Gene Symbol: fractalkine
Description: C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1
Alias: ABCD-3, C3Xkine, CXC3, CXC3C, NTN, NTT, SCYD1, fractalkine, neurotactin, fractalkine, C-X3-C motif chemokine 1, CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine, chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1, small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine, neurotactin), small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member-1, small-inducible cytokine D1
Species: human
Products:     fractalkine

Top Publications

  1. Umehara H, Bloom E, Okazaki T, Nagano Y, Yoshie O, Imai T. Fractalkine in vascular biology: from basic research to clinical disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:34-40 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (now also called CX3CL1) is a unique chemokine that functions not only as a chemoattractant but also as an adhesion molecule and is expressed on endothelial cells activated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-..
  2. Hulshof S, van Haastert E, Kuipers H, van den Elsen P, De Groot C, van der Valk P, et al. CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression in human brain tissue: noninflammatory control versus multiple sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003;62:899-907 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that CX3CL1 has more general physiological functions, which occur also in the absence of proinflammatory conditions. ..
  3. Lucas A, Bursill C, Guzik T, Sadowski J, Channon K, Greaves D. Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques express the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and undergo chemotaxis to the CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1). Circulation. 2003;108:2498-504 pubmed
    ..b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is an unusual membrane-bound chemokine that mediates chemotaxis through the CX3CR1 receptor...
  4. Yoshikawa M, Nakajima T, Matsumoto K, Okada N, Tsukidate T, Iida M, et al. TNF-alpha and IL-4 regulate expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a membrane-anchored proadhesive protein and soluble chemotactic peptide on human fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 2004;561:105-10 pubmed
    The CX(3)C chemokine, fractalkine (FKN, CX(3)CL1), has multiple functions and exists as two distinct forms, a membrane-anchored protein and a soluble chemotactic peptide that cleaves from the cell surface FKN...
  5. Ahn S, Cho C, Park K, Lee H, Lee S, Park S, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces fractalkine expression preferentially in arterial endothelial cells and mithramycin A suppresses TNF-alpha-induced fractalkine expression. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1663-72 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine is an unusual tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced chemokine. The molecule is tethered to cells that express it and produces strong and direct adhesion to leukocytes expressing fractalkine receptor...
  6. Gaudin F, Nasreddine S, Donnadieu A, Emilie D, Combadiere C, Prevot S, et al. Identification of the chemokine CX3CL1 as a new regulator of malignant cell proliferation in epithelial ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21546 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemokine Fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 has been widely reported to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread...
  7. Hatori K, Nagai A, Heisel R, Ryu J, Kim S. Fractalkine and fractalkine receptors in human neurons and glial cells. J Neurosci Res. 2002;69:418-26 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine has been identified as a novel chemokine that exhibits cell adhesion and chemoattractive properties in the central nervous system (CNS), and the fractalkine receptors, CX3CR1, are also expressed in the CNS...
  8. Lucas A, Chadwick N, Warren B, Jewell D, Gordon S, Powrie F, et al. The transmembrane form of the CX3CL1 chemokine fractalkine is expressed predominantly by epithelial cells in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:855-66 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is synthesized as a type I transmembrane protein...
  9. Li J, Guo Y, Luan X, Qi T, Li D, Chen Y, et al. Independent roles of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted and fractalkine in the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Circ J. 2012;76:2167-73 pubmed
    ..chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) and fractalkine on the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable ..

More Information


  1. Kerfoot S, Lord S, Bell R, Gill V, Robbins S, Kubes P. Human fractalkine mediates leukocyte adhesion but not capture under physiological shear conditions; a mechanism for selective monocyte recruitment. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:729-39 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine is a unique chemokine possessing a long mucin-like stalk and a transmembrane region that has been proposed to act as an adhesion molecule...
  2. Stolla M, Pelisek J, von Brühl M, Schafer A, Barocke V, Heider P, et al. Fractalkine is expressed in early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions and supports monocyte recruitment via CX3CR1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43572 pubmed publisher
    b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1, FKN) is expressed in the inflamed vascular wall and absence of FKN reduces atherogenesis...
