FNDC5

Summary

Gene Symbol: FNDC5
Description: fibronectin type III domain containing 5
Alias: FRCP2, irisin, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, fibronectin type III repeat-containing protein 2
Species: human
Products:     FNDC5

Top Publications

  1. Moraes C, Leal V, Marinho S, Barroso S, Rocha G, Boaventura G, et al. Resistance exercise training does not affect plasma irisin levels of hemodialysis patients. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:900-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a hormone secreted by myocytes induced in exercise, acts as a muscle-derived energy-expenditure signal that binds to undetermined receptors on the white adipose tissue surface, stimulating its browning and uncoupling protein 1 (..
  2. Wu J, Boström P, Sparks L, Ye L, Choi J, Giang A, et al. Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human. Cell. 2012;150:366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..pattern distinct from either white or brown fat and are preferentially sensitive to the polypeptide hormone irisin. Finally, we provide evidence that previously identified brown fat deposits in adult humans are composed of beige ..
  3. Lecker S, Zavin A, Cao P, Arena R, Allsup K, Daniels K, et al. Expression of the irisin precursor FNDC5 in skeletal muscle correlates with aerobic exercise performance in patients with heart failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2012;5:812-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to increase the expression of the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene and thereby its product, irisin, in mice...
  4. Huh J, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, Brinkoetter M, Vamvini M, Schneider B, et al. FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise. Metabolism. 2012;61:1725-38 pubmed publisher
    ..an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. One prior study has shown that FNDC5 induces browning of subcutaneous fat in mice and mediates beneficial effects ..
  5. Staiger H, Böhm A, Scheler M, Berti L, Machann J, Schick F, et al. Common genetic variation in the human FNDC5 locus, encoding the novel muscle-derived 'browning' factor irisin, determines insulin sensitivity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61903 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the novel myokine irisin was described to drive adipose tissue 'browning', to increase energy expenditure, and to improve obesity and insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice...
  6. Zhang H, Zhang X, Ma Z, Pan L, Chen Z, Han H, et al. Irisin is inversely associated with intrahepatic triglyceride contents in obese adults. J Hepatol. 2013;59:557-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin was recently identified as a novel peptide to improve obesity and glucose homeostasis, and considered to be ..
  7. Raschke S, Elsen M, Gassenhuber H, Sommerfeld M, Schwahn U, Brockmann B, et al. Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73680 pubmed publisher
    Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic ..
  8. Yan B, Shi X, Zhang H, Pan L, Ma Z, Liu S, et al. Association of serum irisin with metabolic syndrome in obese Chinese adults. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94235 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a recently identified novel myokine, drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissues and has been proposed to mediate beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism...
  9. Wen M, Wang C, Lin S, Hung K. Decrease in irisin in patients with chronic kidney disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64025 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms underlying altered energy expenditure in uremia are unknown and remain to be elucidated. Irisin is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1-?-dependent myokine, and it increases energy ..

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Park K, Zaichenko L, Brinkoetter M, Thakkar B, Sahin Efe A, Joung K, et al. Circulating irisin in relation to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:4899-907 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a recently identified hormone, has been proposed to regulate energy homeostasis and obesity in mice...
  2. Lee P, Linderman J, Smith S, Brychta R, Wang J, Idelson C, et al. Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans. Cell Metab. 2014;19:302-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat...
  3. Tanisawa K, Taniguchi H, Sun X, Ito T, Cao Z, Sakamoto S, et al. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FNDC5 gene are associated with glucose metabolism but do not affect serum irisin levels in Japanese men with low fitness levels. Metabolism. 2014;63:574-83 pubmed publisher
    This cross-sectional study analyzed the association of serum irisin concentrations with cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene and examined the relationships between ..
  4. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski M, Korde A, Ye L, Lo J, et al. A PGC1-?-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature. 2012;481:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of ..
  5. Choi Y, Kim M, Bae K, Seo H, Jeong J, Lee W, et al. Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;100:96-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin has been identified as a novel myokine that drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissue...
  6. Moreno Navarrete J, Ortega F, Serrano M, Guerra E, Pardo G, Tinahones F, et al. Irisin is expressed and produced by human muscle and adipose tissue in association with obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E769-78 pubmed publisher
    Recently irisin (encoded by Fndc5 gene) has been reported to stimulate browning and uncoupling protein 1 expression in sc adipose tissue of mice...
