Gene Symbol: FLIP
Description: CASP8 and FADD like apoptosis regulator
Alias: CASH, CASP8AP1, CLARP, Casper, FLAME, FLAME-1, FLAME1, FLIP, I-FLICE, MRIT, c-FLIP, c-FLIPL, c-FLIPR, c-FLIPS, CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, FADD-like antiapoptotic molecule 1, MACH-related inducer of toxicity, caspase homolog, caspase-eight-related protein, caspase-like apoptosis regulatory protein, caspase-related inducer of apoptosis, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein, inhibitor of FLICE, testis secretory sperm-binding protein Li 233m, usurpin beta
Species: human
Products:     FLIP

Top Publications

  1. Sharp D, Lawrence D, Ashkenazi A. Selective knockdown of the long variant of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein augments death receptor-mediated caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19401-9 pubmed
    ..c-FLIP (cellular FLICE inhibitory protein) is an enzymatically inactive relative of caspase-8 and -10 that binds to the ..
  2. Rippo M, Moretti S, Vescovi S, Tomasetti M, Orecchia S, Amici G, et al. FLIP overexpression inhibits death receptor-induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelial cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:7753-60 pubmed
    ..We found that FLIP (FLICE-Inhibitory Protein) is constitutively expressed in all MM cell lines and is more expressed in primary MM ..
  3. Fricker N, Beaudouin J, Richter P, Eils R, Krammer P, Lavrik I. Model-based dissection of CD95 signaling dynamics reveals both a pro- and antiapoptotic role of c-FLIPL. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:377-89 pubmed publisher
    Cellular FADD-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory proteins (c-FLIPs; isoforms c-FLIP long [c-FLIP(L)], c-FLIP short [c-FLIP(S)], and c-FLIP Raji [c-FLIP(R)]) regulate caspase-8 activation and death receptor (DR)-induced ..
  4. Ueffing N, Singh K, Christians A, Thorns C, Feller A, Nagl F, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism determines protein isoform production of the human c-FLIP protein. Blood. 2009;114:572-9 pubmed publisher
    The cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a modulator of death receptor-mediated apoptosis and plays a major role in T- and B-cell homeostasis...
  5. Shi B, Tran T, Sobkoviak R, Pope R. Activation-induced degradation of FLIP(L) is mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14513-23 pubmed publisher
    Cellular FLIP (Flice-like inhibitory protein) is critical for the protection against death receptor-mediated cell apoptosis...
  6. Dolcet X, Llobet D, Pallares J, Rue M, Comella J, Matias Guiu X. FLIP is frequently expressed in endometrial carcinoma and has a role in resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Lab Invest. 2005;85:885-94 pubmed
    The FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) plays a key role in the regulation of apoptosis triggered by death ligands...
  7. Scaffidi C, Schmitz I, Krammer P, Peter M. The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1541-8 pubmed
    ..a molecule with sequence homology to caspase-8 was identified, termed cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). c-FLIP has been controversially reported to possess apoptosis-promoting and -inhibiting functions...
  8. Longley D, Wilson T, McEwan M, Allen W, McDermott U, Galligan L, et al. c-FLIP inhibits chemotherapy-induced colorectal cancer cell death. Oncogene. 2006;25:838-48 pubmed
    c-FLIP inhibits caspase 8 activation and apoptosis mediated by death receptors such as Fas and DR5...
  9. Rae C, Langa S, Tucker S, MacEwan D. Elevated NF-kappaB responses and FLIP levels in leukemic but not normal lymphocytes: reduction by salicylate allows TNF-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12790-5 pubmed
    ..basal NF-kappaB responses and elevated Fas-associated protein with death domain-like IL-1 converting enzyme (FLIP) levels...

More Information


  1. Kaunisto A, Kochin V, Asaoka T, Mikhailov A, Poukkula M, Meinander A, et al. PKC-mediated phosphorylation regulates c-FLIP ubiquitylation and stability. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1215-26 pubmed publisher
    Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) proteins are crucial regulators of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and caspase-8 activation. To date, three c-FLIP isoforms with distinct functions and regulation have been identified...
  2. Benesch M, Platzbecker U, Ward J, Deeg H, Leisenring W. Expression of FLIP(Long) and FLIP(Short) in bone marrow mononuclear and CD34+ cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: correlation with apoptosis. Leukemia. 2003;17:2460-6 pubmed
    ..b>FLIP (FLICE (FAS-associated death-domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein)) was identified as an ..
