FGG

Summary

Gene Symbol: FGG
Description: fibrinogen gamma chain
Alias: fibrinogen gamma chain, fibrinogen, gamma polypeptide, testicular tissue protein Li 70
Species: human
Products:     FGG

Top Publications

  1. Mosesson M. Fibrinogen gamma chain functions. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:231-8 pubmed
  2. Uitte de Willige S, de Visser M, Houwing Duistermaat J, Rosendaal F, Vos H, Bertina R. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels. Blood. 2005;106:4176-83 pubmed
    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis...
  3. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Ericsson C, Hamsten A, Silveira A. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:420-7 pubmed
    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen ..
  4. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Biele J, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. Fibrinogen genes and myocardial infarction: a haplotype analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..12). A haplotype analysis did not reveal a link between genetic variations in the fibrinogen gene region and myocardial infarction. ..
  5. Carty C, Cushman M, Jones D, Lange L, Hindorff L, Rice K, et al. Associations between common fibrinogen gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether common (> or = 5% minor allele frequency) variation in the fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) is associated with fibrinogen concentration, carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) and risk of incident ..
  6. Roy S, Yu S, Banerjee D, Overton O, Mukhopadhyay G, Oddoux C, et al. Assembly and secretion of fibrinogen. Degradation of individual chains. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:23151-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together these studies indicate that B beta and gamma chains are degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum, but only B beta is bound to BiP. By contrast A alpha chains and the A alpha-gamma complex undergo lysosomal degradation. ..
  7. Chung D, Davie E. gamma and gamma' chains of human fibrinogen are produced by alternative mRNA processing. Biochemistry. 1984;23:4232-6 pubmed
    ..These mRNAs code for polypeptide chains with different carboxyl-terminal sequences. Both of these polypeptides are incorporated into the fibrinogen molecule present in plasma. ..
  8. Huang S, Cao Z, Chung D, Davie E. The role of betagamma and alphagamma complexes in the assembly of human fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27942-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the role of alphagamma and betagamma complexes as functional intermediates in the assembly of fibrinogen. ..
  9. Boekholdt S, Bijsterveld N, Moons A, Levi M, Buller H, Peters R. Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins and their relation with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review. Circulation. 2001;104:3063-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of clinical implications, our results indicate that screening of patients with myocardial infarction for these genetic variations is not warranted. ..

More Information

Publications272 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Lundman P, Samnegard A, Boquist S, Ericsson C, et al. Contribution of haplotypes across the fibrinogen gene cluster to variation in risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2005;93:570-7 pubmed
    ..Candidate regions in the fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB) genes were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  2. Mannila M, Eriksson P, Leander K, Wiman B, de Faire U, Hamsten A, et al. The association between fibrinogen haplotypes and myocardial infarction in men is partly mediated through pleiotropic effects on the serum IL-6 concentration. J Intern Med. 2007;261:138-47 pubmed
    ..case-control study (a substudy to the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program), the effects of the fibrinogen gamma (FGG) 9340T>C [rs1049636], fibrinogen alpha (FGA) 2224G>A [rs2070011] and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] htSNPs on ..
  3. Kardys I, Uitterlinden A, Hofman A, Witteman J, de Maat M. Fibrinogen gene haplotypes in relation to risk of coronary events and coronary and extracoronary atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:288-95 pubmed
    Fibrin network structure has been correlated with coronary disease. Fibrinogen gamma and alpha (FGG and FGA) gene haplotypes (chromosome 4q28) may be associated with fibrin network structure, and thereby with rigidity of the fibrin clot ..
  4. Jacquemin B, Antoniades C, Nyberg F, Plana E, Müller M, Greven S, et al. Common genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha, beta, and gamma chains affect fibrinogen levels and the response to proinflammatory stimulation in myocardial infarction survivors: the AIRGENE study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:941-52 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) and haplotypes of the fibrinogen gene-cluster (fibrinogen chains alpha [FGA], beta [FGB], and gamma [FGG]) could explain the inter- and intraindividual variability of fibrinogen levels in patients with atherosclerosis...
  5. Uitte de Willige S, Pyle M, Vos H, de Visser M, Lally C, Dowling N, et al. Fibrinogen gamma gene 3'-end polymorphisms and risk of venous thromboembolism in the African-American and Caucasian population. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:1078-84 pubmed
    ..It was recently shown that fibrinogen gamma gene (FGG) polymorphisms 10034C>T and 9340T>C influence VTE risk in the Caucasian population...
