytic and endocytic pathways, with cleavage occurring at the C terminus ..
  9. Hallenberger S, Bosch V, Angliker H, Shaw E, Klenk H, Garten W. Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160. Nature. 1992;360:358-61 pubmed
    ..found that the enzyme activating the haemagglutinin of fowl plague virus (FPV), an avian influenza virus, is furin. Furin, a subtilisin-like eukaryotic endoprotease, has a substrate specificity for the consensus amino-acid ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Lei R, Shi H, Peng X, Zhu Y, Cheng J, Chen G. Influence of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the P1 promoter of the furin gene on transcription activity and hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 2009;50:763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; -229 C/T) in a 1268-bp region of the P1 promoter of the furin gene [FES upstream region (Fur)]...
  2. Dubois C, Laprise M, Blanchette F, Gentry L, Leduc R. Processing of transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor by human furin convertase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10618-24 pubmed
    ..To determine whether cleavage of pro-TGF beta 1 can be achieved by the furin convertase in vitro, purified precursor was incubated in the presence of a truncated/secreted form of the enzyme...
  3. Seidah N, Mayer G, Zaid A, Rousselet E, Nassoury N, Poirier S, et al. The activation and physiological functions of the proprotein convertases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1111-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven of them cleave after basic amino acids and are called PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4 and PC7...
  4. Logeat F, Bessia C, Brou C, LeBail O, Jarriault S, Seidah N, et al. The Notch1 receptor is cleaved constitutively by a furin-like convertase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8108-12 pubmed
    ..We report here that constitutive processing of murine Notch1 involves a furin-like convertase...
  5. Nakayama K. Furin: a mammalian subtilisin/Kex2p-like endoprotease involved in processing of a wide variety of precursor proteins. Biochem J. 1997;327 ( Pt 3):625-35 pubmed
    ..Seven distinct proprotein convertases of this family (furin, PC2, PC1/PC3, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, LPC/PC7/PC8/SPC7) have been identified in mammalian species, some having ..
  6. Chen R, Huang Y, Lin Y, Yeh C, Liang Y, Chen S, et al. Thyroid hormone promotes cell invasion through activation of furin expression in human hepatoma cell lines. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3817-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene encoding furin, as previously identified by cDNA microarray, is known to be up-regulated by T(3) treatment, and stimulated furin ..
  7. Bassi D, Mahloogi H, Klein Szanto A. The proprotein convertases furin and PACE4 play a significant role in tumor progression. Mol Carcinog. 2000;28:63-9 pubmed
    ..This family of PCs is currently comprised of fewer than a dozen members, known as furin/paired basic amino-acid-cleaving enzyme (PACE), PC1/PC3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, and PC7/PC8/lymphoma proprotein ..
  8. Forsti A, Li X, Wagner K, Tavelin B, Enquist K, Palmqvist R, et al. Polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor beta 1 pathway in relation to colorectal cancer progression. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49:270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..predicted functional effect, nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (TGFB1: Leu10Pro; TGFBR1: 9A/6A and IVS7G+24A; FURIN: C-229T; THBS1: T+42C; LTBP1L: C-256G; LTBP4: T-893G and Thr750Ala; BAMBI: T-779A) were selected for genotyping...
  9. Wise R, Barr P, Wong P, Kiefer M, Brake A, Kaufman R. Expression of a human proprotein processing enzyme: correct cleavage of the von Willebrand factor precursor at a paired basic amino acid site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:9378-82 pubmed
    ..The encoded protein, called PACE (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme), has structural homology to the well-characterized subtilisin-like ..
  10. Turpeinen H, Raitoharju E, Oksanen A, Oksala N, Levula M, Lyytikäinen L, et al. Proprotein convertases in human atherosclerotic plaques: the overexpression of FURIN and its substrate cytokines BAFF and APRIL. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..MBTPS1 and PCSK9 have been shown to regulate cholesterol metabolism and LDL receptor recycling, whereas FURIN and PCSK5 have been suggested to inactivate lipases and regulate inflammation in atherosclerosis...