  3. Kavuri S, Geserick P, Berg D, Dimitrova D, Feoktistova M, Siegmund D, et al. Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) isoforms block CD95- and TRAIL death receptor-induced gene induction irrespective of processing of caspase-8 or cFLIP in the death-inducing signaling complex. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16631-46 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine whether isoforms of cellular FLIP (cFLIP) or its cleavage products differentially regulate DR signaling, we established HaCaT cells expressing cFLIP(..
  4. Lee J, Li Q, Lee J, Lee S, Jeong J, Lee H, et al. FLIP-mediated autophagy regulation in cell death control. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Two death effector domains (DED1/2) containing cellular FLICE-like inhibitor protein (cFLIP) and viral FLIP (vFLIP) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), and Molluscum contagiosum ..
  5. Poukkula M, Kaunisto A, Hietakangas V, Denessiouk K, Katajamäki T, Johnson M, et al. Rapid turnover of c-FLIPshort is determined by its unique C-terminal tail. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27345-55 pubmed
    The caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIP exists as two splice variants, c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S), with distinct roles in death receptor signaling. The mechanisms determining their turnover have not been established...
  6. Mathas S, Lietz A, Anagnostopoulos I, Hummel F, Wiesner B, Janz M, et al. c-FLIP mediates resistance of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells to death receptor-induced apoptosis. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1041-52 pubmed
    ..caspase-10, and most importantly, cellular FADD-like interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP)...
  7. Day T, Huang S, Safa A. c-FLIP knockdown induces ligand-independent DR5-, FADD-, caspase-8-, and caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:1694-704 pubmed publisher
    Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an inhibitor of apoptosis downstream of the death receptors Fas, DR4, and DR5, and is expressed as long (c-FLIP(L)) and short (c-FLIP(S)) splice forms...
  8. Irmler M, Thome M, Hahne M, Schneider P, Hofmann K, Steiner V, et al. Inhibition of death receptor signals by cellular FLIP. Nature. 1997;388:190-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report the characterization of an inhibitor of apoptosis, designated FLIP (for FLICE-inhibitory protein), which is predominantly expressed in muscle and lymphoid tissues...
  9. Hainsworth A, Bermpohl D, Webb T, Darwish R, Fiskum G, Qiu J, et al. Expression of cellular FLICE inhibitory proteins (cFLIP) in normal and traumatic murine and human cerebral cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005;25:1030-40 pubmed
    ..The data suggest differential spatial and temporal regulation of cFLIP-alpha and cFLIP-delta expression that may influence the magnitude of cell death and further implicate programmed mechanisms of cell death after TBI. ..
  10. Salon C, Eymin B, Micheau O, Chaperot L, Plumas J, Brambilla C, et al. E2F1 induces apoptosis and sensitizes human lung adenocarcinoma cells to death-receptor-mediated apoptosis through specific downregulation of c-FLIP(short). Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:260-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, we describe the specific overexpression of c-FLIP(S) in human lung adenocarcinomas with low level of E2F1...
  11. Nakajima A, Komazawa Sakon S, Takekawa M, Sasazuki T, Yeh W, Yagita H, et al. An antiapoptotic protein, c-FLIPL, directly binds to MKK7 and inhibits the JNK pathway. EMBO J. 2006;25:5549-59 pubmed
    ..However, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is rapidly lost in NF-kappaB activation-deficient, but not wild-type fibroblasts upon TNFalpha stimulation, ..
  12. Feoktistova M, Geserick P, Kellert B, Dimitrova D, Langlais C, Hupe M, et al. cIAPs block Ripoptosome formation, a RIP1/caspase-8 containing intracellular cell death complex differentially regulated by cFLIP isoforms. Mol Cell. 2011;43:449-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential quality of cell death mediated by the Ripoptosome may cause important pathophysiological consequences during inflammatory responses. ..
  13. Micheau O, Tschopp J. Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes. Cell. 2003;114:181-90 pubmed
    ..When NF-kappa B is activated by complex I, complex II harbors the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP(L) and the cell survives...
  14. Shu H, Halpin D, Goeddel D. Casper is a FADD- and caspase-related inducer of apoptosis. Immunity. 1997;6:751-63 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a novel 55 kDa protein, Casper, that has sequence similarity to caspase-8 throughout its length...
