fibrinogen

Summary

Gene Symbol: fibrinogen
Description: fibrinogen alpha chain
Alias: Fib2, fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen, A alpha polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     fibrinogen

Top Publications

  1. Herrick S, Blanc Brude O, Gray A, Laurent G. Fibrinogen. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:741-6 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen is a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots...
  2. Kotlin R, Blazek B, Suttnar J, Maly M, Kvasnicka J, Dyr J. Dysfibrinogenemia in childhood: two cases of congenital dysfibrinogens. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:640-8 pubmed publisher
    A 2-year-old asymptomatic boy and his relatives were investigated for a suspected fibrinogen mutation after coagulation tests revealed a decreased functional fibrinogen level (family A)...
  3. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen concentration,..
  4. Jacquemin B, Antoniades C, Nyberg F, Plana E, Müller M, Greven S, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains affect fibrinogen levels and the response to proinflammatory stimulation in myocardial infarction survivors: the AIRGENE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:941-52 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene-cluster (fibrinogen chains alpha [FGA], beta [FGB], and gamma [FGG]) could explain the inter- and intraindividual ..
  5. Standeven K, Grant P, Carter A, Scheiner T, Weisel J, Ariens R. Functional analysis of the fibrinogen Aalpha Thr312Ala polymorphism: effects on fibrin structure and function. Circulation. 2003;107:2326-30 pubmed
    The fibrinogen Aalpha Thr312Ala polymorphism occurs within the alphaC domain of fibrinogen, which is important for lateral aggregation and factor XIII-induced cross-linking of fibrin fibers...
  6. Peters A, Greven S, Heid I, Baldari F, Breitner S, Bellander T, et al. Fibrinogen genes modify the fibrinogen response to ambient particulate matter. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:484-91 pubmed publisher
    Ambient particulate matter has been associated with systemic inflammation indicated by blood markers such as fibrinogen, implicated in promoting atherothrombosis...
  7. Siegerink B, Rosendaal F, Algra A. Genetic variation in fibrinogen; its relationship to fibrinogen levels and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..by common causes and reverse causation have been proposed as explanations for the association between high fibrinogen levels and cardiovascular disease...
  8. Tsurupa G, Tsonev L, Medved L. Structural organization of the fibrin(ogen) alpha C-domain. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6449-59 pubmed
    We hypothesized that the alpha C-domain of human fibrinogen (residues hA alpha 221-610) and of other species consists of a compact COOH-terminal region (hA alpha 392-610) and a flexible NH(2)-terminal connector region (hA alpha 221-391) ..
  9. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Lundman P, Samnegard A, Boquist S, Ericsson C, et al. Contribution of haplotypes across the fibrinogen gene cluster to variation in risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:570-7 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen has consistently been recognized as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction (MI)...
  10. Redman C, Xia H. Fibrinogen biosynthesis. Assembly, intracellular degradation, and association with lipid synthesis and secretion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;936:480-95 pubmed
    Plasma fibrinogen is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and assembly of the three component chains (A alpha, B beta, and gamma) into its final form as a six-chain dimer (A alpha, B beta, gamma)2 occurs rapidly in the lumen of the ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Herrick S, Blanc Brude O, Gray A, Laurent G. Fibrinogen. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:741-6 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen is a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots...
  2. Kotlin R, Blazek B, Suttnar J, Maly M, Kvasnicka J, Dyr J. Dysfibrinogenemia in childhood: two cases of congenital dysfibrinogens. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:640-8 pubmed publisher
    A 2-year-old asymptomatic boy and his relatives were investigated for a suspected fibrinogen mutation after coagulation tests revealed a decreased functional fibrinogen level (family A)...
  3. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen concentration,..
  4. Jacquemin B, Antoniades C, Nyberg F, Plana E, Müller M, Greven S, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains affect fibrinogen levels and the response to proinflammatory stimulation in myocardial infarction survivors: the AIRGENE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:941-52 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene-cluster (fibrinogen chains alpha [FGA], beta [FGB], and gamma [FGG]) could explain the inter- and intraindividual ..