  3. Ferretti E, Bertolotto M, Deaglio S, Tripodo C, Ribatti D, Audrito V, et al. A novel role of the CX3CR1/CX3CL1 system in the cross-talk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and tumor microenvironment. Leukemia. 2011;25:1268-77 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhang J, Hu H, Palma N, Harrison J, Mubarak K, Carrie R, et al. Hypoxia-induced endothelial CX3CL1 triggers lung smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching and proliferative expansion. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L912-22 pubmed publisher
  5. Hannan N, Jones R, Critchley H, Kovacs G, Rogers P, Affandi B, et al. Coexpression of fractalkine and its receptor in normal human endometrium and in endometrium from users of progestin-only contraception supports a role for fractalkine in leukocyte recruitment and endometrial remodeling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:6119-29 pubmed
    ..b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemotactic membrane-bound adhesion factor, and its receptor (CX3CR1) were assessed by ..
  6. Papadopoulos E, Fitzhugh D, Tkaczyk C, Gilfillan A, Sassetti C, Metcalfe D, et al. Mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed constitutively in diverse cells of the skin. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:2355-61 pubmed
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms by which MC home to these sites are not well characterized. Fractalkine (FK) is a membrane-bound CX3C chemokine that displays constitutive expression in dendritic cells as well as in ..
  7. Faure S, Meyer L, Costagliola D, Vaneensberghe C, Genin E, Autran B, et al. Rapid progression to AIDS in HIV+ individuals with a structural variant of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Science. 2000;287:2274-7 pubmed Caucasians in CX3CR1, an HIV coreceptor and leukocyte chemotactic/adhesion receptor for the chemokine fractalkine. HIV-infected patients homozygous for CX3CR1-I249 M280, a variant haplotype affecting two amino acids (..
  8. Fujita M, Takada Y, Takada Y. Integrins ?v?3 and ?4?1 act as coreceptors for fractalkine, and the integrin-binding defective mutant of fractalkine is an antagonist of CX3CR1. J Immunol. 2012;189:5809-19 pubmed publisher
    The membrane-bound chemokine fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) on endothelial cells plays a role in leukocyte trafficking. The chemokine domain (FKN-CD) is sufficient for inducing FKN signaling (e.g...
  9. Combadiere C, Salzwedel K, Smith E, Tiffany H, Berger E, Murphy P. Identification of CX3CR1. A chemotactic receptor for the human CX3C chemokine fractalkine and a fusion coreceptor for HIV-1. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:23799-804 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine is a multimodular human leukocyte chemoattractant protein and a member of the chemokine superfamily...
  10. Imai T, Hieshima K, Haskell C, Baba M, Nagira M, Nishimura M, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion. Cell. 1997;91:521-30 pubmed
    Leukocyte trafficking at the endothelium requires both cellular adhesion molecules and chemotactic factors. Fractalkine, a novel transmembrane molecule with a CX3C-motif chemokine domain atop a mucin stalk, induces both adhesion and ..
  11. Bazan J, Bacon K, Hardiman G, Wang W, Soo K, Rossi D, et al. A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature. 1997;385:640-4 pubmed
  12. Damås J, Boullier A, Waehre T, Smith C, Sandberg W, Green S, et al. Expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, is elevated in coronary artery disease and is reduced during statin therapy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:2567-72 pubmed
    Recent data derived primarily from studies in animal models suggest that fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its cognate receptor, CX3CR1, play a role in atherogenesis...
  13. Yang X, Mattagajasingh S, Su S, Chen G, Cai Z, Fox Talbot K, et al. Fractalkine upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells through CX3CR1 and the Jak Stat5 pathway. Circ Res. 2007;101:1001-8 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (FKN) is a membrane-bound chemokine that can be released by proteolysis to produce soluble FKN (s-FKN)...
  14. Hannan N, Salamonsen L. CX3CL1 and CCL14 regulate extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the trophoblast: potential roles in human embryo implantation. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, this study demonstrates the direct effects of CX3CL1 and CCL14 on trophoblast adhesion molecules and ECM, suggesting mechanisms by which trophoblast cells migrate during early pregnancy. ..
  15. Nevo I, Sagi Assif O, Meshel T, Ben Baruch A, Johrer K, Greil R, et al. The involvement of the fractalkine receptor in the transmigration of neuroblastoma cells through bone-marrow endothelial cells. Cancer Lett. 2009;273:127-39 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a unique membrane-bound chemokine that functions also as an adhesion molecule...