  11. Page R, Klein Szanto A, Litwin S, Nicolas E, Al Jumaily R, Alexander P, et al. Increased expression of the pro-protein convertase furin predicts decreased survival in ovarian cancer. Cell Oncol. 2007;29:289-99 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine if there was an association between the expression of the ubiquitously expressed PCs, furin, PACE-4, PC-5 and PC-7, and ovarian tumor progression...
  12. Cao J, Rehemtulla A, Pavlaki M, Kozarekar P, Chiarelli C. Furin directly cleaves proMMP-2 in the trans-Golgi network resulting in a nonfunctioning proteinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10974-80 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that a dibasic amino acid convertase, furin, directly cleaves proMMP-2 within the trans-Golgi network leading to an inactive form of matrix metalloproteinase-..
  13. Essalmani R, Susan Resiga D, Chamberland A, Abifadel M, Creemers J, Boileau C, et al. In vivo evidence that furin from hepatocytes inactivates PCSK9. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo data showed that human PCSK9 is inactivated by cleavage at Arg(218)? by the overexpressed convertases furin and PC5/6A...
  14. Stawowy P, Meyborg H, Stibenz D, Borges Pereira Stawowy N, Roser M, Thanabalasingam U, et al. Furin-like proprotein convertases are central regulators of the membrane type matrix metalloproteinase-pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 proteolytic cascade in atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2005;111:2820-7 pubmed
    ..This type of activation typically requires suitable furin-like proprotein convertases (PCs), specifically furin and PC5...
  15. Bassi D, Mahloogi H, Lopez De Cicco R, Klein Szanto A. Increased furin activity enhances the malignant phenotype of human head and neck cancer cells. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:439-47 pubmed
    ..b>Furin, the prototype of this family, has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes...
  16. Fu J, Bassi D, Zhang J, Li T, Nicolas E, Klein Szanto A. Transgenic overexpression of the proprotein convertase furin enhances skin tumor growth. Neoplasia. 2012;14:271-82 pubmed
    b>Furin, one of the members of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs), ubiquitously expressed as a type I membrane-bound proteinase, activates several proteins that contribute to tumor progression...
  17. Seidah N, Prat A. The biology and therapeutic targeting of the proprotein convertases. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11:367-83 pubmed
    ..Seven of these (proprotein convertase 1 (PC1), PC2, furin, PC4, PC5, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) and PC7) activate cellular and pathogenic precursor ..
  18. Jones B, Thomas L, Molloy S, Thulin C, Fry M, Walsh K, et al. Intracellular trafficking of furin is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site in its cytoplasmic tail. EMBO J. 1995;14:5869-83 pubmed
    Human furin catalyzes the proteolytic maturation of many proproteins in the exocytic and endocytic secretory pathways by cleavage at the C-terminal side of the consensus sequence-ArgXaaLys/ArgArg decreases -...
  19. Lopez De Cicco R, Bassi D, Zucker S, Seidah N, Klein Szanto A. Human carcinoma cell growth and invasiveness is impaired by the propeptide of the ubiquitous proprotein convertase furin. Cancer Res. 2005;65:4162-71 pubmed
    b>Furin, a potent proprotein convertase involved in activation of several cancer-related substrates, is synthesized as an inactive zymogen, thus minimizing the occurrence of premature enzymatic activity that would lead to inappropriate ..
  20. Benjannet S, Rhainds D, Hamelin J, Nassoury N, Seidah N. The proprotein convertase (PC) PCSK9 is inactivated by furin and/or PC5/6A: functional consequences of natural mutations and post-translational modifications. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30561-72 pubmed
    ..mutations R218S, F216L, and D374Y associated with hypercholesterolemia result in total or partial loss of furin/PC5/6A processing at the motif RFHR218 downward arrow...