  7. Swick A, Orena S, O Connor A. Irisin levels correlate with energy expenditure in a subgroup of humans with energy expenditure greater than predicted by fat free mass. Metabolism. 2013;62:1070-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that responsiveness to the recently discovered myokine, irisin, which has been touted to increase energy expenditure via activation of brown adipocytes in rodents and possibly ..
  8. Scalzo R, Peltonen G, Giordano G, Binns S, Klochak A, Paris H, et al. Regulators of human white adipose browning: evidence for sympathetic control and sexual dimorphic responses to sprint interval training. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90696 pubmed publisher
    ..Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous ..
  9. Choi H, Kim S, Park J, Lee N, Hwang S, Huh J, et al. Implication of circulating irisin levels with brown adipose tissue and sarcopenia in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:2778-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is an exercise-induced novel myokine that drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissue and has been suggested to be a promising target for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders...
  10. Tsuchiya Y, Ando D, Goto K, Kiuchi M, Yamakita M, Koyama K. High-intensity exercise causes greater irisin response compared with low-intensity exercise under similar energy consumption. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014;233:135-40 pubmed
    b>Irisin is mainly released from skeletal muscle (myocytes) and promotes thermogenesis by browning of the white adipose tissue...
  11. Teufel A, Malik N, Mukhopadhyay M, Westphal H. Frcp1 and Frcp2, two novel fibronectin type III repeat containing genes. Gene. 2002;297:79-83 pubmed
    ..We report the cloning and expression analysis of Frcp1 and Frcp2, two members of a new FNIII repeat containing gene family...
  12. Ivanov I, Firth A, Michel A, Atkins J, Baranov P. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data. ..
  13. Norheim F, Langleite T, Hjorth M, Holen T, Kielland A, Stadheim H, et al. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1?, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS J. 2014;281:739-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin was first identified as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator-1? (PGC-1?) dependent myokine with the potential to induce murine brown-fat-like development of white adipose tissue...
  14. Kurdiova T, Balaz M, Vician M, Maderova D, Vlcek M, Valkovic L, et al. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Physiol. 2014;592:1091-107 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via 'browning' of white adipose tissue...
  15. Xiang L, Xiang G, Yue L, Zhang J, Zhao L. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical angiopathy. Atherosclerosis. 2014;235:328-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a newly identified myokine that can promote energy expenditure and alleviate insulin-resistance in animal model. It has been established that insulin resistance is frequently associated with endothelial dysfunction...
  16. Stengel A, Hofmann T, Goebel Stengel M, Elbelt U, Kobelt P, Klapp B. Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index. Peptides. 2013;39:125-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity...
  17. Liu J, Wong M, Toy W, Tan C, Liu S, Ng X, et al. Lower circulating irisin is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications. 2013;27:365-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a novel myokine secreted in response to PPAR-? co-activator-1? (PGC-1?) activation. Earlier studies suggested that PGC-1? expression and activity were lower in myocytes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  18. Kraemer R, Shockett P, Webb N, Shah U, Castracane V. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women. Horm Metab Res. 2014;46:150-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1? dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise...
  19. Polyzos S, Kountouras J, Anastasilakis A, Geladari E, Mantzoros C. Irisin in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2014;63:207-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a recently discovered myokine proposed to increase thermogenesis-related energy expenditure and improve metabolism...
  20. Zhang Y, Xie C, Wang H, Foss R, Clare M, George E, et al. Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;311:E530-41 pubmed publisher
    To better understand the role of irisin in humans, we examined the effects of irisin in human primary adipocytes and fresh human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT)...
  21. Claycombe K, Vomhof DeKrey E, Roemmich J, Rhen T, Ghribi O. Maternal low-protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:729-35 pubmed publisher
    ..FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males...
  22. Rocha Rodrigues S, Rodríguez A, Gouveia A, Gonçalves I, Becerril S, Ramirez B, et al. Effects of physical exercise on myokines expression and brown adipose-like phenotype modulation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Life Sci. 2016;165:100-108 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) proteins in eWAT, while not affecting circulating irisin. VPA increased eWAT Tmem26 mRNA levels in the standard diet-fed group, whereas ET increased AMPK, interleukin 6 (..