  15. Golks A, Brenner D, Fritsch C, Krammer P, Lavrik I. c-FLIPR, a new regulator of death receptor-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14507-13 pubmed
    ..Multiple splice variants of c-FLIP have been described on the mRNA level; so far only two of them, c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S,) had been found to be ..
  16. Micheau O, Thome M, Schneider P, Holler N, Tschopp J, Nicholson D, et al. The long form of FLIP is an activator of caspase-8 at the Fas death-inducing signaling complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45162-71 pubmed
    ..The cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein long form (FLIP(L)), a structural homologue of caspase-8 lacking caspase activity because of several mutations in the active site, ..
  17. Shirley S, Micheau O. Targeting c-FLIP in cancer. Cancer Lett. 2013;332:141-50 pubmed publisher
    Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is a key anti-apoptotic regulator that inhibits cell death mediated by the death receptors Fas, DR4, DR5, and TNF-R1...
  18. Kelly M, Hoel B, Voelkel Johnson C. Doxorubicin pretreatment sensitizes prostate cancer cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis which correlates with the loss of c-FLIP expression. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002;1:520-7 pubmed
    ..doxorubicin, we analyzed levels of several Bcl-2 family members, TRAIL receptors and the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP. Doxorubicin did not affect steady state levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) in the majority of the prostate cancer ..
  19. Kataoka T, Tschopp J. N-terminal fragment of c-FLIP(L) processed by caspase 8 specifically interacts with TRAF2 and induces activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2627-36 pubmed
    ..b>FLIP(L), the long-splice form of c-FLIP, is one of the specific substrates for caspase 8, and increased expression of ..
  20. Abedini M, Qiu Q, Yan X, Tsang B. Possible role of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Oncogene. 2004;23:6997-7004 pubmed
    ..of Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) in ovarian cancer resistance by comparing chemosensitive (OV2008) and chemoresistant (C13*) ovarian cancer cells ..
  21. Zhang J, Chen Y, Huang Q, Cheng W, Kang Y, Shu L, et al. Nuclear localization of c-FLIP-L and its regulation of AP-1 activity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1678-84 pubmed publisher
    Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP-L), similar in structure to caspase-8, is capable of blocking Fas- or other death receptors (DR)-mediated apoptosis through association with FADD in the DISC...
  22. Rogers K, Thomas M, Galligan L, Wilson T, Allen W, Sakai H, et al. Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein regulates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1544-51 pubmed
    ..found that IFN-gamma down-regulated the expression of the caspase-8 inhibitor cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP)...
  23. Korkolopoulou P, Saetta A, Levidou G, Gigelou F, Lazaris A, Thymara I, et al. c-FLIP expression in colorectal carcinomas: association with Fas/FasL expression and prognostic implications. Histopathology. 2007;51:150-6 pubmed
    ..The Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) system is involved in the execution of apoptosis induced by the immune system. c-FLIP protein constitutes an inhibitor of Fas and other (TRAIL) death receptor-mediated apoptosis...
  24. Bortul R, Tazzari P, Cappellini A, Tabellini G, Billi A, Bareggi R, et al. Constitutively active Akt1 protects HL60 leukemia cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through a mechanism involving NF-kappaB activation and cFLIP(L) up-regulation. Leukemia. 2003;17:379-89 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Akt1 may be an important regulator of TRAIL sensitivity in HL60 cells through the activation of NF-kappaB and up-regulation of cFLIP(L) synthesis. ..
  25. Rushworth S, MacEwan D. HO-1 underlies resistance of AML cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. Blood. 2008;111:3793-801 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which TNF-induced cell death is inhibited in AML cells through the induction of HO-1, via Nrf2 activation. ..
  26. Kataoka T, Budd R, Holler N, Thome M, Martinon F, Irmler M, et al. The caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP promotes activation of NF-kappaB and Erk signaling pathways. Curr Biol. 2000;10:640-8 pubmed
    ..transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 and recruitment of the caspase-8 inhibitor and FADD-interacting protein FLIP (FLICE-like inhibitory protein)...
  27. Ueffing N, Schuster M, Keil E, Schulze Osthoff K, Schmitz I. Up-regulation of c-FLIP short by NFAT contributes to apoptosis resistance of short-term activated T cells. Blood. 2008;112:690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..short-term activated T cells strongly up-regulate the caspase-8 inhibitor, cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP)...
  28. Chaudhary P, Eby M, Jasmin A, Kumar A, Liu L, Hood L. Activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by caspase 8 and its homologs. Oncogene. 2000;19:4451-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, DEDs-containing caspases and caspase homolog(s) may have functions beyond their known role in the mediation of cell death. Oncogene (2000) 19, 4451 - 4460. ..
  29. Ganapathy M, Ghosh R, Jianping X, Zhang X, Bedolla R, Schoolfield J, et al. Involvement of FLIP in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced tumor regression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:1601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..is to investigate whether Fas-associated death domain interleukin-1 converting enzyme like inhibitory protein (FLIP) inhibition is a therapeutic target associated with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2)-mediated tumor regression...
  30. Yerbes R, Lopez Rivas A. Itch/AIP4-independent proteasomal degradation of cFLIP induced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA sensitizes breast tumour cells to TRAIL. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the combination of TRAIL and SAHA may represent a therapeutic tool to combat breast tumours. ..
  31. Kim S, Lee T, Leem J, Choi K, Park J, Kwon T. Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis: generation of ROS, down-regulation of Bcl-2, c-FLIP, and synergy with TRAIL. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:895-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, combinatory treatment of sanguinarine and TRAIL may overcome the resistance of breast cancer cells due to overexpression of Akt or Bcl-2. ..
  32. Korkolopoulou P, Goudopoulou A, Voutsinas G, Thomas Tsagli E, Kapralos P, Patsouris E, et al. c-FLIP expression in bladder urothelial carcinomas: its role in resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis and clinicopathologic correlations. Urology. 2004;63:1198-204 pubmed
    ..9) mutations and the expression of Fas, Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) system, and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in relation to standard clinicopathologic parameters and patient outcome in bladder carcinoma...
  33. Wachter T, Sprick M, Hausmann D, Kerstan A, McPherson K, Stassi G, et al. cFLIPL inhibits tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated NF-kappaB activation at the death-inducing signaling complex in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52824-34 pubmed
    ..Hence, cFLIP(L) modulation in keratinocytes may not only influence apoptosis sensitivity but may also lead to altered death receptor-dependent skin inflammation. ..
  34. Chen S, Cao W, Yue P, Hao C, Khuri F, Sun S. Celecoxib promotes c-FLIP degradation through Akt-independent inhibition of GSK3. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we defined a mechanism of celecoxib action based on degradation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a major regulator of the death receptor pathway of apoptosis...
  35. Tenev T, Bianchi K, Darding M, Broemer M, Langlais C, Wallberg F, et al. The Ripoptosome, a signaling platform that assembles in response to genotoxic stress and loss of IAPs. Mol Cell. 2011;43:432-48 pubmed publisher
    ..It is negatively regulated by FLIP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP...
  36. Lee S, Kim H, Kim S, Lee Y, Park W, Kim S, et al. Increased expression of FLIP, an inhibitor of Fas-mediated apoptosis, in stomach cancer. APMIS. 2003;111:309-14 pubmed
    ..Expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), one of the inhibitory proteins of Fas-mediated apoptosis, has been reported in several cancer types, but not in ..
  37. Tseveleki V, Bauer J, Taoufik E, Ruan C, Leondiadis L, Haralambous S, et al. Cellular FLIP (long isoform) overexpression in T cells drives Th2 effector responses and promotes immunoregulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2004;173:6619-26 pubmed
    Cellular FLIP (c-FLIP) is an endogenous inhibitor of death receptor-induced apoptosis through the caspase 8 pathway...
  38. Dohrman A, Kataoka T, Cuenin S, Russell J, Tschopp J, Budd R. Cellular FLIP (long form) regulates CD8+ T cell activation through caspase-8-dependent NF-kappa B activation. J Immunol. 2005;174:5270-8 pubmed
    Cellular FLIP long form (c-FLIP(L)) was originally identified as an inhibitor of Fas (CD95/Apo-1)...
  39. Acampora H, White P, Lyashevska O, O Connor I. Presence of persistent organic pollutants in a breeding common tern (Sterna hirundo) population in Ireland. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:13025-13035 pubmed publisher
    ..biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in common terns breeding in Ireland, along with congener profiles...