  21. Scamuffa N, Siegfried G, Bontemps Y, Ma L, Basak A, Cherel G, et al. Selective inhibition of proprotein convertases represses the metastatic potential of human colorectal tumor cells. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:352-63 pubmed
    ..and murine colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and CT-26, respectively, was inhibited using siRNA targeting the PCs furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7 or by overexpression of the general PC inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin Portland (alpha1-PDX)...
  22. Yana I, Weiss S. Regulation of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase activation by proprotein convertases. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2387-401 pubmed
    ..proteolytic activity were blocked by mutating these recognition motifs or by inhibiting the proprotein convertases furin and PC6 with the serpin-based inhibitor alpha(1) antitrypsin Portland...
  23. Lee S, Lee D, Lee M, Yoon J. Proprotein convertase 5/6a is associated with bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced squamous cell differentiation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;52:749-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Dec-RVKR-CMK also decreased expression of PC5/6A, but not furin, another PC member, suggesting the involvement of PC5/6A in squamous differentiation of HNECs...
  24. Geiselhart V, Bastone P, Kempf T, Schn lzer M, L chelt M. Furin-mediated cleavage of the feline foamy virus Env leader protein. J Virol. 2004;78:13573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..biochemical, and biophysical methods, we show that the feline foamy virus (FFV) Elp is released by a cellular furin-like protease, most likely furin itself, generating an Elp protein consisting of 127 amino acid residues...
  25. Brown M, Digby Bowl C, Todd S. Assessing Infant Carriage Systems: Ground Reaction Force Implications for Gait of the Caregiver. Hum Factors. 2017;:18720817744661 pubmed publisher
    ..Method Thirteen mixed gender participants completed 45 over-ground walking trials at a self-selected pace under three loaded conditions (unloaded, semi-structured carrier 9.9 kg, and structured carrier 9.9 kg)...
  26. Lynch M, McCormick Z, Liem B, Jacobs G, Hwang P, Hornby T, et al. Energy Cost of Lower Body Dressing, Pop-Over Transfers, and Manual Wheelchair Propulsion in People with Paraplegia Due to Motor-Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2015;21:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lower body dressing (LBD), pop-over transfers (POTs), and manual wheelchair propulsion (MWP) at a self-selected pace. These data were used to calculate energy expenditure in standard metabolic equivalents (METs), as defined by 1 MET ..
  27. Wei X, Perry J, Chang E, Zhang L, Hiatt R, Ryan C, et al. Clinical Variables Associated With Overall Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018;16:184-190.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..A poorer baseline performance status, faster disease pace measured by the PSA doubling time, and previous novel androgen signaling inhibitor exposure could be important ..
  28. Baker B, Bedford J, Kanitkar S. Keeping pace with the media; Giant Hogweed burns - A case series and comprehensive review. Burns. 2017;43:933-938 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of topical treatments and surgical management. ..
  29. Yao Q, Xie Z, Wang K, Zhang P, Han Y, Qi Y, et al. Profiles of long noncoding RNAs in hypertensive rats: long noncoding RNA XR007793 regulates cyclic strain-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Hypertens. 2017;35:1195-1203 pubmed publisher
    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being discovered in multiple diseases at a rapid pace. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to hypertension remains largely unknown...
  30. Yasinta M, Che R, Hu C, Du X, Ding G, Huang S, et al. Use of off-label nephrology-related drugs in hospitalized pediatric patients: a retrospective study. World J Pediatr. 2016;12:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..drug use in children was mainly related to lacking clinical research into drugs in children and the pace of drug label's revision, which cannot follow the development of medical science...
  31. Nielsen M, Frederiksen Møller B, Zachar R, Jørgensen J, Hansen M, Ydegaard R, et al. Urine exosomes from healthy and hypertensive pregnancies display elevated level of α-subunit and cleaved α- and γ-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel-ENaC. Pflugers Arch. 2017;469:1107-1119 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnancy and preeclampsia were associated with increased abundance of furin-cleaved α-ENaC subunit while γ-subunit appeared predominantly in cleaved form independently of conditions and ..