  23. Gusdon A, Callio J, Distefano G, O Doherty R, Goodpaster B, Coen P, et al. Exercise increases mitochondrial complex I activity and DRP1 expression in the brains of aged mice. Exp Gerontol. 2017;90:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of other signaling proteins that regulate metabolism or transport (BDNF, HSP60, phosphorylated mTOR, FNDC5, SIRT3) were not significantly altered...
  24. Xing T, Kang Y, Xu X, Wang B, Du M, Zhu M. Raspberry Supplementation Improves Insulin Signaling and Promotes Brown-Like Adipocyte Development in White Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62: pubmed publisher
    ..drives the browning of WAT (beige adipogenesis), which is associated with elevated PGC-1α and FNDC5/irisin contents...
  25. Camera D, Hawley J, Coffey V. Resistance exercise with low glycogen increases p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α mRNA in skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115:1185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05). There were no changes in Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) mRNA for CONT or LOW legs post-exercise...
  26. Kim H, Wrann C, Jedrychowski M, Vidoni S, Kitase Y, Nagano K, et al. Irisin Mediates Effects on Bone and Fat via αV Integrin Receptors. Cell. 2018;175:1756-1768.e17 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is secreted by muscle, increases with exercise, and mediates certain favorable effects of physical activity. In particular, irisin has been shown to have beneficial effects in adipose tissues, brain, and bone...
  27. Elizondo Montemayor L, Silva Platas C, Torres Quintanilla A, Rodríguez López C, Ruiz Esparza G, Reyes Mendoza E, et al. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2628968 pubmed publisher
    The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children...
  28. Wahab F, Shahab M, Behr R. Hypothesis: Irisin is a metabolic trigger for the activation of the neurohormonal axis governing puberty onset. Med Hypotheses. 2016;95:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the systemic level of irisin - one of the protein products of the FNDC5 gene that is secreted as myokine and adipokine - also rises during ..
  29. Sugiyama Y, Asai K, Yamada K, Kureya Y, Ijiri N, Watanabe T, et al. Decreased levels of irisin, a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine, are related to emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:765-772 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin is a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine associated with physical activity...
  30. Zhou Q, Chen K, Liu P, Gao Y, Zou D, Deng H, et al. Dihydromyricetin stimulates irisin secretion partially via the PGC-1α pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;412:349-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that can stimulate the 'browning' of white adipose tissue, which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α)...
  31. Lian A, Li X, Jiang Q. Irisin inhibition of growth hormone secretion in cultured tilapia pituitary cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;439:395-406 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, is well-documented to be a regulator of energy metabolism. At present, not much is known about its biological function in non-mammalian species...
  32. Yalçın M, Akturk M, Tohma Y, Cerit E, Altinova A, Arslan E, et al. Irisin and Myostatin Levels in Patients with Graves' Disease. Arch Med Res. 2016;47:471-475 pubmed publisher
    ..Some myokines such as irisin and myostatin have considerable effects on energy metabolism in addition to the musculoskeletal system...
  33. Choi E, Kim M, Song M, Kim J, Kim E, Chung W, et al. Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e110680 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption...
  34. Liu T, Xiong X, Ren X, Zhao M, Shi C, Wang J, et al. FNDC5 Alleviates Hepatosteatosis by Restoring AMPK/mTOR-Mediated Autophagy, Fatty Acid Oxidation, and Lipogenesis in Mice. Diabetes. 2016;65:3262-3275 pubmed
    Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein induces browning of subcutaneous fat and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism...
  35. Papp C, Pak K, Erdei T, Juhasz B, Seres I, Szentpéteri A, et al. Alteration of the irisin-brain-derived neurotrophic factor axis contributes to disturbance of mood in COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:2023-2033 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible link between COPD and depression may be irisin, a myokine, expression of which in the skeletal muscle and brain positively correlates with physical activity...
  36. Ruan Q, Zhang L, Ruan J, Zhang X, Chen J, Ma C, et al. Detection and quantitation of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid by tandem mass spectrometry. Peptides. 2018;103:60-64 pubmed publisher
    The myokine irisin can cross the blood brain barrier and act as a neurokine to protect brain function during endurance exercise. However, the mechanism of transport from the blood to cerebrospinal fluid is unknown...
  37. Kerstholt N, Ewert R, Nauck M, Spielhagen T, Bollmann T, Stubbe B, et al. Association of circulating irisin and cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in healthy volunteers: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania. BMC Pulm Med. 2015;15:41 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a recently discovered myokine, is assumed to be secreted by muscle cells in response to exercise and is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism by browning white adipose tissue cells...
  38. Jiang Q, Zhang Q, Lian A, Xu Y. Irisin stimulates gonadotropins gene expression in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pituitary cells. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;185:140-147 pubmed publisher
    The link between energy metabolism and reproduction is well known in vertebrates. Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, plays an important role in energy homeostasis...
  39. Jang Y, Son H, Choi Y, Ahn J, Jung C, Ha T. Apigenin enhances skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation by regulating Prmt7. Oncotarget. 2017;8:78300-78311 pubmed publisher
    ..Apigenin treatment also upregulated FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5) mRNA expression and serum irisin levels...
  40. Salem H, Yatchenko Y, Anosov M, Rosenfeld T, Altarescu G, Grisaru Granovsky S, et al. Maternal and neonatal irisin precursor gene FNDC5 polymorphism is associated with preterm birth. Gene. 2018;649:58-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a novel secreted myokine, encoded by the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) precursor gene...
  41. Nygaard H, Slettaløkken G, Vegge G, Hollan I, Whist J, Strand T, et al. Irisin in blood increases transiently after single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121367 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents...
  42. Hosseini Farahabadi S, Ghaedi K, Ghazvini Zadegan F, Karbalaie K, Rabiee F, Nematollahi M, et al. ERK1/2 is a key regulator of Fndc5 and PGC1α expression during neural differentiation of mESCs. Neuroscience. 2015;297:252-61 pubmed publisher
    Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) has already been distinguished to be involved in neural differentiation. However, cellular events of Fndc5 function are still ambiguous in the nervous system...
  43. Tsuchiya Y, Ando D, Takamatsu K, Goto K. Resistance exercise induces a greater irisin response than endurance exercise. Metabolism. 2015;64:1042-50 pubmed publisher
    We determined detailed time-course changes in the irisin response to acute exercise using different exercise modes...
  44. Pérez Sotelo D, Roca Rivada A, Baamonde I, Baltar J, Castro A, Dominguez E, et al. Lack of Adipocyte-Fndc5/Irisin Expression and Secretion Reduces Thermogenesis and Enhances Adipogenesis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16289 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation...
  45. Zhan G, Huang N, Li S, Hua D, Zhang J, Fang X, et al. PGC-1α-FNDC5-BDNF signaling pathway in skeletal muscle confers resilience to stress in mice subjected to chronic social defeat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018;235:3351-3358 pubmed publisher
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α)-fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5)-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in skeletal muscle plays a key role in conferring the ..
  46. Zhu G, Wang J, Song M, Zhou F, Fu D, Ruan G, et al. Irisin Increased the Number and Improved the Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetes Mellitus Mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2016;68:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin, a newly identified myokine, was induced by exercise and has been demonstrated to mediate some of the positive ..
  47. Khidr E, Ali S, Elshafey M, Fawzy O. Association of irisin and FNDC5 rs16835198 G>T gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. An Egyptian pilot study. Gene. 2017;626:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin, a new exercise-induced myokine inducing browning of white adipose tissues, has gained a great interest as a ..
  48. Tang S, Zhang R, Jiang F, Wang J, Chen M, Peng D, et al. Association between FNDC5 genetic variants and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Chinese population. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2016;43:580-2 pubmed publisher
  49. Belviranli M, Okudan N, Celik F. Association of Circulating Irisin with Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Obese Women. Horm Metab Res. 2016;48:653-657 pubmed
    b>Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes...
  50. Roberts L, Ashmore T, McNally B, Murfitt S, Fernandez B, Feelisch M, et al. Inorganic Nitrate Mimics Exercise-Stimulated Muscular Fiber-Type Switching and Myokine and ?-Aminobutyric Acid Release. Diabetes. 2017;66:674-688 pubmed publisher
    ..Nitrate induces the release of exercise/PGC1?-dependent myokine FNDC5/irisin and ?-aminoisobutyric acid from myotubes and muscle in rats and humans...