  6. Tang W, Teichert M, Chasman D, Heit J, Morange P, Li G, et al. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. Genet Epidemiol. 2013;37:512-521 pubmed publisher
    ..significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both)...
  7. Dragan I, Hotlzman L, Karimbux N, Morin R, Bassir S. Clinical Outcomes of Comparing Soft Tissue Alternatives to Free Gingival Graft: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis?. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2017;17:370-380.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..width of keratinized tissue (KT) around teeth, following the soft tissue alter- natives and free gingival graft (FGG) procedures...
  8. Madi M, Kassem A. Topical simvastatin gel as a novel therapeutic modality for palatal donor site wound healing following free gingival graft procedure. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-oral topical application of simvastatin/chitosan gel (10?mg/mL) over the palatal donor site following free gingival graft (FGG) procedure.
  9. Ugarova T, Solovjov D, Zhang L, Loukinov D, Yee V, Medved L, et al. Identification of a novel recognition sequence for integrin alphaM beta2 within the gamma-chain of fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22519-27 pubmed
    ..The juxtapositioning of these two sequences may form an unique and complex binding site for alphaM beta2. ..
  10. Everse S. New insights into fibrin (ogen) structure and function. Vox Sang. 2002;83 Suppl 1:375-82 pubmed
  11. Sari S, Yilmaz G, Gonul I, Dalgic B, Akyol G, Giovannoni I, et al. Fibrinogen storage disease and cirrhosis associated with hypobetalipoproteinemia owing to fibrinogen Aguadilla in a Turkish child. Liver Int. 2015;35:2501-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Arg375Trp (fibrinogen Aguadilla) in the γ-chain of the fibrinogen (FGG) gene. Clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings of the patient were documented...
  12. Yan J, Deng D, Deng X, Luo M, Cheng P, Liao L, et al. [Analysis of a family with congenital dysfibrinogenemia caused by an Arg275His mutation in the gamma chain of fibrinogen]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2016;33:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arg275His mutation of the fibrinogen gamma chain probably underlies the pathogenesis of congenital dysfibrinogenemia in this family.
  13. Bantia S, Bell W, Dang C. Polymerization defect of fibrinogen Baltimore III due to a gamma Asn308----Ile mutation. Blood. 1990;75:1659-63 pubmed
  14. Reiner A, Carty C, Carlson C, Wan J, Rieder M, Smith J, et al. Association between patterns of nucleotide variation across the three fibrinogen genes and plasma fibrinogen levels: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1279-87 pubmed
    ..by incomplete knowledge of genomic sequence variation within and between major ethnic groups in FGB, FGA, and FGG. We characterized the linkage disequilibrium patterns and haplotype structure across the human fibrinogen gene ..
  15. Razali N, Abdul Aziz A, Lim C, Mat Junit S. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells. Peerj. 2015;3:e1292 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated...
  16. Sakaue T, Nakaoka H, Shikata F, Aono J, Kurata M, Uetani T, et al. Biochemical and histological evidence of deteriorated bioprosthetic valve leaflets: the accumulation of fibrinogen and plasminogen. Biol Open. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..major bands with considerably increased intensity in BV leaflets that were identified as plasminogen and fibrinogen gamma chain (100?kDa), and fibrinogen beta chain (50 and 37?kDa) by mass analysis...
  17. Litvinov R, Gorkun O, Galanakis D, Yakovlev S, Medved L, Shuman H, et al. Polymerization of fibrin: Direct observation and quantification of individual B:b knob-hole interactions. Blood. 2007;109:130-8 pubmed
    ..These results directly demonstrate for the first time B:b binding mediated by natural B-knobs exposed in a fibrin monomer. ..
  18. Rosenfeld M, Leonova V, Shchegolikhin A, Bychkova A, Kostanova E, Biryukova M. Covalent structure of single-stranded fibrin oligomers cross-linked by FXIIIa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;461:408-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study provide an extra evidence to support the model of the longitudinal γ-γ bonds that form between the γ chains end-to-end within the same strand of a protofibril. ..
  19. Zhu L, Zhao M, Lin J, Wang Y, Xie H, Xie Y, et al. [Analysis of molecular pathogenesis and clinical phenotypes in 10 probands with inherited fibrinogen deficiency]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2015;32:793-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of the Fg gene seem to aggregate to the D region of FGG in our region, and Arg275 is a common mutation...
  20. Lim H, An S, Lee D. A retrospective comparison of three modalities for vestibuloplasty in the posterior mandible: apically positioned flap only vs. free gingival graft vs. collagen matrix. Clin Oral Investig. 2018;22:2121-2128 pubmed publisher
    ..gingiva were divided into three groups: apically positioned flap only (APF group), APF with free gingival graft (FGG group), and APF with collagen matrix (CM group)...
  21. Conklin L, Merkel P, Pachman L, Parikh H, Tawalbeh S, Damsker J, et al. Serum biomarkers of glucocorticoid response and safety in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and juvenile dermatomyositis. Steroids. 2018;140:159-166 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine, interleukin-22 binding protein, matrix metalloproteinase-12, T lymphocyte surface antigen Ly9, fibrinogen gamma chain, angiopoietin-2 [all decreased], and protein C [increased]), as were 5 of 7 safety biomarkers (P-value ≤..
  22. Colombo G, Clerici M, Giustarini D, Portinaro N, Badalamenti S, Rossi R, et al. A central role for intermolecular dityrosine cross-linking of fibrinogen in high molecular weight advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) formation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight that oxidized fibrinogen, instead of HSA, is the key protein for intermolecular dityrosine formation in human plasma. ..
  23. Olexa S, Budzynski A. Localization of a fibrin polymerization site. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:3544-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore the gamma 373-410 region of fibrinogen contains a polymerization site which is complementary to the thrombin-activated site on the NH2-terminal region of fibrinogen. ..
  24. Everse S, Spraggon G, Veerapandian L, Doolittle R. Conformational changes in fragments D and double-D from human fibrin(ogen) upon binding the peptide ligand Gly-His-Arg-Pro-amide. Biochemistry. 1999;38:2941-6 pubmed
    ..Additionally, in the absence of the peptide ligand GPRPam, GHRPam binds to the gamma-chain pocket, a new calcium-binding site being formed concomitantly. ..
  25. Podor T, Campbell S, Chindemi P, Foulon D, Farrell D, Walton P, et al. Incorporation of vitronectin into fibrin clots. Evidence for a binding interaction between vitronectin and gamma A/gamma' fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7520-8 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal that vitronectin associates with fibrin during coagulation, and may thereby modulate hemostasis and inflammation. ..
  26. Kathiresan S, Yang Q, Larson M, Camargo A, Tofler G, Hirschhorn J, et al. Common genetic variation in five thrombosis genes and relations to plasma hemostatic protein level and cardiovascular disease risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1405-12 pubmed
    ..In a reference panel, we characterized LD structure at the fibrinogen gene cluster (fibrinogen-beta[FGB], FGA, and FGG), factor VII (F7), and tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT) loci...
  27. Jiang J, Liu K, Zou J, Ma H, Yang H, Zhang X, et al. Associations between polymorphisms in coagulation-related genes and venous thromboembolism: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6537 pubmed publisher
    ..associations between the endothelial cell-activated protein C receptor (EPCR) rs9574, F11 rs2289252, F11 rs2036914, FGG rs2066865, FGG rs1049636, CYP4V2 rs13146272, SERPINC1 rs2227589, and GP6 rs1613662 polymorphisms with the risk of ..
  28. Lee E, Yang S, Kim K, Cha H, Lee S, Kim J, et al. Inter-alpha Inhibitor H4 as a Potential Biomarker Predicting the Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancer Res Treat. 2018;50:646-657 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of inter-alpha inhibitor H4 (ITIH4), fibrinogen gamma chain, keratin 9/1 complex, carbonic anhydrase I, and carbonmonoxyhemoglobin S were changed by more than 4-fold ..
  29. Callea F, Giovannoni I, Sari S, Guldal E, Dalgic B, Akyol G, et al. Fibrinogen Gamma Chain Mutations Provoke Fibrinogen and Apolipoprotein B Plasma Deficiency and Liver Storage. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of protein structures unraveled the pathomorphogenesis of this unexpected phenomenon. Fibrinogen gamma chain mutations provoke conformational changes in the region of the globular domain involved in the "end-to-end" ..
  30. Moaddel M, Farrell D, Daugherty M, Fried M. Interactions of human fibrinogens with factor XIII: roles of calcium and the gamma' peptide. Biochemistry. 2000;39:6698-705 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this notion, a synthetic 20-residue polypeptide containing the gamma' sequence was found to associate with factor XIII in a 2:1 molar ratio and act as an efficient competitor for fibrinogen gamma(A)/gamma' binding. ..
  31. Alves C, Konstantopoulos K. PDGF suppresses the sulfation of CD44v and potentiates CD44v-mediated binding of colon carcinoma cells to fibrin under flow. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41472 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data offer a novel perspective into the mechanism by which PGDF regulates CD44-dependent binding of metastatic colon carcinoma cells to fibrin(ogen). ..
  32. Smalberg J, Koehler E, Darwish Murad S, Plessier A, Seijo S, Trebicka J, et al. Fibrinogen γ' and variation in fibrinogen gamma genes in the etiology of portal vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 2013;109:558-60 pubmed publisher
  33. Wu W, Okamoto O, Kato A, Matsuo N, Nomizu M, Yoshioka H, et al. Dermatopontin regulates fibrin formation and its biological activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:256-263 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the fibrin-DP complex might become useful for developing an improved artificial matrix for improving wound healing. ..
  34. Mosesson M, Cooley B, Hernandez I, DiOrio J, Weiler H. Thrombosis risk modification in transgenic mice containing the human fibrinogen thrombin-binding gamma' chain sequence. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Murine hu-gamma' fibrinogen down-regulates venous thrombosis in the presence of another known thrombosis risk factor, FV Leiden. This finding indicates that hu-gamma' chain-containing fibrinogen is a thrombosis risk modifier. ..
  35. Brennan S, Davis R. Substitution (γ335Trp→Arg) in fibrinogen Fremantle causes diminished γ chain expression and increased sialic acid content. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:1274-6 pubmed publisher
  36. Dumke R, Hausner M, Jacobs E. Role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in mediating interactions with the human extracellular matrix. Microbiology. 2011;157:2328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the surface-exposed fraction of GAPDH may be a factor that contributes to the successful colonization of the human respiratory tract by M. pneumoniae...
  37. Liu A, Tanaka N, Sun L, Guo B, Kim J, Krausz K, et al. Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;223:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..genes of NF-κB, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine Il6 and Ccl2, and those of STAT3, such as Socs3, Fga, Fgb and Fgg. SSd also enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 mRNA...
  38. Casini A, Neerman Arbez M, Ariëns R, de Moerloose P. Dysfibrinogenemia: from molecular anomalies to clinical manifestations and management. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:909-19 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormalities, which are frequently heterozygous missense mutations localized in exon 2 of FGA and exon 8 of FGG, lead to defects in one or more phases of fibrinogen to fibrin conversion, fibrin network formation, and other ..
  39. Hiong K, Tan X, Boo M, Wong W, Chew S, Ip Y. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. J Exp Biol. 2015;218:3717-28 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA ..
  40. Siebenlist K, Meh D, Mosesson M. Plasma factor XIII binds specifically to fibrinogen molecules containing gamma chains. Biochemistry. 1996;35:10448-53 pubmed
  41. Guo M, Daines D, Tang J, Shen Q, Perrin R, Takada Y, et al. Fibrinogen-gamma C-terminal fragments induce endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular leak via integrin-mediated and RhoA-dependent mechanism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:394-400 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to characterize the direct effect of the C-terminal fragment of fibrinogen gamma chain (gammaC) on microvascular endothelial permeability and to examine its molecular mechanism of action...
  42. Moriarty R, McManus C, Lambert M, Tilley T, Devocelle M, Brennan M, et al. A novel role for the fibrinogen Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif in platelet function. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:290-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the NGR motif in fibrinogen is the site that is primarily responsible for the interaction with resting αIIbβ3 and is responsible for triggering platelet activation. ..
  43. Suchoń P, Al Frouh F, Ibrahim M, Sarlon G, Venton G, Alessi M, et al. Genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis in women using combined oral contraceptives: update of the PILGRIM study. Clin Genet. 2017;91:131-136 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine polymorphisms located on KNG1, F11, F5, F2, PROCR, FGG, TSPAN and SLC44A2 genes were genotyped in a sample of 766 patients and 464 controls as part of the PILGRIM (PILl ..