  32. Pan Z, Deng N, Zou Z, Chen G. The effect of curcumin on bladder tumor in rat model. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:884-889 pubmed
    ..Model rats displayed fever, hematuria, decreased food and water intake, dispersed fur, lower body mass and decreased activity...
  33. Flores Bueso Y, Lehouritis P, Tangney M. In situ biomolecule production by bacteria; a synthetic biology approach to medicine. J Control Release. 2018;275:217-228 pubmed publisher
    ..The slow pace and high expense of traditional research approaches has particularly hampered the development of biological ..
  34. Khan M, He L. Neuro-psychopharmacological perspective of Orphan receptors of Rhodopsin (class A) family of G protein-coupled receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234:1181-1207 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of orphan GPCRs has proven to be challenging, and the production pace of GPCR-based drugs has been incredibly slow...
  35. Sugano Y, Keetels M, Vroomen J. Audio-motor but not visuo-motor temporal recalibration speeds up sensory processing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189242 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine this, we asked participants to voluntarily tap their index finger at a constant pace while receiving visual or auditory feedback (a flash or pip) that was either synced or somewhat delayed relative to ..
  36. Duncan C, Savage K, Williams M, Dickerson B, Kondas A, Fitzpatrick K, et al. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:345-50 pubmed publisher
    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St...
  37. Pervin M, Izawa T, Ito S, Kuwamura M, Yamate J. Metastatic Liposarcoma in a South African Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus). J Comp Pathol. 2016;155:72-5 pubmed publisher
    A 14-year-old female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) was presented with a large skin mass on the right shoulder...
  38. Weinger J, Omari K, Marsden K, Raine C, Shafit Zagardo B. Up-regulation of soluble Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases negatively correlates with Gas6 in established multiple sclerosis lesions. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..increased levels of soluble Axl and Mer were associated with increased levels of mature ADAM17, mature ADAM10, and Furin, proteins that are associated with Axl and Mer solubilization...
  39. Ford A, Graham H, White P. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks. Ecohealth. 2015;12:660-71 pubmed publisher
    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice...
  40. Mohammadi R, Talebian S, Phadke C, Yekaninejad M, Hadian M. Effects of Treadmill Incline and Speed on Ankle Muscle Activity in Subjects After a Stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016;97:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..that individuals with stroke can be safely trained on a treadmill to walk 20% to 40% above the self-selected pace to improve MG output without adversely affecting TA output...
  41. Hu M, Cheng M, Lan K. Color Correction Parameter Estimation on the Smartphone and Its Application to Automatic Tongue Diagnosis. J Med Syst. 2016;40:18 pubmed publisher
    ..We also modify the state-of-the-art work of fur and fissure detection for tongue images by taking hue information into consideration and adding a denoising step...
  42. Becker J, Bridge P, Brown E, Ferrari Anderson J, Lusk R. The development and implementation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation. J Med Radiat Sci. 2017;64:321-327 pubmed publisher
    It is a challenge for radiation therapists (RTs) to keep pace with changing planning technology and techniques while maintaining appropriate skills levels...
  43. Miranda D, Hsu W, Petersen K, Fitzgibbons S, Niemi J, Lesniewski Laas N, et al. Sensory Enhancing Insoles Modify Gait during Inclined Treadmill Walking with Load. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:860-8 pubmed publisher
    ..were fitted with a backpack weighing 30% of their body weight and asked to walk at a constant self-selected pace while their feet were tracked using an optical motion capture system...
  44. Silva R, Oliveira L, Parise C, Oliveira J, Severino B, Corvino A, et al. Activity of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) on substrates containing sequences of basic amino acids. Is it a processing protease?. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:558-564 pubmed publisher
    ..FRET peptides containing furin processing sequences of human MMP-14, nerve growth factor (NGF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) ..