  51. Wrann C, White J, Salogiannnis J, Laznik Bogoslavski D, Wu J, Ma D, et al. Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1?/FNDC5 pathway. Cell Metab. 2013;18:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..show that FNDC5, a previously identified muscle protein that is induced in exercise and is cleaved and secreted as irisin, is also elevated by endurance exercise in the hippocampus of mice...
  52. Zhang S, Yang L, Chen P, Jin H, Xie X, Yang M, et al. Circulating Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) Levels Are Associated with Irisin in the Middle-Aged General Chinese Population. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146605 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin, a novel myokine, activates thermogenesis by increasing the transformation of white adipocytes to brown, and it ..
  53. Hassanzadeh S, Jameie S, Mehdizadeh M, Soleimani M, Namjoo Z, Soleimani M. FNDC5 expression in Purkinje neurons of adult male rats with acute spinal cord injury following treatment with methylprednisolone. Neuropeptides. 2018;70:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Since irisin is known as a plasma product of FNDC5, we think it might be a plasma marker following therapeutic efforts for SCI; ..
  54. Zhu D, Wang H, Zhang J, Zhang X, Xin C, Zhang F, et al. Irisin improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes through reducing oxidative/nitrative stresses. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;87:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been reported that plasma irisin level is significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetic patients...
  55. Nigro E, Scudiero O, Ludovica Monaco M, Polito R, Schettino P, Grandone A, et al. Adiponectin profile and Irisin expression in Italian obese children: Association with insulin-resistance. Cytokine. 2017;94:8-13 pubmed publisher
    Adiponectin (Acrp30), its high molecular weight (HMW) oligomers, and Irisin are molecules involved in several metabolic processes...
  56. Moreno M, Moreno Navarrete J, Fernandez Real J. [Irisin: a messenger from the gods?]. Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2014;26:140-6 pubmed publisher
    Due to the need to understand the basis of the metabolic benefits of exercise, irisin was discovered a few years ago. This cytokine, secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, should have positive effects on energetic metabolism...
  57. Peterson J, Mart R, Bond C. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5. Peerj. 2014;2:e605 pubmed publisher
    ..secreted factors, or myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), the precursor for Irisin. Methods...
  58. Palacios González B, Vadillo Ortega F, Polo Oteyza E, Sánchez T, Ancira Moreno M, Romero Hidalgo S, et al. Irisin levels before and after physical activity among school-age children with different BMI: a direct relation with leptin. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23:729-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a novel myokine that seems to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise. Levels of circulating irisin before and after an 8-month physical activity program (PAP) in school-age children were evaluated...
  59. Miyamoto Mikami E, Sato K, Kurihara T, Hasegawa N, Fujie S, Fujita S, et al. Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120354 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the effects of endurance training on circulating irisin levels in young and middle-aged/older adults, and to determine the association between endurance training-induced alteration of irisin and reduction in body fat...
  60. Kim H, Lee H, So B, Son J, Yoon D, Song W. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study. Physiol Res. 2016;65:271-9 pubmed
    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease...
  61. Garcés M, Peralta J, Ruíz Linares C, Lozano A, Poveda N, Torres Sierra A, et al. Irisin levels during pregnancy and changes associated with the development of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:2113-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a recently discovered adipomyokine that regulates the differentiation and phenotype of adipose tissue...
  62. Alis R, Sanchis Gomar F, Pareja Galeano H, Hernández Mijares A, Romagnoli M, Víctor V, et al. Association between irisin and homocysteine in euglycemic and diabetic subjects. Clin Biochem. 2014;47:333-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of study was to explore whether a relationship exists between homocysteine and irisin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients-a population with a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease-and euglycemic controls...
  63. Assyov Y, Gateva A, Tsakova A, Kamenov Z. Irisin in the Glucose Continuum. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016;124:22-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a novel myokine has been involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome...
  64. Panati K, Suneetha Y, Narala V. Irisin/FNDC5--An updated review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:689-97 pubmed
    The irisin, recently identified novel molecule, has been shown to be secreted from fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) of skeletal muscle by an unknown protease...
  65. Us Altay D, Keha E, Ozer Yaman S, Ince I, Alver A, Erdogan B, et al. Investigation of the expression of irisin and some cachectic factors in mice with experimentally induced gastric cancer. QJM. 2016;109:785-790 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analyses of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and some cachexia-related proteins were performed in tissue samples, while levels of ..