  40. Zhong M, Tang J, Mi L, Li F, Wang R, Huang G, et al. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017;121:331-338 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW), Taiwan Warm Current (TaWC), and Subei Coastal Water (SCW) influenced the horizontal and vertical distributions of the OPs in the study area. ..
  41. Gondim T, Guedes J, Ribeiro L, Lopes G, Matos W. Optimization of a cloud point extraction procedure with response surface methodology for the quantification of dissolved iron in produced water from the petroleum industry using FAAS. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017;114:786-791 pubmed publisher
    ..This work deals with a study of a methodology for dissolved Fe quantification in PW from oil industry by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after cloud point extraction (CPE)...
  42. He M, Wei S, Sun Y, Yang T, Li Q, Wang D. Levels of five metals in male hair from urban and rural areas of Chongqing, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:22163-22171 pubmed
    Heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption in male hair from residents in urban and rural areas in Chongqing. The median values of the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 2.90, 23.9, 9.31, 39.3 and 203 ?g/g in urban areas and 0.84, 13...
  43. Peronico V, Raposo J. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for the determination of Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg in alternative oilseed crops using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem. 2016;196:1287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..was evaluated for the multi-element determination of Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg in alternative oilseed crops using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The best results were obtained when 0...
  44. Liu A, Shen Z, Tian Y, Shi R, Liu Y, Zhao Z, et al. Thin-layer chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for determining tetrabromobisphenol A/S and their derivatives in soils. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1526:151-156 pubmed publisher
    As brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A/S (TBBPA/S) and their derivatives have raised wide concerns owing to their widely usage, distributions and adverse effects on human health, thus monitoring these BFRs was ..
  45. Gonoodi K, Moslem A, Ahmadnezhad M, Darroudi S, Mazloum Z, Tayefi M, et al. Relationship of Dietary and Serum Zinc with Depression Score in Iranian Adolescent Girls. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;186:91-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum zinc was measured by flame atomic absorption (Varian AA240FS) and the mean zinc intake was assessed using 3-day food record...
  46. Green J, Lange A, Scott A, Trznadel M, Wai H, Takesono A, et al. Early life exposure to ethinylestradiol enhances subsequent responses to environmental estrogens measured in a novel transgenic zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2699 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorophore (Kaede, green to red on UV light exposure) in a skin pigment-free mutant element (ERE)-Kaede-Casper model and applied it to quantify tissue-specific fluorescence biosensor responses for combinations of estrogen ..
  47. Granby K, Rainieri S, Rasmussen R, Kotterman M, Sloth J, Cederberg T, et al. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Environ Res. 2018;164:430-443 pubmed publisher
    ..For the contaminated microplastic diet, the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in fish was significantly higher, increasing up to 40 days of accumulation and then reversing to ..
  48. Qiao L, Zheng X, Zheng J, Lei W, Li H, Wang M, et al. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences. Environ Res. 2016;148:177-183 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR ..
  49. Maddela N, Masabanda M, Leiva Mora M. Novel diesel-oil-degrading bacteria and fungi from the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest. Water Sci Technol. 2015;71:1554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation analysis was tracked by gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector. Under laboratory conditions, maximum degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 77...
  50. Zhu D, Shi J, Liu S, Liu Y, Zheng D. HIV infection enhances TRAIL-induced cell death in macrophage by down-regulating decoy receptor expression and generation of reactive oxygen species. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18291 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of TRAIL decoy receptor 1 (DcR1) and 2 (DcR2), and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), but dose not affect the expression of death receptor 4 and 5 (DR4, DR5), and Bcl-2 family members in MDM cells...
  51. Lee H, Lee J, Chung S, Choi J. Enhanced Pseudocapacitance in Multicomponent Transition-Metal Oxides by Local Distortion of Oxygen Octahedra. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:3958-62 pubmed publisher
    ..breaks the degenerate eg level of Ni(2+), the Jahn-Teller lattice instability necessary for the Ni(2+/3+) redox flip can be effectively diminished during charge-discharge, thus resulting in the significantly increased capacitance...
  52. Song D, Gao Y, Wang R, Liu D, Zhao L, Jing Y. Downregulation of c-FLIP, XIAP and Mcl-1 protein as well as depletion of reduced glutathione contribute to the apoptosis induction of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives in leukemia cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:96-108 pubmed
    ..blot analyses revealed that CDODO-Me-12 and CDODO-Me-11 downregulated the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins, c-FLIP, XIAP and Mcl-1, without altering the protein levels of Bcl-2 and the death receptors DR4 and DR5...