  16. Bourd Boittin K, Basset L, Bonnier D, L Helgoualc h A, Samson M, Theret N. CX3CL1/fractalkine shedding by human hepatic stellate cells: contribution to chronic inflammation in the liver. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1526-35 pubmed publisher
    ..CX3CL1/fractalkine is a membrane-associated chemokine that requires step processing for chemotactic activity and has been recently ..
  17. Njerve I, Pettersen A, Opstad T, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I. Fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2012;10:400-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 are associated with atherosclerosis. In vitro studies have shown increased expression of fractalkine in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells when stimulated with a high concentration of glucose...
  18. Nomiyama H, Imai T, Kusuda J, Miura R, Callen D, Yoshie O. Human chemokines fractalkine (SCYD1), MDC (SCYA22) and TARC (SCYA17) are clustered on chromosome 16q13. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:10-1 pubmed
  19. Shimoya K, Zhang Q, Tenma K, Ota Y, Hashimoto K, Shizusawa Y, et al. Fractalkine (FRK) levels in amniotic fluid and its production during pregnancy. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:97-101 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine is a new CX(3)C chemokine that has chemoattractant activity for T cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells...
  20. Nishimura M, Umehara H, Nakayama T, Yoneda O, Hieshima K, Kakizaki M, et al. Dual functions of fractalkine/CX3C ligand 1 in trafficking of perforin+/granzyme B+ cytotoxic effector lymphocytes that are defined by CX3CR1 expression. J Immunol. 2002;168:6173-80 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine/CX3C ligand 1 and its receptor CX3CR1 are known to mediate both cell adhesion and cell migration...
  21. Garton K, Gough P, Blobel C, Murphy G, Greaves D, Dempsey P, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (ADAM17) mediates the cleavage and shedding of fractalkine (CX3CL1). J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37993-8001 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is an unusual member of the chemokine family that is synthesized with its chemokine domain at the end of a mucin-rich, transmembrane stalk...
  22. Sciumè G, Soriani A, Piccoli M, Frati L, Santoni A, Bernardini G. CX3CR1/CX3CL1 axis negatively controls glioma cell invasion and is modulated by transforming growth factor-?1. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:701-10 pubmed publisher
  23. Maegdefessel L, Schlitt A, Pippig S, Schwaab B, Fingscheidt K, Raaz U, et al. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes or coronary heart disease following rehabilitation express serum fractalkine levels similar to those in healthy control subjects. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:849-57 pubmed
    The chemokine and adhesion molecule fractalkine and its receptor CX(3)CR1 have emerged as interesting regulators in inflammation and related atherosclerosis...
  24. Truman L, Ford C, Pasikowska M, Pound J, Wilkinson S, Dumitriu I, et al. CX3CL1/fractalkine is released from apoptotic lymphocytes to stimulate macrophage chemotaxis. Blood. 2008;112:5026-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that CX3CL1/fractalkine, a chemokine and intercellular adhesion molecule, is released rapidly from apoptotic lymphocytes, via caspase- ..
  25. Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen A, Bushell T, Gray P, Miller R. Chemokines regulate hippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14500-5 pubmed
    ..Fura-2-based Ca imaging showed that numerous chemokines, including SDF-1alpha, RANTES, and fractalkine, affect neuronal Ca signaling, suggesting that hippocampal neurons possess a wide variety of chemokine ..
  26. Ikejima H, Imanishi T, Tsujioka H, Kashiwagi M, Kuroi A, Tanimoto T, et al. Upregulation of fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1, is associated with coronary plaque rupture in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Circ J. 2010;74:337-45 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that fractalkine (FKN or CX3CL1) and its cognate receptor, CX3CR1, play a role in atherogenesis, so the relationship between coronary plaque rupture, as observed by preintervention optical coherence tomography, and ..
  27. Matsumiya T, Ota K, Imaizumi T, Yoshida H, Kimura H, Satoh K. Characterization of synergistic induction of CX3CL1/fractalkine by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in vascular endothelial cells: an essential role for TNF-alpha in post-transcriptional regulation of CX3CL1. J Immunol. 2010;184:4205-14 pubmed publisher
    CX3CL1/fractalkine, a chemokine specific to monocytes and NK cells, is induced synergistically by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in vascular endothelial cells. However, the mechanism for this synergism remains unclear...
  28. Morimura S, Sugaya M, Sato S. Interaction between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 regulates vasculitis induced by immune complex deposition. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1640-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that interactions between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis by regulating neutrophil and mast cell recruitment and cytokine expression. ..