  5. Standeven K, Grant P, Carter A, Scheiner T, Weisel J, Ariens R. Functional analysis of the fibrinogen Aalpha Thr312Ala polymorphism: effects on fibrin structure and function. Circulation. 2003;107:2326-30 pubmed
    The fibrinogen Aalpha Thr312Ala polymorphism occurs within the alphaC domain of fibrinogen, which is important for lateral aggregation and factor XIII-induced cross-linking of fibrin fibers...
  6. Peters A, Greven S, Heid I, Baldari F, Breitner S, Bellander T, et al. Fibrinogen genes modify the fibrinogen response to ambient particulate matter. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:484-91 pubmed publisher
    Ambient particulate matter has been associated with systemic inflammation indicated by blood markers such as fibrinogen, implicated in promoting atherothrombosis...
  7. Siegerink B, Rosendaal F, Algra A. Genetic variation in fibrinogen; its relationship to fibrinogen levels and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..by common causes and reverse causation have been proposed as explanations for the association between high fibrinogen levels and cardiovascular disease...
  8. Tsurupa G, Tsonev L, Medved L. Structural organization of the fibrin(ogen) alpha C-domain. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6449-59 pubmed
    We hypothesized that the alpha C-domain of human fibrinogen (residues hA alpha 221-610) and of other species consists of a compact COOH-terminal region (hA alpha 392-610) and a flexible NH(2)-terminal connector region (hA alpha 221-391) ..
  9. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Lundman P, Samnegard A, Boquist S, Ericsson C, et al. Contribution of haplotypes across the fibrinogen gene cluster to variation in risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:570-7 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen has consistently been recognized as an independent predictor of myocardial infarction (MI)...
  10. Redman C, Xia H. Fibrinogen biosynthesis. Assembly, intracellular degradation, and association with lipid synthesis and secretion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;936:480-95 pubmed
    Plasma fibrinogen is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and assembly of the three component chains (A alpha, B beta, and gamma) into its final form as a six-chain dimer (A alpha, B beta, gamma)2 occurs rapidly in the lumen of the ..
  11. Tsurupa G, Medved L. Identification and characterization of novel tPA- and plasminogen-binding sites within fibrin(ogen) alpha C-domains. Biochemistry. 2001;40:801-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the fibrinogen alphaC-domains contain novel high-affinity tPA- and Pg-binding sites that play an important role in the ..
  12. Kotlin R, Suttnar J, Cápová I, Hrachovinova I, Urbánková M, Dyr J. Fibrinogen Šumperk II: dysfibrinogenemia in an individual with two coding mutations. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:555-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibrinogen—a 340-kDa glycoprotein—plays a crucial role in blood coagulation, platelet aggregation, wound healing, and other physiological processes...
  13. Huang S, Cao Z, Chung D, Davie E. The role of betagamma and alphagamma complexes in the assembly of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27942-7 pubmed
    The role of alphagamma and betagamma dimers as intermediates in the assembly of fibrinogen was examined in cell fusion experiments using stably transfected baby hamster kidney cell lines expressing one or combinations of fibrinogen chains...
  14. Doolittle R. Fibrinogen and fibrin. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984;53:195-229 pubmed
  15. Kardys I, Uitterlinden A, Hofman A, Witteman J, de Maat M. Fibrinogen gene haplotypes in relation to risk of coronary events and coronary and extracoronary atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:288-95 pubmed
    Fibrin network structure has been correlated with coronary disease. Fibrinogen gamma and alpha (FGG and FGA) gene haplotypes (chromosome 4q28) may be associated with fibrin network structure, and thereby with rigidity of the fibrin clot ..
  16. Suntharalingam J, Goldsmith K, Van Marion V, Long L, Treacy C, Dudbridge F, et al. Fibrinogen Aalpha Thr312Ala polymorphism is associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:736-41 pubmed
    ..inhibitor-1 4G/5G, tissue plasminogen activator 7351 cytosine (C)>thymidine (T), Factor XIII 100G>T, fibrinogen Aalpha substitution of threonine with alanine at position 312 (Thr312Ala), fibrinogen Bbeta substitution of ..
  17. Uitte de Willige S, de Visser M, Houwing Duistermaat J, Rosendaal F, Vos H, Bertina R. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels. Blood. 2005;106:4176-83 pubmed
    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis...
  18. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Biele J, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Fibrinogen genes and myocardial infarction: a haplotype analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:758-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibrinogen has a role in inflammatory processes and participates in atherosclerotic plaque formation...