  53. Cornforth A, Davis J, Khanifar E, Nastiuk K, Krolewski J. FOXO3a mediates the androgen-dependent regulation of FLIP and contributes to TRAIL-induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:4422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the antiapoptotic FADD-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), and reduced FLIP expression precedes apoptosis after androgen withdrawal...
  54. Nizamani S, Kazi T, Afridi H, Talpur S, Lashari A, Lashari A, et al. Vortex-Assisted Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction of Trace Levels of Cadmium in Surface Water and Groundwater Samples of Tharparkar, Pakistan, Optimized by Multivariate Technique. J AOAC Int. 2018;101:858-866 pubmed publisher
    ..Cd+2) in surface (stored rainwater) and groundwater of the Tharparkar district in Pakistan, before analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry...
  55. Eyüpoğlu D, Ortaç Ersoy E, Rollas K, Topeli A. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to heroin inhalation. Tuberk Toraks. 2017;65:154-156 pubmed publisher
    Smoking heroin (chasing the dragon), is a method of inhaling heroin via heating the drug on a tin-foil above a flame. It also has been associated both with the indirect effects of heroin overdose and with direct pulmonary toxicity...
  56. Wilson T, Redmond K, McLaughlin K, Crawford N, Gately K, O Byrne K, et al. Procaspase 8 overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer promotes apoptosis induced by FLIP silencing. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1352-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The caspase 8 inhibitor FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) was also overexpressed in the majority of NSCLCs...
  57. Stoutjesdijk E, Schaafsma A, Nhien N, Khor G, Kema I, Hollis B, et al. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants: a study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes. Br J Nutr. 2017;:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by liquid-chromatography-MS/MS; milk fatty acids were analysed by GC-flame ionisation detector (FID). None of the mothers reached the milk vitamin D AI...
  58. Cristale J, Aragão Belé T, Lacorte S, Rodrigues de Marchi M. Occurrence and human exposure to brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants via indoor dust in a Brazilian city. Environ Pollut. 2018;237:695-703 pubmed publisher
    Indoor dust is considered an important human exposure route to flame retardants (FRs), which has arised concern due the toxic properties of some of these substances...
  59. Martin P, Hughes K, Campbell G, Shutt J. Metals and Organohalogen Contaminants in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Ontario, 1991-2008. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2018;74:305-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential impacts of exposure to these flame retardants and others are not known...
  60. Ili C, Brebi P, Tapia O, Sandoval A, Lopez J, Garcia P, et al. Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein long form (c-FLIPL) overexpression is related to cervical cancer progression. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2013;32:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) has been found to be overexpressed in several types of cancers and could be associated with cervical cancer ..
  61. Huang R, Mei C, Xu X, Kärki T, Lee S, Wu Q. Effect of Hybrid Talc-Basalt Fillers in the Shell Layer on Thermal and Mechanical Performance of Co-Extruded Wood Plastic Composites. Materials (Basel). 2015;8:8510-8523 pubmed publisher
    ..The cone calorimetry data demonstrated that flame resistance of co-extruded WPCs was improved with the use of combined fillers in the shell layer, especially with ..
  62. Artetxe I, Ugarte Uribe B, Gil D, Valle M, Alonso A, García Sáez A, et al. Does Ceramide Form Channels? The Ceramide-Induced Membrane Permeabilization Mechanism. Biophys J. 2017;113:860-868 pubmed publisher
    ..would be due to a competition between two ceramide effects; namely, lateral segregation that facilitates permeabilization, and at longer times, trans-bilayer flip-flop that opposes asymmetric lateral segregation and causes a mismatch.
  63. Chen Z, Ma H, Xia J, Hou F, Shi X, Hao X, et al. Optimal pre-plant irrigation and fertilization can improve biomass accumulation by maintaining the root and leaf productive capacity of cotton crop. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17168 pubmed publisher
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    ..expression of cellular FLICE (Fas associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and its association with p53 mutation in colon cancer...
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    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (..
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    ..Treatment of eupatolide alone significantly down-regulated the expression of cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in MCF-7 cells...
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    ..important regulator of DR-induced death is the cellular FADD-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) which, when overexpressed, can protect tumour cells from apoptosis...