  29. Becker Y. The spreading of HIV-1 infection in the human organism is caused by fractalkine trafficking of the infected lymphocytes--a review, hypothesis and implications for treatment. Virus Genes. 2007;34:93-109 pubmed
    ..The present review attempts to define the role of chemokine receptors like CCR5 and CXCR4, and especially fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in the trafficking of lymphocytes in healthy individuals and HIV-1/AIDS patients...
  30. Schafer A, Schulz C, Eigenthaler M, Fraccarollo D, Kobsar A, Gawaz M, et al. Novel role of the membrane-bound chemokine fractalkine in platelet activation and adhesion. Blood. 2004;103:407-12 pubmed
    Chemokines released by the endothelium have proaggregatory properties on platelets. Fractalkine, a recently discovered membrane-bound chemokine with a transmembrane domain, is expressed in vascular injury; however, the effects of ..
  31. Lee S, Namkoong S, Kim Y, Kim C, Lee H, Ha K, et al. Fractalkine stimulates angiogenesis by activating the Raf-1/MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2836-46 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (FKN) has been implicated in modulation of angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We have investigated the molecular mechanism by which FKN regulates angiogenesis...
  32. Shah R, Hinkle C, Ferguson J, Mehta N, Li M, Qu L, et al. Fractalkine is a novel human adipochemokine associated with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2011;60:1512-8 pubmed publisher
    Leukocyte infiltration of adipose is a critical determinant of obesity-related metabolic diseases. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1) comprise a chemokine system involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion in ..
  33. Zhang Q, Shimoya K, Temma K, Kimura T, Tsujie T, Shioji M, et al. Expression of fractalkine in the Fallopian tube and of CX3CR1 in sperm. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:409-14 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine is a CX(3)C chemokine that has chemoattractant activity for T cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells...
  34. Yamashita K, Imaizumi T, Hatakeyama M, Tamo W, Kimura D, Kumagai M, et al. Effect of hypoxia on the expression of fractalkine in human endothelial cells. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003;200:187-94 pubmed
    CX3CL1/fractalkine is a chemokine with a unique CX3C motif...
  35. Richter B, Koller L, Hohensinner P, Rychli K, Zorn G, Goliasch G, et al. Fractalkine is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Thromb Haemost. 2012;108:1220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The multifunctional chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) promotes the extravasation of cytotoxic lymphocytes into tissues...
  36. Koizumi K, Saitoh Y, Minami T, Takeno N, Tsuneyama K, Miyahara T, et al. Role of CX3CL1/fractalkine in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. J Immunol. 2009;183:7825-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemokines are known to regulate cell migration and adhesion. CX3CL1 (also called fractalkine) is a unique membrane-bound chemokine that has dual functions for cells expressing its receptor CX3CR1: a ..
  37. Poupel L, Boissonnas A, Hermand P, Dorgham K, Guyon E, Auvynet C, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, reduces atherosclerosis in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Controlling monocyte trafficking and survival may be an alternative or complementary therapy to lipid-lowering drugs classically used in the treatment of atherosclerosis. ..
  38. Huang Y, Su P, Liu G, Crow M, Chaukos D, Yan H, et al. Constitutive endocytosis of the chemokine CX3CL1 prevents its degradation by cell surface metalloproteases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29644-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Such regulation enables intracellular storage of a sizable pool of presynthesized CX(3)CL1 that protects the chemokine from degradation by metalloproteases at the plasma membrane. ..
  39. Tong N, Perry S, Zhang Q, James H, Guo H, Brooks A, et al. Neuronal fractalkine expression in HIV-1 encephalitis: roles for macrophage recruitment and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2000;164:1333-9 pubmed
    ..It is unclear whether these cells also play a neuroprotective role. We show that the chemokine, fractalkine (FKN), is markedly up-regulated in neurons and neuropil in brain tissue from pediatric patients with HIV-1 ..
  40. Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen A, Miller R. Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8075-80 pubmed
    Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the chemokine fractalkine is widely expressed in the brain and localized principally to neurons...
  41. Chakravorty S, Cockwell P, Girdlestone J, Brooks C, Savage C. Fractalkine expression on human renal tubular epithelial cells: potential role in mononuclear cell adhesion. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;129:150-9 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a transmembrane molecule with a CX3C chemokine domain attached to an extracellular mucin stalk which can induce both adhesion and migration of leucocytes...