  19. Carty C, Cushman M, Jones D, Lange L, Hindorff L, Rice K, et al. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:388-95 pubmed publisher
    Elevated plasma fibrinogen is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but associations between fibrinogen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease risk are inconsistent...
  20. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Leander K, Wiman B, de Faire U, Hamsten A, et al. The association between fibrinogen haplotypes and myocardial infarction in men is partly mediated through pleiotropic effects on the serum IL-6 concentration. J Intern Med. 2007;261:138-47 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen haplotypes have been associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), independently of plasma fibrinogen concentration, and experimental data indicate that fibrinogen exerts pleiotropic effects on interleukin 6 (IL-6) ..
  21. Siebenlist K, Prchal J, Mosesson M. Fibrinogen Birmingham: a heterozygous dysfibrinogenemia (A alpha 16 Arg----His) containing heterodimeric molecules. Blood. 1988;71:613-8 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen was isolated from the plasma of a 25-year-old female with a history of mild bleeding and several recent moderate to severe hemorrhagic episodes...
  22. Kotschy D, Kotschy M, Socha P, Masłowski L, Kwapisz J, Zuk N, et al. Tissue factor and other hemostatic parameters in patients with advanced peripheral artery disease after endovascular revascularization - search for hemostatic factors which indicate restenosis. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015;24:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, fibrinogen and D-dimers in the blood of patients with PAD after peripheral endovascular revascularization of the lower legs ..
  23. Galanakis D, Mosesson M. Human fibrinogen heterogeneities: determination of the major Aalpha chain derivatives in blood. Thromb Res. 1983;31:403-13 pubmed
    Most plasma fibrinogen molecules, when analyzed by Na Dod SO4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis migrate in three major positions, designated bands I, II, and III, respectively...
  24. Lord S. Fibrinogen and fibrin: scaffold proteins in hemostasis. Curr Opin Hematol. 2007;14:236-41 pubmed
    Elevated fibrinogen is a cardiovascular risk factor. Recent work provides a rationale for this risk, as abnormal fibrin clot structure, strength and stability correlates with coronary artery disease...
  25. Ono M, Matsubara J, Honda K, Sakuma T, Hashiguchi T, Nose H, et al. Prolyl 4-hydroxylation of alpha-fibrinogen: a novel protein modification revealed by plasma proteomics. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe successful detection of novel prolyl hydroxylation of alpha-fibrinogen using 2DICAL, based on comparison of plasma samples of 38 pancreatic cancer patients and 39 healthy subjects...
  26. Zhang Y, Liu S, Zhang Z, Tao X, Peng X, Kong Y. [Genetic Analysis of A Case of Congenital Dysfibrinogenemia Caused by Arg16His Mutation in Exon 2 of FGA]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2017;25:1514-1517 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the phenotype and genotype of a family with congenital dysfibrinogenemia...
  27. Bahadori B, Uitz E, Dehchamani D, Pilger E, Renner W. The fibrinogen gamma 10034C>T polymorphism is not associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease. Thromb Res. 2010;126:350-2 pubmed publisher
    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis and results in stabilization of the fibrin clot...
  28. Smith N, Huffman J, Strachan D, Huang J, Dehghan A, Trompet S, et al. Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults. Circulation. 2011;123:1864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..7 kb downstream of F5, coagulation factor V. At 4q32, rs13109457 (P=2.9×10(-18)) was located between 2 fibrinogen genes: 10.4 kb downstream from FGG and 3.0 kb upstream from FGA. Variants were associated with a 0.099-, 0...
  29. Alves C, Konstantopoulos K. PDGF suppresses the sulfation of CD44v and potentiates CD44v-mediated binding of colon carcinoma cells to fibrin under flow. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41472 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data offer a novel perspective into the mechanism by which PGDF regulates CD44-dependent binding of metastatic colon carcinoma cells to fibrin(ogen). ..
  30. Westbury S, Duval C, Philippou H, Brown R, Lee K, Murden S, et al. Partial deletion of the αC-domain in the Fibrinogen Perth variant is associated with thrombosis, increased clot strength and delayed fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost. 2013;110:1135-44 pubmed publisher
    Genetic fibrinogen (FGN) variants that are associated with bleeding or thrombosis may be informative about fibrin polymerisation, structure and fibrinolysis...
