Gene Symbol: FGFR2
Description: fibroblast growth factor receptor 2
Alias: BBDS, BEK, BFR-1, CD332, CEK3, CFD1, ECT1, JWS, K-SAM, KGFR, TK14, TK25, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, BEK fibroblast growth factor receptor, bacteria-expressed kinase, keratinocyte growth factor receptor, protein tyrosine kinase, receptor like 14
Species: human
Products:     FGFR2

Top Publications

  1. Kondo T, Zhu X, Asa S, Ezzat S. The cancer/testis antigen melanoma-associated antigen-A3/A6 is a novel target of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb through histone H3 modifications in thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4713-20 pubmed
    ..We reported recently that FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) is down-regulated through extensive DNA promoter methylation in thyroid cancer...
  2. Byron S, Gartside M, Wellens C, Mallon M, Keenan J, Powell M, et al. Inhibition of activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in endometrial cancer cells induces cell death despite PTEN abrogation. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because we have recently shown activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in 16% of endometrioid endometrial cancers, we sought to determine the genetic context in ..
  3. Matsuda Y, Ishiwata T, Yamahatsu K, Kawahara K, Hagio M, Peng W, et al. Overexpressed fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in the invasive front of colorectal cancer: a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2011;309:209-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is considered a novel therapeutic target for various cancer. We used a silencing strategy to clarify the effect of reduced FGFR2 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells...
  4. Byron S, Gartside M, Powell M, Wellens C, Gao F, Mutch D, et al. FGFR2 point mutations in 466 endometrioid endometrial tumors: relationship with MSI, KRAS, PIK3CA, CTNNB1 mutations and clinicopathological features. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30801 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in multiple oncogenes including KRAS, CTNNB1, PIK3CA and FGFR2 have been identified in endometrial cancer...
  5. Ibrahimi O, Yeh B, Eliseenkova A, Zhang F, Olsen S, Igarashi M, et al. Analysis of mutations in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and a pathogenic mutation in FGF receptor (FGFR) provides direct evidence for the symmetric two-end model for FGFR dimerization. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:671-84 pubmed
    ..Additionally, structural and biochemical analysis of an activating FGFR2 mutation resulting in Pfeiffer syndrome confirms the physiological significance of receptor-receptor contacts in ..
  6. Ishiwata T, Matsuda Y, Yamamoto T, Uchida E, Korc M, Naito Z. Enhanced expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIc promotes human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1928-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Hemminki K, Muller Myhsok B, Lichtner P, Engel C, Chen B, Burwinkel B, et al. Low-risk variants FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1 in German familial breast cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2858-62 pubmed publisher
    ..higher ORs than previously reported for heterozygous unselected cases were found for the minor allele in FGFR2 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.30-1.59, p-value = 1.24 x 10(-12)) and for TNRC9 (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.46, p-value = 1...
  8. Liang J, Chen P, Hu Z, Zhou X, Chen L, Li M, et al. Genetic variants in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) contribute to susceptibility of breast cancer in Chinese women. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2341-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) belongs to the FGFR family, which plays an important role in cell growth, invasiveness, motility and angiogenesis...
  9. Sarkar S, Petiot A, Copp A, Ferretti P, Thorogood P. FGF2 promotes skeletogenic differentiation of cranial neural crest cells. Development. 2001;128:2143-52 pubmed
    ..In longer-term cultures, both endochondral and membrane bone are formed. FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 are all detectable by immunohistochemistry in the mesencephalic region, with particularly intense ..

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Barnholtz Sloan J, Shetty P, Guan X, Nyante S, Luo J, Brennan D, et al. FGFR2 and other loci identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with breast cancer in African-American and younger women. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were significantly associated with breast cancer after adjusting for age, race and European ..
  2. Kress W, Collmann H, Busse M, Halliger Keller B, Mueller C. Clustering of FGFR2 gene mutations inpatients with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes (FGFR2-associated craniosynostoses). Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;91:134-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations in FGFR2 were identified in 25 Crouzon and 5 Pfeiffer syndrome patients, whereas no sequence alterations were found in the ..
  3. Boyarskikh U, Zarubina N, Biltueva J, Sinkina T, Voronina E, Lazarev A, et al. Association of FGFR2 gene polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer in population of West Siberia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:1688-91 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms within intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC) in European and Asian populations...
  4. Gilbert E, Del Gatto F, Champion Arnaud P, Gesnel M, Breathnach R. Control of BEK and K-SAM splice sites in alternative splicing of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 pre-mRNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5461-8 pubmed
    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene pre-mRNA can be spliced by using either the K-SAM exon or the BEK exon. The exon chosen has a profound influence on the ligand-binding specificity of the receptor obtained...
  5. Oldridge M, Lunt P, Zackai E, McDonald McGinn D, Muenke M, Moloney D, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlation for nucleotide substitutions in the IgII-IgIII linker of FGFR2. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:137-43 pubmed
    Dominantly acting, allelic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene have been described in five craniosynostosis syndromes...
  6. Kawase T, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, Hiraki A, Watanabe M, Iwata H, et al. FGFR2 intronic polymorphisms interact with reproductive risk factors of breast cancer: results of a case control study in Japan. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1946-52 pubmed publisher
    ..2 genome-wide association studies demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene at intron 2 are significantly associated with the risk of female breast cancer...
  7. Tartaglia M, Valeri S, Velardi F, Di Rocco C, Battaglia P. Trp290Cys mutation in exon IIIa of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene is associated with Pfeiffer syndrome. Hum Genet. 1997;99:602-6 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and FGFR2) have recently been implicated in the aetiology of such a syndrome, as well as of other craniosynostotic ..
  8. Meyers G, Day D, Goldberg R, Daentl D, Przylepa K, Abrams L, et al. FGFR2 exon IIIa and IIIc mutations in Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes: evidence for missense changes, insertions, and a deletion due to alternative RNA splicing. Am J Hum Genet. 1996;58:491-8 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations have been associated with the craniosynostotic conditions Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes...
  9. Ornitz D, Xu J, Colvin J, McEwen D, MacArthur C, Coulier F, et al. Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15292-7 pubmed
    ..These data should serve as a biochemical foundation for determining developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes that involve FGF signaling pathways. ..
  10. Hatch N, Hudson M, Seto M, Cunningham M, Bothwell M. Intracellular retention, degradation, and signaling of glycosylation-deficient FGFR2 and craniosynostosis syndrome-associated FGFR2C278F. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27292-305 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we show that trafficking and autoactivation of wild type FGFR2 is glycosylation-dependent...
  11. Warzecha C, Sato T, Nabet B, Hogenesch J, Carstens R. ESRP1 and ESRP2 are epithelial cell-type-specific regulators of FGFR2 splicing. Mol Cell. 2009;33:591-601 pubmed publisher
    Cell-type-specific expression of epithelial and mesenchymal isoforms of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) is achieved through tight regulation of mutually exclusive exons IIIb and IIIc, respectively...
  12. Fu F, Wang C, Huang M, Song C, Lin S, Huang H. Polymorphisms in second intron of the FGFR2 gene are associated with the risk of early-onset breast cancer in Chinese Han women. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2012;226:221-9 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) plays an important role in tumor cell growth, invasiveness, motility, and angiogenesis...
  13. Johnson D, Wall S, Mann S, Wilkie A. A novel mutation, Ala315Ser, in FGFR2: a gene-environment interaction leading to craniosynostosis?. Eur J Hum Genet. 2000;8:571-7 pubmed
    ..We describe a novel heterozygous mutation of FGFR2 (943G --> T, encoding the amino acid substitution Ala315Ser) in a girl with non-syndromic unicoronal ..
  14. Lapunzina P, Fernández A, Sánchez Romero J, Delicado A, Sáenz de Pipaón M, Lopez Pajares I, et al. A novel insertion in the FGFR2 gene in a patient with Crouzon phenotype and sacrococcygeal tail. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:61-4 pubmed
    Mutations in the FGFR2 gene are present in several syndromes with craniosynostosis, such as Pfeiffer's, Apert's, and Crouzon's.
  15. Hunter D, Kraft P, Jacobs K, Cox D, Yeager M, Hankinson S, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies alleles in FGFR2 associated with risk of sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2007;39:870-4 pubmed
    ..We identified four SNPs in intron 2 of FGFR2 (which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and is amplified or overexpressed in some breast cancers) that were ..
  16. Matsumoto K, Arao T, Hamaguchi T, Shimada Y, Kato K, Oda I, et al. FGFR2 gene amplification and clinicopathological features in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:727-32 pubmed publisher
    Frequency of FGFR2 amplification, its clinicopathological features, and the results of high-throughput screening assays in a large cohort of gastric clinical samples remain largely unclear...
  17. Moloney D, Slaney S, Oldridge M, Wall S, Sahlin P, Stenman G, et al. Exclusive paternal origin of new mutations in Apert syndrome. Nat Genet. 1996;13:48-53 pubmed
    ..from one or other of two specific nucleotide substitutions, both C-->G transversions, in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene...
  18. Jang J, Shin K, Park J. Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 genes associated with human gastric and colorectal cancers. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3541-3 pubmed
    ..Here we report two identical mutations in FGFR2 that cause craniosynostosis syndromes, Crouzon, Apert, and Pfeiffer in gastric carcinoma...
  19. Bernard Pierrot I, Ricol D, Cassidy A, Graham A, Elvin P, Caillault A, et al. Inhibition of human bladder tumour cell growth by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b is independent of its kinase activity. Involvement of the carboxy-terminal region of the receptor. Oncogene. 2004;23:9201-11 pubmed
    The b isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, FGFR2b/FGFR2-IIIb/Ksam-IIC1/KGFR, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is expressed in a wide variety of epithelia and is downregulated in several human carcinomas including prostate, salivary ..
  20. Behrens C, Lin H, Lee J, Raso M, Hong W, Wistuba I, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..bronchial epithelial specimens (n = 426) were analyzed for the immunohistochemical expression of bFGF, FGFR1, and FGFR2, and the findings were correlated with clinicopathologic features of the patients...
  21. Esteban Cardeñosa E, de Juan Jiménez I, Palanca Suela S, Chirivella González I, Segura Huerta A, Santaballa Beltran A, et al. Low penetrance alleles as risk modifiers in familial and sporadic breast cancer. Fam Cancer. 2012;11:629-36 pubmed publisher
    ..of rs1056663 and rs2708861 HUS1 polymorphisms, and rs104548, rs2981582 and rs2910164 polymorphisms of CASP8, FGFR2 and micro RNA 146A genes, respectively, as risk modifiers in hereditary breast or ovarian cancer (BC/OC) and risk ..
  22. Ibrahimi O, Eliseenkova A, Plotnikov A, Yu K, Ornitz D, Mohammadi M. Structural basis for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 activation in Apert syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7182-7 pubmed
    ..Two activating mutations, Ser-252 --> Trp and Pro-253 --> Arg, in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) account for nearly all known cases of AS...
  23. Belleudi F, Purpura V, Scrofani C, Persechino F, Leone L, Torrisi M. Expression and signaling of the tyrosine kinase FGFR2b/KGFR regulates phagocytosis and melanosome uptake in human keratinocytes. FASEB J. 2011;25:170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor KGF/FGF7 promotes the melanosome uptake through activation of its receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR2b/KGFR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of KGFR expression, activation, and signaling in ..
  24. Jung E, Jung E, Min S, Kim M, Kim W. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene amplification status and its clinicopathologic significance in gastric carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:1559-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is a member of receptor tyrosine kinase family, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene amplification or missense mutation has been observed in various human cancers, including gastric carcinoma...
  25. Cho K, Ishiwata T, Uchida E, Nakazawa N, Korc M, Naito Z, et al. Enhanced expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor correlates with venous invasion in pancreatic cancer. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1964-74 pubmed
    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and KGF receptor (KGFR) have been implicated in cancer growth as well as tissue development and repair...
  26. Pollock P, Gartside M, Dejeza L, Powell M, Mallon M, Davies H, et al. Frequent activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinomas parallel germline mutations associated with craniosynostosis and skeletal dysplasia syndromes. Oncogene. 2007;26:7158-62 pubmed
    ..We have identified a total of 11 different FGFR2 mutations in 3/10 (30%) of endometrial cell lines and 19/187 (10%) of primary uterine tumors...
  27. Zhang C, Fu L, Fu J, Hu L, Yang H, Rong T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-positive fibroblasts provide a suitable microenvironment for tumor development and progression in esophageal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4017-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), which showed the most significant change, was detected in all six tested TFs compared with ..
  28. Elgazzar S, Zembutsu H, Takahashi A, Kubo M, Aki F, Hirata K, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies a genetic variant in the SIAH2 locus associated with hormonal receptor-positive breast cancer in Japanese. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, rs3750817 in intron 2 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene, which was reported to be associated with breast cancer susceptibility, was significantly ..
  29. Przylepa K, Paznekas W, Zhang M, Golabi M, Bias W, Bamshad M, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations in Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome. Nat Genet. 1996;13:492-4 pubmed
    ..Mutations in Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, Pfeiffer and Apert syndromes have been reported in the FGFR2 extracellular domain...
  30. Kan S, Elanko N, Johnson D, Cornejo Roldan L, Cook J, Reich E, et al. Genomic screening of fibroblast growth-factor receptor 2 reveals a wide spectrum of mutations in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;70:472-86 pubmed
    ..of three members of the fibroblast growth-factor-receptor family of signal-transduction molecules-namely, FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3-contribute significantly to disorders of bone patterning and growth...
  31. Katoh M, Katoh M. FGFR2 and WDR11 are neighboring oncogene and tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 10q26. Int J Oncol. 2003;22:1155-9 pubmed
    ..b>FGFR2 gene on human chromosome 10q26 is amplified in diffuse-type gastric cancer, while WDR11 gene on human chromosome ..
  32. Antoniou A, Spurdle A, Sinilnikova O, Healey S, Pooley K, Schmutzler R, et al. Common breast cancer-predisposition alleles are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent genome-wide association study has shown that common alleles at single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFR2 (rs2981582), TNRC9 (rs3803662), and MAP3K1 (rs889312) are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the ..
  33. Gartside M, Chen H, Ibrahimi O, Byron S, Curtis A, Wellens C, et al. Loss-of-function fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 mutations in melanoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:41-54 pubmed publisher
    We report that 10% of melanoma tumors and cell lines harbor mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene...
  34. Goriely A, McVean G, van Pelt A, O rourke A, Wall S, de Rooij D, et al. Gain-of-function amino acid substitutions drive positive selection of FGFR2 mutations in human spermatogonia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6051-6 pubmed
    ..C>G transversions at position 755 of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) cause Apert syndrome; this mutation, encoding the gain-of-function substitution Ser252Trp, occurs with a birth ..
  35. Mauger D, Lin C, Garcia Blanco M. hnRNP H and hnRNP F complex with Fox2 to silence fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 exon IIIc. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5403-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify hnRNP H and hnRNP F proteins as being novel silencers of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 exon IIIc...
  36. Udler M, Meyer K, Pooley K, Karlins E, Struewing J, Zhang J, et al. FGFR2 variants and breast cancer risk: fine-scale mapping using African American studies and analysis of chromatin conformation. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1692-703 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene in populations of European and Asian descent, but a causative variant has not yet been conclusively identified...
  37. Everett E, Britto D, Ward R, Hartsfield J. A novel FGFR2 gene mutation in Crouzon syndrome associated with apparent nonpenetrance. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999;36:533-41 pubmed
    To determine whether specific mutations within the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene that are associated with Crouzon syndrome can be present in an individual who had been assumed to be "clinically normal."
  38. Glaser R, Jiang W, Boyadjiev S, Tran A, Zachary A, Van Maldergem L, et al. Paternal origin of FGFR2 mutations in sporadic cases of Crouzon syndrome and Pfeiffer syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:768-77 pubmed
    ..are both autosomal dominant craniosynostotic disorders that can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene...
  39. Belleudi F, Ceridono M, Capone A, Serafino A, Marchese C, Picardo M, et al. The endocytic pathway followed by the keratinocyte growth factor receptor. Histochem Cell Biol. 2002;118:1-10 pubmed
    ..activates a receptor tyrosine kinase, the KGF receptor (KGFR), which is a splicing variant of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. The endocytic pathway followed by KGF and its receptor was analyzed here using immunofluorescence ..
  40. Guenou H, Kaabeche K, Mée S, Marie P. A role for fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 in the altered osteoblast phenotype induced by Twist haploinsufficiency in the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:1429-39 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (Fgfr2) in the abnormal osteoblast differentiation in SCS...
  41. Garcia Closas M, Hall P, Nevanlinna H, Pooley K, Morrison J, Richesson D, et al. Heterogeneity of breast cancer associations with five susceptibility loci by clinical and pathological characteristics. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000054 pubmed publisher
    ..study recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five loci (fibroblast growth receptor 2 (FGFR2), trinucleotide repeat containing 9 (TNRC9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 K1 (MAP3K1), 8q24, and lymphocyte-..
  42. Zhu X, Asa S, Ezzat S. Histone-acetylated control of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 intron 2 polymorphisms and isoform splicing in breast cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the disease-predisposing allele of FGFR2 is inherited as a 7.5-kb region within intron 2 that harbors eight single nucleotide polymorphisms...
  43. Sun C, Olopade O, Di Rienzo A. rs2981582 is associated with FGFR2 expression in normal breast. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010;197:193-4 pubmed publisher
  44. Li J, Humphreys K, Heikkinen T, Aittomaki K, Blomqvist C, Pharoah P, et al. A combined analysis of genome-wide association studies in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..More effort focused in these aspects of oncology can potentially open up promising avenues for the understanding of breast cancer and its prevention. ..
  45. Lin Y, Liang X, Ai S, Chen C, Liu X, Luo L, et al. FGFR2 molecular analysis and related clinical findings in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. Mol Vis. 2012;18:449-54 pubmed
    The purposed of this study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the related clinical features.
  46. Wang H, Yang Z, Zhang H. Assessing interactions between the associations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 common genetic variants and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:511-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a member of a receptor tyrosine kinase gene superfamily, involved in cell growth, invasiveness, motility, and angiogenesis, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for ..
  47. Kim S, Dubrovska A, Salamone R, Walker J, Grandinetti K, Bonamy G, et al. FGFR2 promotes breast tumorigenicity through maintenance of breast tumor-initiating cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e51671 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analysis and immunostaining of TICs and non-TICs revealed that FGFR2 was preferentially expressed in TICs...
  48. Liao R, Jung J, Tchaicha J, Wilkerson M, Sivachenko A, Beauchamp E, et al. Inhibitor-sensitive FGFR2 and FGFR3 mutations in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73:5195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the oncogenic nature of mutations observed in FGFR2 and FGFR3, each of which are observed in 3% of samples, for a mutation rate of 6% across both genes...
  49. Fletcher M, Castro M, Wang X, de Santiago I, O Reilly M, Chin S, et al. Master regulators of FGFR2 signalling and breast cancer risk. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2464 pubmed publisher
    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus has been consistently identified as a breast cancer risk locus in independent genome-wide association studies...
  50. Liu Y, Shen D, Yin X, Gavine P, Zhang T, Su X, et al. HER2, MET and FGFR2 oncogenic driver alterations define distinct molecular segments for targeted therapies in gastric carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:1169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..of several known therapeutics targets, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), MET and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), within GC using clinically approved or investigational kits and scoring criteria...
  51. Johnson D, Williams L. Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family. Adv Cancer Res. 1993;60:1-41 pubmed
  52. Hughes S. Differential expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) multigene family in normal human adult tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 1997;45:1005-19 pubmed
    ..a systematic analysis of the expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) multigene family (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) in archival serial sections of normal human adult tissues representing the major organ systems, ..
  53. Lorenzi M, Castagnino P, Chen Q, Chedid M, Miki T. Ligand-independent activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 by carboxyl terminal alterations. Oncogene. 1997;15:817-26 pubmed
    To assess the effect(s) of the C-terminal domain on FGFR2 function, we engineered a series of mutant FGFR2 cDNAs encoding deletions in the C-terminus of the receptor and compared their growth properties in NIH3T3 fibroblasts...
  54. Steinberger D, Vriend G, Mulliken J, Muller U. The mutations in FGFR2-associated craniosynostoses are clustered in five structural elements of immunoglobulin-like domain III of the receptor. Hum Genet. 1998;102:145-50 pubmed
    Exons 5 and 7 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene code for immunoglobulin-like domain III (IgIII) and for the region connecting the second and the third Ig domain of the receptor...
  55. Igarashi M, Finch P, Aaronson S. Characterization of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-10 reveals functional similarities with keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13230-5 pubmed
    ..is unique among FGFs in that it binds and signals only through the FGF receptor (FGFR2b) isoform KGF receptor (KGFR) expressed specifically by epithelial cells...
  56. Zhang Y, Gorry M, Post J, Ehrlich G. Genomic organization of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene and comparative analysis of the human FGFR gene family. Gene. 1999;230:69-79 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene have been associated with many craniosynostotic syndromes and malformations, including Crouzon, Pfeiffer, ..
  57. Ueda T, Sasaki H, Kuwahara Y, Nezu M, Shibuya T, Sakamoto H, et al. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal exons of K-sam/FGFR2 by short homology-mediated recombination, generating preferential expression of specific messenger RNAs. Cancer Res. 1999;59:6080-6 pubmed
    ..as an amplified gene from human gastric cancer cell line KATOIII, and its product is identical to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. The K-sam gene is located on human chromosome 10q26 and is preferentially amplified in the poorly ..
  58. Ingersoll R, Paznekas W, Tran A, Scott A, Jiang G, Jabs E. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2): genomic sequence and variations. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;94:121-6 pubmed
    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in development and tumorigenesis. Mutations in FGFR2 cause more than five craniosynostosis syndromes. The FGFR2 genomic structure is the largest of the FGFR family...
  59. Muh S, Hovhannisyan R, Carstens R. A Non-sequence-specific double-stranded RNA structural element regulates splicing of two mutually exclusive exons of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50143-54 pubmed
    Alternative splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutually exclusive exons IIIb and IIIc represents a tightly regulated and functionally relevant example of post-transcriptional gene regulation...
  60. Goriely A, McVean G, Röjmyr M, Ingemarsson B, Wilkie A. Evidence for selective advantage of pathogenic FGFR2 mutations in the male germ line. Science. 2003;301:643-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a sensitive method to quantify substitutions at nucleotide 755 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in sperm...
  61. Lajeunie E, Heuertz S, El Ghouzzi V, Martinovic J, Renier D, Le Merrer M, et al. Mutation screening in patients with syndromic craniosynostoses indicates that a limited number of recurrent FGFR2 mutations accounts for severe forms of Pfeiffer syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006;14:289-98 pubmed
    ..Mutations preferentially occurred in exons 8 and 10 of FGFR2 encoding the third Ig loop of the receptor...
  62. Kondo T, Zheng L, Liu W, Kurebayashi J, Asa S, Ezzat S. Epigenetically controlled fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 signaling imposes on the RAS/BRAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway to modulate thyroid cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2007;67:5461-70 pubmed
    ..In contrast, FGFR2 is down-regulated in neoplastic thyroid cells through DNA promoter methylation...
  63. Kunii K, Davis L, Gorenstein J, Hatch H, Yashiro M, Di Bacco A, et al. FGFR2-amplified gastric cancer cell lines require FGFR2 and Erbb3 signaling for growth and survival. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In a panel of gastric cancer cell lines, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was overexpressed and tyrosine phosphorylated selectively in FGFR2-amplified cell lines ..
  64. Meyer K, Maia A, O Reilly M, Teschendorff A, Chin S, Caldas C, et al. Allele-specific up-regulation of FGFR2 increases susceptibility to breast cancer. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e108 pubmed publisher
    The recent whole-genome scan for breast cancer has revealed the FGFR2 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) gene as a locus associated with a small, but highly significant, increase in the risk of developing breast cancer...
  65. Raskin L, Pinchev M, Arad C, Lejbkowicz F, Tamir A, Rennert H, et al. FGFR2 is a breast cancer susceptibility gene in Jewish and Arab Israeli populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1060-5 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variation in FGFR2 is a newly described risk factor for breast cancer...
  66. Zheng W, Cai Q, Signorello L, Long J, Hargreaves M, Deming S, et al. Evaluation of 11 breast cancer susceptibility loci in African-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:2761-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs13387042 (2q35) and rs1219648 (FGFR2 gene), were found to be associated with breast cancer risk...
  67. Kawase R, Ishiwata T, Matsuda Y, Onda M, Kudo M, Takeshita T, et al. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIc in human uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:331-40 pubmed
    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) 1-3 have IIIb and IIIc isoforms, and we reported that FGFR2 IIIb is highly expressed in cervical keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
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  69. Huijts P, van Dongen M, de Goeij M, van Moolenbroek A, Blanken F, Vreeswijk M, et al. Allele-specific regulation of FGFR2 expression is cell type-dependent and may increase breast cancer risk through a paracrine stimulus involving FGF10. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R72 pubmed publisher
    ..and rs2981578, located in a linkage disequilibrium block (LD block) within intron 2 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), are associated with a mildly increased breast cancer risk...
  70. Chen F, Lu M, Lv M, Xue Y, Zhou J, Hu F, et al. Genetic variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) are associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese women of the Han nationality. Immunogenetics. 2012;64:71-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), a recently described risk factor for breast cancer, plays important roles in cell growth, invasiveness, motility, and angiogenesis...
  71. Jara L, Gonzalez Hormazabal P, Cerceño K, Di Capua G, Reyes J, Blanco R, et al. Genetic variants in FGFR2 and MAP3K1 are associated with the risk of familial and early-onset breast cancer in a South-American population. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the strongest associations was found in the FGFR2 gene, and MAP3K1 has been proposed as a low-penetrance BC risk factor...
  72. Xie L, Su X, Zhang L, Yin X, Tang L, Zhang X, et al. FGFR2 gene amplification in gastric cancer predicts sensitivity to the selective FGFR inhibitor AZD4547. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:2572-83 pubmed publisher
    FGFR gene aberrations are associated with tumor growth and survival. We explored the role of FGFR2 amplification in gastric cancer and the therapeutic potential of AZD4547, a potent and selective ATP-competitive receptor tyrosine kinase ..
  73. Marchese C, Sorice M, De Stefano C, Frati L, Torrisi M. Modulation of keratinocyte growth factor receptor expression in human cultured keratinocytes. Cell Growth Differ. 1997;8:989-97 pubmed
    ..biological effects through binding to the KGF receptor (KGFR), a splicing transcript variant of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2)...
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    ..correlated with specific mutations in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes, FGFR1 and FGFR2. In this study, we set out to examine the exons in FGFR2 most commonly associated with mutations in PS, exons IIIa ..
  75. Plotnikov A, Hubbard S, Schlessinger J, Mohammadi M. Crystal structures of two FGF-FGFR complexes reveal the determinants of ligand-receptor specificity. Cell. 2000;101:413-24 pubmed
    ..with the ligand binding domains (immunoglobulin-like domains 2 [D2] and 3 [D3]) of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR2, respectively...
  76. Wang T, Huang C, Tsai F, Wu J, Lai R, Hsiao M. Mutation in the FGFR2 gene in a Taiwanese patient with Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome. Clin Genet. 2002;61:218-21 pubmed
    ..Molecular genetic analysis of the FGFR2 gene in this patient's DNA revealed a missense A --> G mutation on nucleotide 1303 of the FGFR2 cDNA...
  77. Ibrahimi O, Zhang F, Eliseenkova A, Itoh N, Linhardt R, Mohammadi M. Biochemical analysis of pathogenic ligand-dependent FGFR2 mutations suggests distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2313-24 pubmed
    Gain-of-function missense mutations in FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) are responsible for a variety of craniosynostosis syndromes including Apert syndrome (AS), Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) and Crouzon syndrome (CS)...
  78. Moffa A, Tannheimer S, Ethier S. Transforming potential of alternatively spliced variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in human mammary epithelial cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:643-52 pubmed
    ..our laboratory (SUM-52PE) has a 12-fold amplification and high-level overexpression of the oncogene fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)...
  79. Wilkie A. Bad bones, absent smell, selfish testes: the pleiotropic consequences of human FGF receptor mutations. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005;16:187-203 pubmed
    ..with FGFR1 and FGFR3 mutations; identification of fundamental differences in the cellular mechanisms of mutant FGFR2 and FGFR3 action; and the direct identification of FGFR2 and FGFR3 mutations in sperm...