  45. Siegfried G, Khatib A, Benjannet S, Chretien M, Seidah N. The proteolytic processing of pro-platelet-derived growth factor-A at RRKR(86) by members of the proprotein convertase family is functionally correlated to platelet-derived growth factor-A-induced functions and tumorigenicity. Cancer Res. 2003;63:1458-63 pubmed
    ..In the colon carcinoma cell line LoVo, we found that Furin is the most potent PDGF-A convertase...
  46. Watson J, Shanahan D, Di Marco M, Allan J, Laurance W, Sanderson E, et al. Catastrophic Declines in Wilderness Areas Undermine Global Environment Targets. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2929-2934 pubmed publisher
    ..increases in the protection of wilderness over the same time frame and show that these efforts are failing to keep pace with the rate of wilderness loss, which is nearly double the rate of protection...
  47. Inzitari M, Calle A, Esteve A, Casas Ã, Torrents N, Martínez N. [Do you measure gait speed in your daily clinical practice? A review]. Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol. 2017;52:35-43 pubmed publisher
    Gait speed (GS), measured at usual pace, is an easy, quick, reliable, non-expensive and informative measurement...
  48. Lague A, Voyer P, Ouellet M, Boucher V, Giroux M, Pelletier M, et al. Using the Bergman-Paris Question to screen seniors in the emergency department. CJEM. 2017;:1-9 pubmed publisher
    In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes...
  49. D Amore R, Ijaz U, Schirmer M, Kenny J, Gregory R, Darby A, et al. A comprehensive benchmarking study of protocols and sequencing platforms for 16S rRNA community profiling. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:55 pubmed publisher
    In the last 5 years, the rapid pace of innovations and improvements in sequencing technologies has completely changed the landscape of metagenomic and metagenetic experiments...
  50. Liang Y, Duveneck M, Gustafson E, Serra Diaz J, Thompson J. How disturbance, competition, and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species' ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community ..
  51. Chretien M. The prohormone theory and the proprotein convertases: it is all about serendipity. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;768:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It has led to our discovery of the proprotein convertases. ..
  52. Fu J, Zhang J, Gong Y, Testa C, Klein Szanto A. Regulation of HIF-1 alpha by the proprotein convertases furin and PC7 in human squamous carcinoma cells. Mol Carcinog. 2015;54:698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..HIF-1? is a major transcription factor involved in tumorigenesis by sensing intratumoral hypoxia. Furin (PCSK3) is one of the numerous target genes regulated by HIF-1? transactivation and its distribution into ..
  53. Li F, Dong Y, Shen H, Lu R, Yin S, Tian W, et al. Tolerance to dichloroacetonitrile-induced neurotoxicity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;56:61-67 pubmed publisher
    ..STZ diabetes slowed down the pathological pace of DCAN-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species and increasing cytochrome C ..
  54. Greninger A. A decade of RNA virus metagenomics is (not) enough. Virus Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..and environmental metagenomics and highlights some of the critical accomplishments that have defined the fast pace of RNA virus discoveries in recent years...
  55. Casazza A, Kigel B, Maione F, Capparuccia L, Kessler O, Giraudo E, et al. Tumour growth inhibition and anti-metastatic activity of a mutated furin-resistant Semaphorin 3E isoform. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:234-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we conclude that Uncl-Sema3E is a novel inhibitor of tumour angiogenesis and growth that concomitantly hampers metastatic spreading. ..
  56. Cohen T, Manjourides J, Hedt Gauthier B. Linking surveillance with action against drug-resistant tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:399-401 pubmed publisher
    ..MDRTB) have scaled up their capacity to diagnose and treat individuals with these forms of TB has failed to keep pace with the problem...