  31. Quinn T, Alghamdi J, Padmanabhan S, Porteous D, Smith B, Hocking L, et al. Association between cognition and gene polymorphisms involved in thrombosis and haemostasis. Age (Dordr). 2015;37:9820 pubmed publisher
    ..Our chosen blood factors and associated polymorphisms were D-dimer [rs12029080], fibrinogen [rs1800789], plasminogen activator inhibitor [rs2227631], and von Willebrand factor [rs1063857]...
  32. Zhang J, Nancy Xiaonan Y, Zhang J, Zhou M. Age stereotypes, flexible goal adjustment, and well-being among Chinese older adults. Psychol Health Med. 2018;23:210-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Tailored interventions to modify aging perceptions and to enhance coping flexibility competence might be helpful for promoting the well-being of older adults...
  33. Jones J, McGonigle N, McAnespie M, Cran G, Graham A. Plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein are associated with non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006;53:97-101 pubmed
    There is an association between coagulation and lung cancer. Therefore, pre-operative plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were assessed to determine their association with tumour characteristics and to ..
  34. Kathiresan S, Yang Q, Larson M, Camargo A, Tofler G, Hirschhorn J, et al. Common genetic variation in five thrombosis genes and relations to plasma hemostatic protein level and cardiovascular disease risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1405-12 pubmed
    ..In a reference panel, we characterized LD structure at the fibrinogen gene cluster (fibrinogen-beta[FGB], FGA, and FGG), factor VII (F7), and tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT) loci...
  35. Tsurupa G, Yakovlev S, Pechik I, Lamanuzzi L, Angles Cano E, Medved L. Interaction of fibrin(ogen) with apolipoprotein(a): further characterization and identification of a novel lysine-dependent apolipoprotein(a)-binding site within the gamma chain 287-411 region. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10624-32 pubmed
    ..The experiments revealed that the apo(a)-binding site, identified previously within fibrinogen gamma chain residues 207-235 [Klose, R., et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem...
  36. Wierzbicka I, Kowalska M, Lasz E, Farrell D, Budzynski A, Niewiarowski S. Interaction of beta 3 integrin-derived peptides 214-218 and 217-231 with alpha IIb beta 3 complex and with fibrinogen A alpha-chain. Thromb Res. 1997;85:115-26 pubmed
    ..3 integrin-derived peptides 214-218 and 217-231 have been shown previously to inhibit platelet aggregation and fibrinogen binding to platelets and to purified receptor...
  37. Reber P, Furlan M, Beck E, Barbui T. Fibrinogen Bergamo III and fibrinogen Torino: two further variants with hereditary molecular defects in fibrinopeptide A. Thromb Res. 1987;46:163-7 pubmed
  38. Menegatti M, Asselta R, Duga S, Malcovati M, Bucciarelli P, Mannucci P, et al. Identification of four novel polymorphisms in the Aalpha and gamma fibrinogen genes and analysis of association with plasma levels of the protein. Thromb Res. 2001;103:299-307 pubmed
    Four novel polymorphisms were identified in the fibrinogen gene cluster...
  39. Mathonnet F, Peltier J, Detruit H, de Raucourt E, Alvarez J, Mazmanian G, et al. Fibrinogen Saint-Germain I: a case of the heterozygous Aalpha GLY 12 --> VAL fibrinogen variant. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2002;13:149-53 pubmed
    A fibrinogen variant was suspected based on the results of routine coagulation tests in a 2-year-old asymptomatic child...
  40. Margaglione M, Vecchione G, Santacroce R, D Angelo F, Casetta B, Papa M, et al. A frameshift mutation in the human fibrinogen Aalpha-chain gene (Aalpha(499)Ala frameshift stop) leading to dysfibrinogen San Giovanni Rotondo. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:1483-8 pubmed
    We have investigated a 53-yr-old asymptomatic white man with decreased functional, but not immunologic, fibrinogen plasma levels together with prolonged thrombin and reptilase times, detected through routine coagulation studies prior to a ..