  66. Fuku N, Díaz Peña R, Arai Y, Abe Y, Zempo H, Naito H, et al. Epistasis, physical capacity-related genes and exceptional longevity: FNDC5 gene interactions with candidate genes FOXOA3 and APOE. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:803 pubmed publisher
    ..with EL seems to depend on the presence of the FOXOA3 rs2802292 T-allele and we report a novel association between FNDC5 rs16835198 stratified by the presence of the APOE ?2/?4-allele and EL...
  67. Nazem S, Rabiee F, Ghaedi K, Babashah S, Sadeghizadeh M, Nasr Esfahani M. Fndc5 Knockdown Induced Suppression of Mitochondrial Integrity And Significantly Decreased Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is a glycosylated protein with elevated expression in high energy demanded tissues as heart, brain and muscle...
  68. Daskalopoulou S, Cooke A, Gomez Y, Mutter A, Filippaios A, Mesfum E, et al. Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171:343-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a recently discovered myokine, has been shown to induce browning of white adipose tissue, enhancing energy expenditure and mediating some of the beneficial effects of exercise...
  69. PukajÅ‚o K, Kolackov K, ŁaczmaÅ„ski Å, Daroszewski J. [Irisin--a new mediator of energy homeostasis]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2015;69:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Ir) - a newly discovered adipomyokine - is cleaved and secreted to the circulation from a fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5)...
  70. Hirsch H, Gross I, Pollak Y, Eldar Geva T, Gross Tsur V. Irisin and the Metabolic Phenotype of Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0136864 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin, a circulating myokine, stimulates "browning" of white adipose tissue resulting in increased energy expenditure ..
  71. Icli A, Cure E, Cumhur Cüre M, Uslu A, Balta S, Arslan S, et al. Novel myokine: irisin may be an independent predictor for subclinic atherosclerosis in Behçet's disease. J Investig Med. 2016;64:875-81 pubmed publisher
    Behçet's disease (BD) is a vasculitic and inflammatory disease causing endothelial dysfunction. Irisin is a metabolic hormone related to insulin resistance and endothelial functions...
  72. Fagundo A, Jiménez Murcia S, Giner Bartolomé C, Agüera Z, Sauchelli S, Pardo M, et al. Modulation of Irisin and Physical Activity on Executive Functions in Obesity and Morbid obesity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30820 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can act as a cognitive enhancer. Irisin is a recently discovered hormone associated with some of the positive effects of PA...
  73. Benedini S, Dozio E, Invernizzi P, Vianello E, Banfi G, Terruzzi I, et al. Irisin: A Potential Link between Physical Exercise and Metabolism-An Observational Study in Differently Trained Subjects, from Elite Athletes to Sedentary People. J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:1039161 pubmed publisher
    We compared irisin levels among groups of differently trained healthy individuals to explore the role of irisin as a physiological linker between exercise and metabolic health...
  74. Petta S, Valenti L, Svegliati Baroni G, Ruscica M, Pipitone R, Dongiovanni P, et al. Fibronectin Type III Domain-Containing Protein 5 rs3480 A>G Polymorphism, Irisin, and Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2660-2669 pubmed publisher
    Contrasting data have been reported on the role of irisin, a novel myokine encoded by the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis...
  75. Anastasilakis A, Polyzos S, Saridakis Z, Kynigopoulos G, Skouvaklidou E, Molyvas D, et al. Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:3247-55 pubmed publisher
    The myokine irisin may increase energy expenditure and affect metabolism. The objective of the study was to elucidate predictors of irisin and study whether circulating irisin may have day-night rhythm in humans...
  76. Ghahrizjani F, Ghaedi K, Salamian A, Tanhaei S, Nejati A, Salehi H, et al. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues. Gene. 2015;557:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
  77. Li X, Fang W, Hu Y, Wang Y, Li J. Characterization of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene in chickens: Cloning, tissue expression, and regulation of its expression in the muscle by fasting and cold exposure. Gene. 2015;570:221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, a novel myokine encoded by fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 gene (FNDC5), is reported to stimulate brown fat-like development of white fat tissue and thermogenesis in mammals recently...
  78. Hwang Y, Jeon W, Park C, Youn B. The ratio of skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area is a main determinant linking circulating irisin to metabolic phenotype. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:9 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to investigate whether circulating irisin is associated with favorable metabolic parameters and how the association differs according to body composition in humans...