  57. Runyen Janecky L, Reeves S, Gonzales E, Payne S. Contribution of the Shigella flexneri Sit, Iuc, and Feo iron acquisition systems to iron acquisition in vitro and in cultured cells. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1919-28 pubmed
    ..sit promoter was repressed by either iron or manganese, and the iron repression was partially dependent upon Fur. A sitA::cam mutation was constructed in S. flexneri...
  58. Jacobsen L, Madsen P, Jacobsen C, Nielsen M, Gliemann J, Petersen C. Activation and functional characterization of the mosaic receptor SorLA/LR11. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22788-96 pubmed
    ..The N terminus of the Vps10p domain comprises a consensus sequence for cleavage by furin ((50)RRKR(53)) that precedes a truncation found in sorLA isolated from human brain...
  59. Mukherjee S, Lin T, Dowd K, Manhart C, Pierson T. The infectivity of prM-containing partially mature West Nile virus does not require the activity of cellular furin-like proteases. J Virol. 2011;85:12067-72 pubmed publisher
    Cleavage of the flavivirus prM protein by a cellular furin-like protease is a hallmark of virion maturation. While this cleavage is a required step in the viral life cycle, it can be inefficient...
  60. Zhou Z, Zhang Q, Lu X, Wang R, Wang Y, Zhu C, et al. The proprotein convertase furin is required for trophoblast syncytialization. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e593 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the proprotein convertase furin is highly expressed in syncytial trophoblast in the first trimester human placentas, and expression of furin in ..
  61. Venero Galanternik M, Stratman A, Jung H, Butler M, Weinstein B. Building the drains: the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2016;5:689-710 pubmed publisher
    ..blood vasculature, recent advances in imaging technologies and new genetic and molecular tools have accelerated the pace of research on lymphatic vessel development...
  62. Fein D, Helt M. Facilitating Autism Research. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2017;23:903-915 pubmed publisher
    Early autism research focused on behavior and cognition. In recent decades, the pace of research has accelerated, and advances in imaging and genetics have allowed the accumulation of biological data...
  63. Ladds M, Rosen D, Slip D, Harcourt R. The utility of accelerometers to predict stroke rate in captive fur seals and sea lions. Biol Open. 2017;6:1396-1400 pubmed publisher
    The energy expenditure of free-living fur seals and sea lions is difficult to measure directly, but may be indirectly derived from flipper stroke rate...
  64. Cui H, Zhang T, Nie H, Wang Z, Zhang X, Shi B, et al. Effects of Different Sources and Levels of Zinc on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fur Quality of Growing-Furring Male Mink (Mustela vison). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;182:257-264 pubmed publisher
    ..sources and levels of zinc (Zn) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, and fur quality in growing-furring male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet with no Zn supplementation...
  65. Peng M, Watanabe S, Chan K, He Q, Zhao Y, Zhang Z, et al. Luteolin restricts dengue virus replication through inhibition of the proprotein convertase furin. Antiviral Res. 2017;143:176-185 pubmed publisher
    ..During the virus life cycle, the host protease furin cleaves the pr moiety from prM protein of immature virus particles in the trans-Golgi network to produce mature ..
  66. Wouters S, Decroly E, VandenBranden M, Shober D, Fuchs R, Morel V, et al. Occurrence of an HIV-1 gp160 endoproteolytic activity in low-density vesicles and evidence for a distinct density distribution from endogenously expressed furin and PC7/LPC convertases. FEBS Lett. 1999;456:97-102 pubmed
    ..Although furin and pro-protein convertase (PC) 7/LPC have been proposed as the major gp160 processing convertases, the rat liver ..
  67. Yu M, Ren B. The Three-Dimensional Organization of Mammalian Genomes. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2017;33:265-289 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in technologies to map the 3D genome architecture have greatly accelerated the pace of discovery...
  68. Morrissey J, Cockayne A, Hill P, Williams P. Molecular cloning and analysis of a putative siderophore ABC transporter from Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6281-8 pubmed
    ..The sst operon is preceded by two putative Fur boxes, which indicated that expression of the sst operon was likely to be iron dependent...
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