  41. Hoffmann D, Bijol V, Krishnamoorthy A, Gonzalez V, Frendl G, Zhang Q, et al. Fibrinogen excretion in the urine and immunoreactivity in the kidney serves as a translational biomarker for acute kidney injury. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:818-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibrinogen (Fg) is significantly up-regulated in the kidney after acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the performance of Fg as a biomarker for early detection of AKI...
  42. Watt K, Cottrell B, Strong D, Doolittle R. Amino acid sequence studies on the alpha chain of human fibrinogen. Overlapping sequences providing the complete sequence. Biochemistry. 1979;18:5410-6 pubmed
    The complete amino acid sequence of the alpha chain of human fibrinogen has been determined. It contains 610 amino acid residues and has a calculated molecular weight of 66,124...
  43. Wu W, Okamoto O, Kato A, Matsuo N, Nomizu M, Yoshioka H, et al. Dermatopontin regulates fibrin formation and its biological activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:256-263 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the fibrin-DP complex might become useful for developing an improved artificial matrix for improving wound healing. ..
  44. Szkandera J, Pichler M, Liegl Atzwanger B, Absenger G, Stotz M, Ploner F, et al. The elevated pre-operative plasma fibrinogen level is an independent negative prognostic factor for cancer-specific, disease-free and overall survival in soft-tissue sarcoma patients. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109:139-44 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence indicates an important pathophysiological role of fibrinogen on tumor cell progression and metastases in different types of cancer...
  45. Maekawa H, Yamazumi K, Muramatsu S, Kaneko M, Hirata H, Takahashi N, et al. Fibrinogen Lima: a homozygous dysfibrinogen with an A alpha-arginine-141 to serine substitution associated with extra N-glycosylation at A alpha-asparagine-139. Impaired fibrin gel formation but normal fibrin-facilitated plasminogen activation cataly. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:67-76 pubmed
    An A alpha-arginine-141 to serine substitution has been identified in a homozygous dysfibrinogen, fibrinogen Lima, associated with impaired fibrin polymerization...
  46. Koopman J, Haverkate F, Grimbergen J, Egbring R, Lord S. Fibrinogen Marburg: a homozygous case of dysfibrinogenemia, lacking amino acids A alpha 461-610 (Lys 461 AAA-->stop TAA). Blood. 1992;80:1972-9 pubmed
    In the A alpha-chain gene coding for an abnormal fibrinogen (fibrinogen Marburg) we identified a single base substitution (A-->T) that changes the codon A alpha 461 AAA (Lys) to TAA (Stop)...
  47. Blomback B, Hessel B, Hogg D. Disulfide bridges in nh2 -terminal part of human fibrinogen. Thromb Res. 1976;8:639-58 pubmed
  48. Fernandes M, Husi H. Integrative Systems Biology Investigation of Fabry Disease. Diseases. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ....
  49. Lee D, Lee J, Jeong Y, Byun G, Kim J. Melanogenesis inhibition activity of floralginsenoside A from Panax ginseng berry. J Ginseng Res. 2017;41:602-607 pubmed publisher
    ..i>P. ginseng contains various ginsenosides with pharmacological effects. In this study, floralginsenoside A (FGA), ginsenoside Rd (GRD), and ginsenoside Re (GRE) were purified from P. ginseng berry...
  50. Everse S, Spraggon G, Veerapandian L, Doolittle R. Conformational changes in fragments D and double-D from human fibrin(ogen) upon binding the peptide ligand Gly-His-Arg-Pro-amide. Biochemistry. 1999;38:2941-6 pubmed
    ..Additionally, in the absence of the peptide ligand GPRPam, GHRPam binds to the gamma-chain pocket, a new calcium-binding site being formed concomitantly. ..
  51. Neerman Arbez M, de Moerloose P, Bridel C, Honsberger A, Schönbörner A, Rossier C, et al. Mutations in the fibrinogen aalpha gene account for the majority of cases of congenital afibrinogenemia. Blood. 2000;96:149-52 pubmed
    ..afibrinogenemia is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder characterized by the complete absence of detectable fibrinogen. We previously identified the first causative mutations in a nonconsanguineous Swiss family; the 4 affected ..