  44. Ivaskevicius V, Ruhl H, Detarsio G, Biswas A, Gupta S, Davoli M, et al. A novel missense mutation in the FGB gene (p.Gly302Arg) leading to afibrinogenemia. Predicted structure and function consequences. Hamostaseologie. 2016;36:S34-S38 pubmed
    ..The propositus was a 26-year-old Argentinian with afibrinogenemia. FGA, FGB and FGG exons and flanking regions were screened by sequencing and the mutant protein was analyzed in silico...
  45. Uitte de Willige S, Doggen C, De Visser M, Bertina R, Rosendaal F. Haplotypes of the fibrinogen gamma gene do not affect the risk of myocardial infarction. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:474-6 pubmed
  46. Germain M, Saut N, Greliche N, Dina C, Lambert J, Perret C, et al. Genetics of venous thrombosis: insights from a new genome wide association study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25581 pubmed publisher
    ..0×10(-8) and encompassed four known VT-associated loci, ABO, F5, F11 and FGG. By means of haplotype analyses, we also provided novel arguments in favor of a role of HIVEP1, PROCR and STAB2, ..
  47. Cronjé H, Nienaber Rousseau C, Zandberg L, Chikowore T, de Lange Z, van Zyl T, et al. Candidate gene analysis of the fibrinogen phenotype reveals the importance of polygenic co-regulation. Matrix Biol. 2017;60-61:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-eight SNPs spanning the APOB, APOE, CBS, CRP, F13A1, FGA, FGB, FGG, LDL-R, MTHFR, MTR, PCSK-9 and SERPINE-1 genes were included in the final analysis...
  48. de Resende D, Greghi S, Siqueira A, Benfatti C, Damante C, Ragghianti Zangrando M. Acellular dermal matrix allograft versus free gingival graft: a histological evaluation and split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2019;23:539-550 pubmed publisher
    ..and histological results of acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADM) compared to autogenous free gingival graft (FGG) for keratinized tissue augmentation...
  49. Zou Y, Gong P, Zhao W, Zhang J, Wu X, Xin C, et al. Quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of piperine protected cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat brain. Neurochem Int. 2018;124:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..a number of critical factors in the complement and coagulation cascades, including complement component 3, fibrinogen gamma chain, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and serpin family A member 1...
  50. Plow E, Srouji A, Meyer D, Marguerie G, Ginsberg M. Evidence that three adhesive proteins interact with a common recognition site on activated platelets. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:5388-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results suggest that the three adhesive glycoproteins share a common site on thrombin-activated platelets, and a 10-amino acid peptide, corresponding to gamma 402-411, defines the recognition specificity of this site. ..
  51. Hong L, Li X, Luo S, Guo Y, Zhu C, Qing P, et al. Association of fibrinogen with severity of stable coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus. Dis Markers. 2014;2014:485687 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data indicated that plasma fibrinogen, a readily measurable systematic inflammatory marker, appeared to be an independent predictor for the severity of CAD in diabetic patients. ..
  52. Li H, He Y, Di C, Yan J, Zhang H. Comparative analysis of the serum proteome for biomarker discovery to reveal hepatotoxicity induced by iron ion radiation in mice. Life Sci. 2016;167:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..3, serum amyloid P-component, apolipoprotein E, alpha-2-macroglobulin, fibrinogen alpha chain, and fibrinogen gamma chain. All of these proteins are synthesized by the liver, and may play an important role in liver toxicity...
  53. Zhu L, Zhao M, Wang M, Lou Z, Chen X, Pan L, et al. Congenital hypodysfibrinogenemia associated with a novel deletion of three residues (γAla289_Asp291del) in fibrinogen. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2018;46:211-218 pubmed publisher
    ..All the exons and exon-intron boundaries of fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB and FGG) were analysed by direct DNA sequencing...
  54. Kitamura Y, Kojima M, Kurosawa T, Sasaki R, Ichihara S, Hiraku Y, et al. Proteomic Profiling of Exosomal Proteins for Blood-based Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease. Neuroscience. 2018;392:121-128 pubmed publisher
    ..77, p < 0.01). Fibrinogen gamma chain in plasma was also decreased in PD patients at HY stages II and III compared to healthy subjects...