  79. Butt Z, Hackett J, Volkoff H. Irisin in goldfish (Carassius auratus): Effects of irisin injections on feeding behavior and expression of appetite regulators, uncoupling proteins and lipoprotein lipase, and fasting-induced changes in FNDC5 expression. Peptides. 2017;90:27-36 pubmed publisher
    Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine...
  80. Siteneski A, Cunha M, Lieberknecht V, Pazini F, Gruhn K, Brocardo P, et al. Central irisin administration affords antidepressant-like effect and modulates neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018;84:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..has indicated that the practice of physical exercise has antidepressant effects that might be associated with irisin release and BDNF signaling...
  81. Zhao L, Li J, Li Z, Yang J, Li M, Wang G. Circulating irisin is lower in gestational diabetes mellitus. Endocr J. 2015;62:921-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is a newly identified myokine...
  82. Bostancı M, Akdemir N, Cinemre B, Cevrioglu A, Özden S, Ünal O. Serum irisin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19:4462-8 pubmed
    ..Insulin resistance-related proteins play a role in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. Irisin is a newly identified myokine which act like adipokines...
  83. Kuloglu T, Celik O, Aydin S, Hanifi Ozercan I, Acet M, Aydin Y, et al. Irisin immunostaining characteristics of breast and ovarian cancer cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:40-4 pubmed
    To determine expression pattern of irisin in tissues obtained from human ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and cervix cancer...
  84. Kim H, Jeong Y, Song I, Noh Y, Seo K, Kim M, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor positively regulates transcription of FNDC5 in the liver. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43296 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin is secreted by skeletal muscle during exercise and influences energy and metabolic homeostasis. This hormone is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5)...
  85. Kawao N, Moritake A, Tatsumi K, Kaji H. Roles of Irisin in the Linkage from Muscle to Bone During Mechanical Unloading in Mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 2018;103:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Irisin, a product of FNDC5, suppressed osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow cells and RANKL mRNA levels in primary ..
  86. Tang S, Zhang R, Jiang F, Wang J, Chen M, Peng D, et al. An interaction between a FNDC5 variant and obesity modulates glucose metabolism in a Chinese Han population. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109957 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the impact of common variants of FNDC5 on type 2 diabetes and clinical traits related to glucose metabolism in a large Chinese population sample...
  87. Azimi M, Gharakhanlou R, Naghdi N, Khodadadi D, Heysieattalab S. Moderate treadmill exercise ameliorates amyloid-β-induced learning and memory impairment, possibly via increasing AMPK activity and up-regulation of the PGC-1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway. Peptides. 2018;102:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) as well as protein levels of AMPK-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PGC-1α, BDNF, phosphorylation of AMPK were ..
  88. Löffler D, Müller U, Scheuermann K, Friebe D, Gesing J, Bielitz J, et al. Serum irisin levels are regulated by acute strenuous exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:1289-99 pubmed publisher
    The newly discovered myokine irisin has been proposed to affect obesity and metabolism by promoting browning of white adipose tissue...
  89. Huth C, Dubois M, Marette A, Tremblay A, Weisnagel S, Lacaille M, et al. Irisin is more strongly predicted by muscle oxidative potential than adiposity in non-diabetic men. J Physiol Biochem. 2015;71:559-68 pubmed publisher
    Numerous controversies surround the peptide hormone irisin. Although implicated as a myokine promoting the browning of adipose tissue in rodents, its roles in humans remain unclear...
  90. Kelly D. Medicine. Irisin, light my fire. Science. 2012;336:42-3 pubmed publisher
  91. Hofmann T, Elbelt U, Ahnis A, Obbarius A, Rose M, Klapp B, et al. The exercise-induced myokine irisin does not show an association with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in obese women. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:195-203 pubmed
    b>Irisin has recently been proposed to act as a myokine secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise and to exert several health-beneficial effects, although its role is far from being established...
  92. Ferrante C, Orlando G, Recinella L, Leone S, Chiavaroli A, Di Nisio C, et al. Central inhibitory effects on feeding induced by the adipo-myokine irisin. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;791:389-394 pubmed publisher
    b>Irisin, the soluble secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)-cleaved product, is a recently identified adipo-myokine that has been indicated as a possible link between physical exercise and energetic homeostasis...