  42. Rimaniol A, Till S, Garcia G, Capel F, Godot V, Balabanian K, et al. The CX3C chemokine fractalkine in allergic asthma and rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:1139-46 pubmed
    Unlike other chemokines, fractalkine is expressed as a membrane-bound form, mainly on endothelial and epithelial cells, and can be shed as a soluble chemotactic form...
  43. Liu G, Kulasingam V, Alexander R, Touret N, Fong A, Patel D, et al. Recycling of the membrane-anchored chemokine, CX3CL1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19858-66 pubmed
    CX(3)CL1 (fractalkine) plays an important role in inflammation by acting as both chemoattractant and as an adhesion molecule...
  44. Matsunawa M, Isozaki T, Odai T, Yajima N, Takeuchi H, Negishi M, et al. Increased serum levels of soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1) correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3408-16 pubmed
    To determine levels of soluble fractalkine (sFkn) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with and without rheumatoid vasculitis (RV), and to assess the relationship of sFkn levels to disease activity...
  45. Bhavsar P, Sukkar M, Khorasani N, Lee K, Chung K. Glucocorticoid suppression of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) by reduced gene promoter recruitment of NF-kappaB. FASEB J. 2008;22:1807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Respiratory epithelial cells are a source of CX(3)CL1 (fractalkine), which mediates cell adhesion and acts as a chemoattractant for monocytes, T cells, and mast cells...
  46. Sheng W, Hu S, Ni H, Rock R, Peterson P. WIN55,212-2 inhibits production of CX3CL1 by human astrocytes: involvement of p38 MAP kinase. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009;4:244-8 pubmed publisher
    CX3CL1 (fractalkine) has been shown not only to be neuroprotective but also may play a role in HIV-1-associated neuropathogenesis...
  47. Tole S, Durkan A, Huang Y, Liu G, Leung A, Jones L, et al. Thromboxane prostanoid receptor stimulation induces shedding of the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1 yet enhances CX3CL1-dependent leukocyte adhesion. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C1469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual effect of TP allows CX(3)CL1 to recruit leukocytes to sites of vascular inflammation while enhancing their adhesion once recruited. ..
  48. Ryu J, Lee C, Hong K, Shin J, Lim S, Park C, et al. Activation of fractalkine/CX3CR1 by vascular endothelial cells induces angiogenesis through VEGF-A/KDR and reverses hindlimb ischaemia. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:333-40 pubmed
    The present study investigated the detailed mechanism by which fractalkine (Fkn), a CX3C chemokine, induces angiogenesis and its functional implication in alleviating ischaemia in vivo...
  49. Hundhausen C, Misztela D, Berkhout T, Broadway N, Saftig P, Reiss K, et al. The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM10 is involved in constitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Blood. 2003;102:1186-95 pubmed
    The CX3C chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) exists as a membrane-expressed protein promoting cell-cell adhesion and as a soluble molecule inducing chemotaxis...
  50. Ludwig A, Berkhout T, Moores K, Groot P, Chapman G. Fractalkine is expressed by smooth muscle cells in response to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and is modulated by metalloproteinase activity. J Immunol. 2002;168:604-12 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine/CX3C-chemokine ligand 1 is expressed as a membrane-spanning adhesion molecule that can be cleaved from the cell surface to produce a soluble chemoattractant...
  51. White G, Tan T, John A, Whatling C, McPheat W, Greaves D. Fractalkine has anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells via epidermal growth factor receptor signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:825-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a membrane-bound chemokine that signals through the G protein-coupled receptor CX3CR1 that is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis...
  52. Mizoue L, Bazan J, Johnson E, Handel T. Solution structure and dynamics of the CX3C chemokine domain of fractalkine and its interaction with an N-terminal fragment of CX3CR1. Biochemistry. 1999;38:1402-14 pubmed
    b>Fractalkine, a novel CX3C chemokine, is unusual because of both its membrane-associated structure and its direct role in cell adhesion...
  53. Pan Y, Lloyd C, Zhou H, Dolich S, Deeds J, Gonzalo J, et al. Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation. Nature. 1997;387:611-7 pubmed
    ..screening of a murine choroid plexus complementary DNA library, we identified a new chemokine, designated neurotactin. Unlike other chemokines, neurotactin has a unique cysteine pattern, Cys-X-X-X-Cys, and is predicted to be a ..