  55. Zhou W, Luo M, Yan J, Xiang L, Wei A, Deng X, et al. A novel fibrinogen gamma-chain mutation, p.Cys165Arg, causes disruption of the γ165Cys-Bβ227Cys disulfide bond and ultimately leads to hypofibrinogenemia. Thromb Res. 2018;172:128-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation sites in all exons and flanking sequences of FGA, FGB, and FGG were identified, with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) ..
  56. Laudano A, Doolittle R. Studies on synthetic peptides that bind to fibrinogen and prevent fibrin polymerization. Structural requirements, number of binding sites, and species differences. Biochemistry. 1980;19:1013-9 pubmed
  57. Hanss M, Chevreaud C, French P, Negrier C, De Mazancourt P. Clinical and biological features of 3 cases of hypofibrinogenemia associated with three different mutations (gamma Ala341Thr, Bbeta Tyr326Cys and Aalpha Asp496Asn). Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:689-91 pubmed
  58. Lovely R, Rein C, White T, Jouihan S, Boshkov L, Bakke A, et al. gammaA/gamma' fibrinogen inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:837-46 pubmed
    ..Thrombin that is bound to the gamma' chain is thereby prevented from activating platelets, while retaining its amidolytic activity. ..
  59. Pini Prato G, Magnani C, Zaheer F, Rotundo R, Buti J. Influence of inter-dental tissues and root surface condition on complete root coverage following treatment of gingival recessions: a 1-year retrospective study. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on type of root coverage procedure four patient groups were created: free gingival graft (FGG) (n = 116), coronally advanced flap (CAF) (n = 107), CAF+connective tissue graft (CTG) (n = 131), and guided tissue ..
  60. Keskiner I, Aydogdu A, Balli U, Kaleli A. Quantitative changes in palatal donor site thickness after free gingival graft harvesting: a pilot study. J Clin Periodontol. 2016;43:976-984 pubmed publisher
    ..over time and at different points of donor site in spontaneous palatal wound healing after free gingival graft (FGG) harvesting...
  61. Yeung E, Treskes P, Martin S, Manning J, Dunbar D, Rogers S, et al. Fibrinogen production is enhanced in an in-vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events?. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:86 pubmed publisher
    ..2 fold), fibrinogen beta chain (2.3 fold) and fibrinogen gamma chain (2.1 fold) (all rank products pfp <0.05)...
  62. Fujihara N, Haneishi A, Yamauchi K, Terasawa F, Ito T, Ishida F, et al. A C-terminal amino acid substitution in the gamma-chain caused by a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation (Fibrinogen Matsumoto VII) results in hypofibrinogenaemia. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..7651 in FGG and a subsequent frameshift mutation in codon 387 of the gamma-chain...
  63. Alexander K, Madden T, Farrell D. Association between γ' fibrinogen levels and inflammation. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:605-9 pubmed publisher
  64. Zhmurov A, Brown A, Litvinov R, Dima R, Weisel J, Barsegov V. Mechanism of fibrin(ogen) forced unfolding. Structure. 2011;19:1615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important characteristics of the fibrin(ogen) nanomechanics necessary to understand the molecular origins of fibrin viscoelasticity at the fiber and whole clot levels. ..
  65. Gao J, Deng B, Qin Y, Wang H, Li X. Efficient Terahertz Wide-Angle NUFFT-Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging Considering Spherical Wavefront. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16: pubmed
    ..Then, to speed up the reconstruction procedure, the fast Gaussian gridding (FGG)-based nonuniform FFT (NUFFT) is employed to focus the image...
  66. Fornace A, Cummings D, Comeau C, Kant J, Crabtree G. Structure of the human gamma-fibrinogen gene. Alternate mRNA splicing near the 3' end of the gene produces gamma A and gamma B forms of gamma-fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12826-30 pubmed
    ..The new carboxyl terminus is 16 amino acids longer than the gamma A protein, and although there is only minimal homology between the rat and human carboxyl termini they share a very high proportion of acidic amino acids. ..
  67. Olaisen B, Teisberg P, Gedde Dahl T. Fibrinogen gamma chain locus is on chromosome 4 in man. Hum Genet. 1982;61:24-6 pubmed
    ..in approximately 30 marker systems, and linkage studies have shown close linkage between the gamma-chain locus (FGG) and MNSs...
  68. Menegatti M, Asselta R, Duga S, Malcovati M, Bucciarelli P, Mannucci P, et al. Identification of four novel polymorphisms in the Aalpha and gamma fibrinogen genes and analysis of association with plasma levels of the protein. Thromb Res. 2001;103:299-307 pubmed
    ..In the multivariate linear regression analysis, no statistically significant association with plasma fibrinogen levels was found. ..
  69. Orr A, Ginsberg M, Shattil S, Deckmyn H, Schwartz M. Matrix-specific suppression of integrin activation in shear stress signaling. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4686-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, integrins actively cross-inhibit through specific kinase pathways. These mechanisms may determine cellular responses to complex extracellular matrices. ..
  70. Albrecht U, Yang X, Asselta R, Keitel V, Tenchini M, Ludwig S, et al. Activation of NF-kappaB by IL-1beta blocks IL-6-induced sustained STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent gene expression of the human gamma-fibrinogen gene. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1866-78 pubmed
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    ..Therefore, disruption of IL-6 signaling by CDK9 inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory disease. ..
  72. Bruzelius M, Bottai M, Sabater Lleal M, Strawbridge R, Bergendal A, Silveira A, et al. Predicting venous thrombosis in women using a combination of genetic markers and clinical risk factors. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13:219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven SNPs (F5 rs6025, F2 rs1799963, ABO rs514659, FGG rs2066865, F11 rs2289252, PROC rs1799810 and KNG1 rs710446) with four SNP-SNP interactions contributed to the ..
  73. Koopman J, Haverkate F, Briet E, Lord S. A congenitally abnormal fibrinogen (Vlissingen) with a 6-base deletion in the gamma-chain gene, causing defective calcium binding and impaired fibrin polymerization. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:13456-61 pubmed
  74. Terukina S, Yamazumi K, Okamoto K, Yamashita H, Ito Y, Matsuda M. Fibrinogen Kyoto III: a congenital dysfibrinogen with a gamma aspartic acid-330 to tyrosine substitution manifesting impaired fibrin monomer polymerization. Blood. 1989;74:2681-7 pubmed
    ..86) to a tyrosine (pK for the aromatic hydroxyl = 10.07) may have perturbed the folding gamma chain structure in the D domain of fibrinogen specifically required for polymerization. ..
  75. Yoshida N, Ota K, Moroi M, Matsuda M. An apparently higher molecular weight gamma-chain variant in a new congenital abnormal fibrinogen Tochigi characterized by the replacement of gamma arginine-275 by cysteine. Blood. 1988;71:480-7 pubmed
    ..The propositus' two daughters had the same abnormal fibrinogen. This unique inherited abnormal fibrinogen was designated as fibrinogen Tochigi, and the gamma-chain variant as gamma Tochigi. ..
  76. Henschen A, Lottspeich F, Kehl M, Southan C. Covalent structure of fibrinogen. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1983;408:28-43 pubmed
  77. Yakovlev S, Zhang L, Ugarova T, Medved L. Interaction of fibrin(ogen) with leukocyte receptor alpha M beta 2 (Mac-1): further characterization and identification of a novel binding region within the central domain of the fibrinogen gamma-module. Biochemistry. 2005;44:617-26 pubmed
    ..The only alpha(M)I-binding activity was associated with the gamma228-253 peptide, indicating that this region of the central domain contains a novel alpha(M)beta(2)-binding sequence. ..
  78. Ivaskevicius V, Jusciute E, Steffens M, Geisen C, Hanfland P, Wienker T, et al. gammaAla82Gly represents a common fibrinogen gamma-chain variant in Caucasians. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2005;16:205-8 pubmed
    Screening of 200 blood donors for the presence of polymorphisms in three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB, FGG), revealed two individuals with a heterozygous missense mutation (c.323C > G, gammaAla82Gly) in the FGG gene...
  79. Si C, Li J, Luo Q, Hou C, Pan T, Li H, et al. An ion signal responsive dynamic protein nano-spring constructed by high ordered host-guest recognition. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:2924-7 pubmed publisher
    ..self-assembly nano-spring was developed through host-guest interactions between cucurbit[8]uril and tripeptide FGG tags of fusion protein FGG-recoverin-GST...
  80. Arora D, Siddiqui M, Sharma P, Singh S, Tripathi A, Mandal P, et al. Evaluation and physiological correlation of plasma proteomic fingerprints for deltamethrin-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Life Sci. 2016;160:72-83 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (Apolipoprotein-AIV, Apolipoprotein E, Haptoglobin, Hemopexin, Vitamin D Binding protein, and Fibrinogen gamma chain) were significantly (p<0.05) modulated in DLM treated groups in a dose-dependent manner...
  81. Paraboschi E, Duga S, Asselta R. Fibrinogen as a Pleiotropic Protein Causing Human Diseases: The Mutational Burden of A?, B?, and ? Chains. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Heterozygous mutations in A?, B?, or ? fibrinogen-chain genes (FGA, FGB, FGG) have been described as being responsible for fibrinogen deficiencies (hypofibrinogenemia, hypo-..
  82. Altieri D, Duperray A, Plescia J, Thornton G, Languino L. Structural recognition of a novel fibrinogen gamma chain sequence (117-133) by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediates leukocyte-endothelium interaction. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:696-9 pubmed
    ..of the novel ICAM-1 recognition of fibrinogen was carried out by synthetic peptidyl mimicry of the fibrinogen gamma chain. A novel peptide sequence, N117NQ-KIVNLKEKVAQLEA133, designated gamma 3, dose-dependently inhibited (IC50 ..
  83. Stephen J, Nampoothiri S, Vinayan K, Yesodharan D, Remesh P, Gahl W, et al. Cortical atrophy and hypofibrinogenemia due to FGG and TBCD mutations in a single family: a case report. BMC Med Genet. 2018;19:80 pubmed publisher
    ..Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen...
  84. Araújo J, Lopez Fernandez H, Diniz M, Baltazar P, Pinheiro L, Da Silva F, et al. Dithiothreitol-based protein equalization technology to unravel biomarkers for bladder cancer. Talanta. 2018;180:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Six proteins, namely serum albumin, gelsolin, fibrinogen gamma chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, Ig alpha-2 chain C region and haptoglobin, were found dysregulated in at least ..
  85. Casini A, Sokollik C, Lukowski S, Lurz E, Rieubland C, de Moerloose P, et al. Hypofibrinogenemia and liver disease: a new case of Aguadilla fibrinogen and review of the literature. Haemophilia. 2015;21:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The proband was found to be heterozygous for fibrinogen Aguadilla: FGG Arg375Trp...
  86. Tawfik A, Shokir H, Soliman M, Salah L, Fathy S. Pulsed dye laser in the treatment of localized scleroderma and its effects on CD34+ and factor XIIIa+ cells: an immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The FLPDL is effective in the treatment of morphea, as confirmed by the changes in the pathologic tissue and levels of CD34+ and Factor XIIIa+ cells. ..
  87. Uitte de Willige S, Rietveld I, De Visser M, Vos H, Bertina R. Polymorphism 10034C>T is located in a region regulating polyadenylation of FGG transcripts and influences the fibrinogen gamma'/gammaA mRNA ratio. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1243-9 pubmed
    Fibrinogen gamma haplotype 2 (FGG-H2) is associated with reduced fibrinogen gamma' levels and fibrinogen gamma'/total fibrinogen ratios and with an increased deep-venous thrombosis (DVT) risk...
  88. Bosmans R, Briels J, Milroy L, de Greef T, Merkx M, Brunsveld L. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:8899-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8)...
  89. Fredenburgh J, Leslie B, Stafford A, Lim T, Chan H, Weitz J. Zn2+ mediates high affinity binding of heparin to the ?C domain of fibrinogen. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal the mechanism by which Zn(2+) augments the capacity of fibrinogen to impair the anticoagulant activity of heparin. ..
  90. Schmitt C, Moest T, Lutz R, Wehrhan F, Neukam F, Schlegel K. Long-term outcomes after vestibuloplasty with a porcine collagen matrix (Mucograft® ) versus the free gingival graft: a comparative prospective clinical trial. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2016;27:e125-e133 pubmed publisher
    Porcine collagen matrices are proclaimed being a sufficient alternative to autologous free gingival grafts (FGG) in terms of augmenting the keratinized mucosa...