  52. Hanss M, Pouymayou C, Blouch M, Lellouche F, Ffrench P, Rousson R, et al. The natural occurrence of human fibrinogen variants disrupting inter-chain disulfide bonds (A{alpha}Cys36Gly, A{alpha}Cys36Arg and A{alpha}Cys45Tyr) confirms the role of N-terminal A{alpha} disulfide bonds in protein assembly and secretion. Haematologica. 2011;96:1226-30 pubmed publisher
    Analyses of site-directed fibrinogen mutants expressed in several recombinant models have previously shown that both inter- and intra-chain disulfide bonds are critical for fibrinogen assembly and secretion...
  53. Bolliger Stucki B, Lord S, Furlan M. Fibrinogen Milano XII: a dysfunctional variant containing 2 amino acid substitutions, Aalpha R16C and gamma G165R. Blood. 2001;98:351-7 pubmed
    b>Fibrinogen Milano XII was detected in an asymptomatic Italian woman, whose routine coagulation test results revealed a prolonged thrombin time...
  54. Ljungman P, Bellander T, Schneider A, Breitner S, Forastiere F, Hampel R, et al. Modification of the interleukin-6 response to air pollution by interleukin-6 and fibrinogen polymorphisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether IL6 and fibrinogen gene variants can affect plasma IL-6 responses to air pollution in patients with cardiovascular disease...
  55. Kain K, Blaxill J, Catto A, Grant P, Carter A. Increased fibrinogen levels among South Asians versus Whites in the United Kingdom are not explained by common polymorphisms. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:174-9 pubmed
    Determinants of fibrinogen level among South Asians are not established...
  56. Kostelansky M, Betts L, Gorkun O, Lord S. 2.8 A crystal structures of recombinant fibrinogen fragment D with and without two peptide ligands: GHRP binding to the "b" site disrupts its nearby calcium-binding site. Biochemistry. 2002;41:12124-32 pubmed
    We report two crystal structures, each at a resolution of 2.8 A, of recombinant human fibrinogen fragment D (rfD) in the absence and presence of peptide ligands...
  57. Ivaskevicius V, Jusciute E, Steffens M, Geisen C, Hanfland P, Wienker T, et al. gammaAla82Gly represents a common fibrinogen gamma-chain variant in Caucasians. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2005;16:205-8 pubmed
    Screening of 200 blood donors for the presence of polymorphisms in three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG), revealed two individuals with a heterozygous missense mutation (c.323C > G, gammaAla82Gly) in the FGG gene...
  58. Vorjohann S, Fish R, Biron Andreani C, Nagaswami C, Weisel J, Boulot P, et al. Hypodysfibrinogenaemia due to production of mutant fibrinogen alpha-chains lacking fibrinopeptide A and polymerisation knob 'A'. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:990-7 pubmed publisher
    Inherited disorders of fibrinogen are rare and affect either the quantity (hypofibrinogenaemia and afibrinogenaemia) or the quality of the circulating fibrinogen (dysfibrinogenaemia) or both (hypodysfibrinogenaemia)...
  59. Ni Y, Hu D, Yu H, Li C, Liu W, Wang H, et al. Association of genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and platelet glycoprotein genes with unstable angina in Chinese patients. Clin Cardiol. 2004;27:455-8 pubmed
    ..of the platelet glycoprotein [GP] Ib alpha gene, Pl(A1/A2) of the platelet GP IIIa gene, 448G/A of the Bbeta fibrinogen gene and Thr312Ala of the Aalpha fibrinogen gene) in Chinese patients with UA...
  60. Dzyubenko E, Juckel G, Faissner A. The antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol modify network connectivity and spontaneous activity of neural networks in vitro. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11609 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that FGAs and SGAs differentially affect the balance between inhibition and excitation in hippocampal networks. ..
  61. Platè M, Asselta R, Spena S, Spreafico M, Fagoonee S, Peyvandi F, et al. Congenital hypofibrinogenemia: characterization of two missense mutations affecting fibrinogen assembly and secretion. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;41:292-7 pubmed publisher
    Congenital hypofibrinogenemia is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of fibrinogen in plasma, generally due to heterozygous mutations in one of the three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, and FGG, coding for Aalpha, ..
  62. Lominadze D, Tsakadze N, Sen U, Falcone J, D Souza S. Fibrinogen and fragment D-induced vascular constriction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H1257-64 pubmed
    Elevated fibrinogen (Fg) concentration in blood is a high risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases...