FGF21

Summary

Gene Symbol: FGF21
Description: fibroblast growth factor 21
Alias: fibroblast growth factor 21
Species: human
Products:     FGF21

Top Publications

  1. Kharitonenkov A, Wroblewski V, Koester A, Chen Y, Clutinger C, Tigno X, et al. The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21. Endocrinology. 2007;148:774-81 pubmed
    ..These data support the development of FGF-21 for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic diseases. ..
  2. Yie J, Hecht R, Patel J, Stevens J, Wang W, Hawkins N, et al. FGF21 N- and C-termini play different roles in receptor interaction and activation. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:19-24 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) signaling requires the presence of beta-Klotho, a co-receptor with a very short cytoplasmic domain. Here we show that FGF21 binds directly to beta-Klotho through its C-terminus...
  3. Mai K, Schwarz F, Bobbert T, Andres J, Assmann A, Pfeiffer A, et al. Relation between fibroblast growth factor-21, adiposity, metabolism, and weight reduction. Metabolism. 2011;60:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that moderate weight loss did not induce changes of FGF-21 levels in humans suggests that FGF-21 is not directly regulated by fat mass under those conditions. ..
  4. Cuevas Ramos D, Almeda Valdes P, Gomez Perez F, Meza Arana C, Cruz Bautista I, Arellano Campos O, et al. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:469-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels have been linked with beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in animals. It is elevated in humans with the metabolic syndrome...
  5. Jansen P, van Werven J, Aarts E, Berends F, Janssen I, Stoker J, et al. Alterations of hormonally active fibroblast growth factors after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Dig Dis. 2011;29:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..but significantly elevated, and the levels of the endocrine-acting fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and FGF21 were increased. FGF19 and FGF21 play a role as regulators of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism...
  6. Yang S, Hong H, Choi H, Yoo H, Cho G, Hwang T, et al. Effects of a three-month combined exercise programme on fibroblast growth factor 21 and fetuin-A levels and arterial stiffness in obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:464-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pulse wave velocity (baPWV) reflecting arterial stiffness and the levels of novel hepatokines fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and fetuin-A...
  7. Chu A, Workalemahu T, Paynter N, Rose L, Giulianini F, Tanaka T, et al. Novel locus including FGF21 is associated with dietary macronutrient intake. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..In a genome-wide meta-analysis of a population-based discovery cohort (n = 33 533), rs838133 in FGF21 (19q13.33), rs197273 near TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa-B activator (TANK) (2p24...
  8. Lin Z, Gong Q, Wu C, Yu J, Lu T, Pan X, et al. Dynamic change of serum FGF21 levels in response to glucose challenge in human. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1224-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine factor predominantly secreted from liver, possesses multiple beneficial effect on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity in animals...
  9. Shen Y, Ma X, Zhou J, Pan X, Hao Y, Zhou M, et al. Additive relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 level and coronary artery disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:124 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its ..

More Information

Publications72

  1. Stein S, Bachmann A, Lossner U, Kratzsch J, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, et al. Serum levels of the adipokine FGF21 depend on renal function. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:126-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate renal elimination of the adipokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) by determining circulating FGF21 levels in patients on chronic hemodialysis (CD) as compared with control subjects with a glomerular filtration rate (..
  2. Hojman P, Pedersen M, Nielsen A, Krogh Madsen R, Yfanti C, Akerstrom T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes. 2009;58:2797-801 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF-21 is expressed in human skeletal muscle in response to insulin stimulation, suggesting that FGF-21 is an insulin-regulated myokine. In support, we found an association between chronic hyperinsulinemia and levels of FGF-21. ..
  3. Li H, Fang Q, Gao F, Fan J, Zhou J, Wang X, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are increased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients and are correlated with hepatic triglyceride. J Hepatol. 2010;53:934-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone primarily secreted by the liver in response to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activation, has recently been shown to possess beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and ..
  4. Lin Z, Wu Z, Yin X, Liu Y, Yan X, Lin S, et al. Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15534 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in animal models...
  5. Wu X, Lemon B, Li X, Gupte J, Weiszmann J, Stevens J, et al. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33304-9 pubmed publisher
    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion...
  6. Lin Z, Zhou Z, Liu Y, Gong Q, Yan X, Xiao J, et al. Circulating FGF21 levels are progressively increased from the early to end stages of chronic kidney diseases and are associated with renal function in Chinese. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18398 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatic hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism...
  7. Fisher F, Estall J, Adams A, Antonellis P, Bina H, Flier J, et al. Integrated regulation of hepatic metabolism by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in vivo. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2996-3004 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) plays an important role in regulating hepatic oxidation of fatty acids and gluconeogenesis in response to fasting and during consumption of a ketogenic diet...
  8. Kharitonenkov A, Shiyanova T, Koester A, Ford A, Micanovic R, Galbreath E, et al. FGF-21 as a novel metabolic regulator. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1627-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that FGF-21, which we have identified as a novel metabolic factor, exhibits the therapeutic characteristics necessary for an effective treatment of diabetes. ..
  9. An S, Lee M, Yi S, Ha E, Han S, Kim H, et al. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 was elevated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and was associated with the presence of carotid artery plaques. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;96:196-203 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of glucose/lipid metabolism. Although there are studies examining the relationship between serum FGF21 levels and glucose homeostasis, the role of FGF21 remains unclear...
  10. Dostalova I, Kaválková P, Haluzikova D, Lacinova Z, Mraz M, Papezova H, et al. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3627-32 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and FGF21 are novel metabolic regulators that improve insulin sensitivity and decrease adiposity in mice. However, little is known about the nutritional regulation of these factors in humans...
  11. Tyynismaa H, Raivio T, Hakkarainen A, Ortega Alonso A, Lundbom N, Kaprio J, et al. Liver fat but not other adiposity measures influence circulating FGF21 levels in healthy young adult twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E351-5 pubmed publisher
    Emerging as an important metabolic regulator, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has gained considerable interest in diabetes and obesity research...
  12. Mai K, Andres J, Biedasek K, Weicht J, Bobbert T, Sabath M, et al. Free fatty acids link metabolism and regulation of the insulin-sensitizing fibroblast growth factor-21. Diabetes. 2009;58:1532-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here offer a mechanism explaining the induction of the metabolic regulator FGF-21 in the fasting situation but also in type 2 diabetes and obesity. ..
  13. Dushay J, Chui P, Gopalakrishnan G, Varela Rey M, Crawley M, Fisher F, et al. Increased fibroblast growth factor 21 in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:456-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an hepatic protein that plays a critical role in metabolism, stimulating fatty acid oxidation in liver and glucose uptake in fat...
  14. Xiao Y, Xu A, Law L, Chen C, Li H, Li X, et al. Distinct changes in serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in different subtypes of diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the association of serum FGF21 levels with type 1 diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes...
  15. Giannini C, Feldstein A, Santoro N, Kim G, Kursawe R, Pierpont B, et al. Circulating levels of FGF-21 in obese youth: associations with liver fat content and markers of liver damage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2993-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma FGF-21 levels are increased in obese adolescents, particularly in those with fatty liver. FGF-21 concentrations significantly and independently correlate with hepatic fat content and markers of hepatic apoptosis in obese youths. ..
  16. Chavez A, Molina Carrion M, Abdul Ghani M, Folli F, DeFronzo R, Tripathy D. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 is elevated in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and correlates with muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF-21 may play a role in pathogenesis of hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. ..
  17. Li H, Bao Y, Xu A, Pan X, Lu J, Wu H, et al. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 is associated with adverse lipid profiles and gamma-glutamyltransferase but not insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the association of serum FGF21 levels with insulin secretion and sensitivity, as well as circulating parameters of lipid metabolism and hepatic ..
  18. Yang C, Jin C, Li X, Wang F, McKeehan W, Luo Y. Differential specificity of endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 to FGFR1 and FGFR4 in complex with KLB. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33870 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that betaKlotho (KLB) and endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 redirect FGFR signaling to regulation of metabolic homeostasis and suppression of obesity and diabetes...
  19. Zhang X, Yeung D, Karpisek M, Stejskal D, Zhou Z, Liu F, et al. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in obesity and are independently associated with the metabolic syndrome in humans. Diabetes. 2008;57:1246-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in animal models...
  20. Gälman C, Lundåsen T, Kharitonenkov A, Bina H, Eriksson M, Hafström I, et al. The circulating metabolic regulator FGF21 is induced by prolonged fasting and PPARalpha activation in man. Cell Metab. 2008;8:169-74 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21 is a critical metabolic regulator, pivotal for fasting adaptation and directly regulated by PPARalpha in rodents. However, the physiological role of FGF21 in man is not yet defined and was investigated in our study...
  21. Li L, Yang G, Ning H, Yang M, Liu H, Chen W. Plasma FGF-21 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with ketosis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing concentrations of FGF-21 were independently and significantly associated with T2DM and T2DK. The present work suggests that FGF-21 may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM and T2DK. ..
  22. Yan H, Xia M, Chang X, Xu Q, Bian H, Zeng M, et al. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are closely associated with hepatic fat content: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24895 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblasts growth factor 21 (FGF21), a liver-secreted endocrine factor involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, has been shown to be elevated in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  23. Reinehr T, Woelfle J, Wunsch R, Roth C. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) and its relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver in children: a longitudinal analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2143-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), a potent activator of glucose uptake, has been proposed to be related to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and weight status...
  24. Li K, Li L, Yang M, Zong H, Liu H, Yang G. Effects of rosiglitazone on fasting plasma fibroblast growth factor-21 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that rosiglitazone may play a role in lowering FGF-21 levels in T2DM patients. ..
  25. Iglesias P, Selgas R, Romero S, Diez J. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:301-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions...
  26. Li X, Fan X, Ren F, Zhang Y, Shen C, Ren G, et al. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and associated with hsCRP levels independently. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93:10-6 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) has beneficial effects on lipolysis. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a predictor of type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  27. Kurosu H, Choi M, Ogawa Y, Dickson A, Goetz R, Eliseenkova A, et al. Tissue-specific expression of betaKlotho and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor isoforms determines metabolic activity of FGF19 and FGF21. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26687-95 pubmed
    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily of ligands, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, function as hormones that regulate bile acid, fatty acid, glucose, and phosphate metabolism in target organs through activating FGF receptors (FGFR1-4)...
  28. Yie J, Wang W, Deng L, Tam L, Stevens J, Chen M, et al. Understanding the physical interactions in the FGF21/FGFR/?-Klotho complex: structural requirements and implications in FGF21 signaling. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012;79:398-410 pubmed publisher
    The endocrine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) requires both fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and ?-Klotho for signaling...
  29. Chen W, Hoo R, Konishi M, Itoh N, Lee P, Ye H, et al. Growth hormone induces hepatic production of fibroblast growth factor 21 through a mechanism dependent on lipolysis in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate the existence of a feedback loop between GH and FGF21 on the regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes...
  30. Tan B, Hallschmid M, Adya R, Kern W, Lehnert H, Randeva H. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in human cerebrospinal fluid: relationship with plasma FGF21 and body adiposity. Diabetes. 2011;60:2758-62 pubmed publisher
    Reports of increased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels in obesity indicate that FGF21 may be implicated in body weight homeostasis...
  31. Chen C, Cheung B, Tso A, Wang Y, Law L, Ong K, et al. High plasma level of fibroblast growth factor 21 is an Independent predictor of type 2 diabetes: a 5.4-year population-based prospective study in Chinese subjects. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2113-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which previously has been shown to be elevated in obesity, could predict the development of type 2 diabetes in a 5...
  32. Semba R, Sun K, Egan J, Crasto C, Carlson O, Ferrucci L. Relationship of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 with abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1375-82 pubmed publisher
    The relationship of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance has not been well characterized in community-dwelling adults...
  33. Vienberg S, Brøns C, Nilsson E, Astrup A, Vaag A, Andersen B. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:49-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans.
  34. Mashili F, Austin R, Deshmukh A, Fritz T, Caidahl K, Bergdahl K, et al. Direct effects of FGF21 on glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle: implications for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011;27:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of FGF21 in skeletal muscle is currently not known...
  35. Chen W, Li L, Yang G, Li K, Qi X, Zhu W, et al. Circulating FGF-21 levels in normal subjects and in newly diagnose patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116:65-8 pubmed
    ..05). Multiple regression analysis showed that FBG, plasma insulin and HOMA (IS) were independent influencing plasma FGF-21 levels. The present work suggests a potential role for FGF-21 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. ..
  36. Fisher F, Chui P, Antonellis P, Bina H, Kharitonenkov A, Flier J, et al. Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state. Diabetes. 2010;59:2781-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key mediator of fatty acid oxidation and lipid metabolism. Pharmacological doses of FGF21 improve glucose tolerance, lower serum free fatty acids, and lead to weight loss in obese mice...
  37. Micanovic R, Raches D, Dunbar J, Driver D, Bina H, Dickinson C, et al. Different roles of N- and C- termini in the functional activity of FGF21. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:227-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a member of endocrine FGFs subfamily, along with FGF19 and FGF23. It is emerging as a novel regulator with beneficial effects on a variety of metabolic parameters, including glucose and lipid control...
  38. Nishimura T, Nakatake Y, Konishi M, Itoh N. Identification of a novel FGF, FGF-21, preferentially expressed in the liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492:203-6 pubmed
    ..Human FGF-21 is highly identical ( approximately 75% amino acid identity) to mouse FGF-21. Among human FGF family members, FGF-21 is most similar ( approximately 35% amino acid identity) to FGF-19. ..
  39. Ogawa Y, Kurosu H, Yamamoto M, Nandi A, Rosenblatt K, Goetz R, et al. BetaKlotho is required for metabolic activity of fibroblast growth factor 21. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7432-7 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver-derived endocrine factor that stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes...
  40. Cuevas Ramos D, Almeda Valdes P, Meza Arana C, Brito Córdova G, Gomez Perez F, Mehta R, et al. Exercise increases serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38022 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. This was a comparative longitudinal study...
  41. De Sousa Coelho A, Marrero P, Haro D. Activating transcription factor 4-dependent induction of FGF21 during amino acid deprivation. Biochem J. 2012;443:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The hormone FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) is induced during fasting in liver and its expression induces a metabolic state that mimics long-term ..
  42. Stein S, Stepan H, Kratzsch J, Verlohren M, Verlohren H, Drynda K, et al. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Metabolism. 2010;59:33-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity...
  43. Mraz M, Bartlova M, Lacinova Z, Michalsky D, Kasalicky M, Haluzikova D, et al. Serum concentrations and tissue expression of a novel endocrine regulator fibroblast growth factor-21 in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:369-75 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a novel endocrine and paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis...
  44. Stepan H, Kley K, Hindricks J, Kralisch S, Jank A, Schaarschmidt W, et al. Serum levels of the adipokine fibroblast growth factor-21 are increased in preeclampsia. Cytokine. 2013;62:322-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal FGF-21 serum concentrations are significantly increased in PE during pregnancy. Furthermore, triglycerides, glomerular filtration rate, and LDL cholesterol are independent predictors of circulating FGF-21 in pregnant women. ..
  45. Ikram M, Sim X, Xueling S, Jensen R, Cotch M, Hewitt A, et al. Four novel Loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24, and 5q14) influence the microcirculation in vivo. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001184 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further insights into the contribution and biological mechanisms of microcirculatory changes that underlie cardiovascular disease. ..
  46. Nakayama Y, Masuda Y, Ohta H, Tanaka T, Washida M, Nabeshima Y, et al. Fgf21 regulates T-cell development in the neonatal and juvenile thymus. Sci Rep. 2017;7:330 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver...
  47. Kokkinos J, Tang S, Rye K, Ong K. The role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2017;257:259-265 pubmed publisher
    The metabolic properties of the endocrine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been extensively studied in the past decade. Previous studies have demonstrated the lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of FGF21...
  48. Yuan X, Tsujimoto K, Hashimoto K, Kawahori K, Hanzawa N, Hamaguchi M, et al. Epigenetic modulation of Fgf21 in the perinatal mouse liver ameliorates diet-induced obesity in adulthood. Nat Commun. 2018;9:636 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the fibroblast growth factor-21 gene (Fgf21) is subject to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α-dependent DNA demethylation in the liver ..
  49. Joe Y, Kim S, Kim H, Park J, Chen Y, Park H, et al. FGF21-induced by carbon monoxide mediates metabolic homeostasis via the PERK/ATF4 pathway. FASEB J. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..i>in vivo and in vitro We show that CO increased the expression and section of the fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in hepatocytes and liver...
  50. Søberg S, Sandholt C, Jespersen N, Toft U, Madsen A, von Holstein Rathlou S, et al. FGF21 Is a Sugar-Induced Hormone Associated with Sweet Intake and Preference in Humans. Cell Metab. 2017;25:1045-1053.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) reduces sweet consumption in rodents and primates, whereas knockout of Fgf21 increases sugar ..
  51. Xu Z, Sun J, Tong Q, Lin Q, Qian L, Park Y, et al. The Role of ERK1/2 in the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..However, many recent studies have demonstrated that ERK1/2 signaling activation also plays a crucial role in FGF21 signaling and exerts a protective environment of glucose and lipid metabolism, therefore preventing abnormal ..
  52. Fan H, Sun X, Zhang H, Liu J, Zhang P, Xu Y, et al. Effect of Metformin on Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Levels in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016;18:120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Metformin may play a role in reducing the FGF-21 levels in patients with T2DM, likely through the amelioration of glucose-lipid metabolism and inflammation. ..
  53. Samms R, Murphy M, Fowler M, Cooper S, Emmerson P, Coskun T, et al. Dual effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 on hepatic energy metabolism. J Endocrinol. 2015;227:37-47 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) affects hepatic integration of carbohydrate and fat metabolism in Siberian hamsters, a natural model of adiposity...
  54. Coppage A, Heard K, Dimare M, Liu Y, Wu W, Lai J, et al. Human FGF-21 Is a Substrate of Fibroblast Activation Protein. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151269 pubmed publisher
  55. Wang X, Wei W, Krzeszinski J, Wang Y, Wan Y. A Liver-Bone Endocrine Relay by IGFBP1 Promotes Osteoclastogenesis and Mediates FGF21-Induced Bone Resorption. Cell Metab. 2015;22:811-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promotes insulin sensitivity but causes bone loss. It elevates bone resorption by an undefined non-osteoclast-autonomous mechanism...
  56. Bainbridge T, Dunshee D, Kljavin N, Skelton N, Sonoda J, Ernst J. Selective Homogeneous Assay for Circulating Endopeptidase Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP). Sci Rep. 2017;7:12524 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescence intensity assay for circulating FAP activity based on a recently identified natural substrate, FGF21. This assay is unique in that it can effectively distinguish endopeptidase activity of FAP from that of other ..
  57. McKeown N, Dashti H, Ma J, Haslam D, Kiefte de Jong J, Smith C, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake associations with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are not modified by selected genetic variants in a ChREBP-FGF21 pathway: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2018;61:317-330 pubmed publisher
    ..involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease...
  58. Lin X, He X, Zeng J, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Tan J, et al. FGF21 increases cholesterol efflux by upregulating ABCA1 through the ERK1/2-PPAR?-LXR? pathway in THP1 macrophage-derived foam cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2014;33:514-21 pubmed publisher
    b>FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily, is an important endogenous regulator of systemic glucose and lipid metabolism...
  59. Li G, Yin J, Fu J, Li L, Grant S, Li C, et al. FGF21 deficiency is associated with childhood obesity, insulin resistance and hypoadiponectinaemia: The BCAMS Study. Diabetes Metab. 2017;43:253-260 pubmed publisher
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exerts beneficial effects on metabolic homoeostasis and has been reported to be regulated by adiponectin, leptin and resistin...
  60. Kim G, Kwon J, Cho J, Zhang L, Mansfield B, Chou J. Downregulation of pathways implicated in liver inflammation and tumorigenesis of glycogen storage disease type Ia mice receiving gene therapy. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1890-1899 pubmed publisher
    ..AAV-NT mice also expressed increased levels of E-cadherin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), targets of sirtuin-1, and ?-klotho, which can acts as a tumor suppressor...
  61. Chalvon Demersay T, Even P, Chaumontet C, Piedcoq J, Viollet B, Gaudichon C, et al. Modifying the Dietary Carbohydrate-to-Protein Ratio Alters the Postprandial Macronutrient Oxidation Pattern in Liver of AMPK-Deficient Mice. J Nutr. 2017;147:1669-1676 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were associated with a 650% higher secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) 2 h after refeeding...
  62. Zhao Y, Liu G, Kwok S, Jones B, Liu J, Marchisin D, et al. Highly selective and sensitive measurement of active forms of FGF21 using novel immunocapture enrichment with LC-MS/MS. Bioanalysis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Recombinant FGF21 analogs are under wide ranging investigations as a potential therapeutic agent for Type 2 diabetes, as well as other metabolic disorders...
  63. Durovcová V, Marek J, Hana V, Matoulek M, Zikan V, Haluzikova D, et al. Plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 21 and 19 in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Physiol Res. 2010;59:415-22 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to measure plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 and 19 (FGF21 and FGF19) levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and to compare it with those of lean control subjects (C) and patients with obesity (..