  80. Moffa A, Ethier S. Differential signal transduction of alternatively spliced FGFR2 variants expressed in human mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:720-31 pubmed
    Gene amplification and protein overexpression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) characterize the SUM-52 breast cancer cell line developed in our laboratory...
  81. Lotti L, Rotolo S, Francescangeli F, Frati L, Torrisi M, Marchese C. AKT and MAPK signaling in KGF-treated and UVB-exposed human epidermal cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:633-42 pubmed
    ..We also demostrated increasing expression of KGFR substrates, such as PAK4 during keratinocyte differentiation parallel to the receptor upregulation.
  82. Belleudi F, Leone L, Nobili V, Raffa S, Francescangeli F, Maggio M, et al. Keratinocyte growth factor receptor ligands target the receptor to different intracellular pathways. Traffic. 2007;8:1854-72 pubmed
    The keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR)/fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b is activated by high-affinity-specific interaction with two different ligands, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)/fibroblast growth factor (FGF)7 and FGF10/..
  83. Huijts P, Vreeswijk M, Kroeze Jansema K, Jacobi C, Seynaeve C, Krol Warmerdam E, et al. Clinical correlates of low-risk variants in FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1, LSP1 and 8q24 in a Dutch cohort of incident breast cancer cases. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R78 pubmed
    ..We also noted a correlation between the number of minor alleles of rs2981582 in FGFR2 and the average number of first-degree and second-degree relatives with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer (P = 0...
  84. Rebbeck T, DeMichele A, Tran T, Panossian S, Bunin G, Troxel A, et al. Hormone-dependent effects of FGFR2 and MAP3K1 in breast cancer susceptibility in a population-based sample of post-menopausal African-American and European-American women. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:269-74 pubmed publisher
    b>FGFR2 and MAP3K1 are members of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-signaling pathway and have been identified from genome-wide association studies to be breast cancer susceptibility genes...
  85. Cha J, Maddileti S, Mitin N, Harden T, Der C. Aberrant receptor internalization and enhanced FRS2-dependent signaling contribute to the transforming activity of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIb C3 isoform. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6227-40 pubmed publisher
    Alternative splice variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) IIIb, designated C1, C2, and C3, possess progressive reduction in their cytoplasmic carboxyl termini (822, 788, and 769 residues, respectively), with preferential ..
  86. Toyokawa T, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K. Co-expression of keratinocyte growth factor and K-sam is an independent prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:875-80 pubmed
    ..029). In conclusion, the co-expression of K-sam and KGF in gastric cancer might be a useful prognostic factor. ..
  87. Prentice R, Huang Y, Hinds D, Peters U, Pettinger M, Cox D, et al. Variation in the FGFR2 gene and the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3079-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene are substantially associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and could ..
  88. Chen X, Li X, Chen Y, Feng Y. Risk of aggressive breast cancer in women of Han nationality carrying TGFB1 rs1982073 C allele and FGFR2 rs1219648 G allele in North China. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP rs1982073 (Leu10Pro) in transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFB1) gene and the SNP rs1219648 in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene with the risk and aggressiveness of breast cancer among women of Han nationality in ..
  89. Ware K, Marshall M, Heasley L, Marek L, Hinz T, Hercule P, et al. Rapidly acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cell lines through de-repression of FGFR2 and FGFR3 expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14117 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analysis of NSCLC cell lines treated with the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, revealed increased levels of FGFR2 and FGFR3 mRNA...
  90. Fletcher O, Johnson N, Orr N, Hosking F, Gibson L, Walker K, et al. Novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2: results of a genome-wide association study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..13, approximately 300 kb telomeric to the established risk locus within the second intron of FGFR2, was also associated with breast cancer risk, although not at genome-wide statistical significance (rs10510102: OR ..
  91. Easton D, Pooley K, Dunning A, Pharoah P, Thompson D, Ballinger D, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci. Nature. 2007;447:1087-93 pubmed
    ..Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P < 0...
  92. Cha J, Lambert Q, Reuther G, Der C. Involvement of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 isoform switching in mammary oncogenesis. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:435-45 pubmed publisher
    We identified the IIIb C2 epithelial cell-specific splice variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 IIIb C2) receptor tyrosine kinase in a screen for activated oncogenes expressed in T-47D human breast carcinoma cells...