Gene Symbol: FGF-2
Description: fibroblast growth factor 2
Alias: BFGF, FGF-2, FGFB, HBGF-2, fibroblast growth factor 2, basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF, fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic), heparin-binding growth factor 2, prostatropin
Species: human
Products:     FGF-2

Top Publications

  1. Lemiere S, Azar R, Belloc F, Gürsel D, Pyronnet S, Bikfalvi A, et al. Overexpression of high molecular weight FGF-2 forms inhibits glioma growth by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:3701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, inhibition of tumor growth was observed when cells expressed HMW FGF-2. This indicates that HMW FGF-2 inhibits tumor growth in glioma cells by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation. ..
  2. Terai H, Soejima K, Yasuda H, Nakayama S, Hamamoto J, Arai D, et al. Activation of the FGF2-FGFR1 autocrine pathway: a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that FGF2 -FGFR1 activation through an autocrine loop is a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. ..
  3. Keller M, Rüegg A, Werner S, Beer H. Active caspase-1 is a regulator of unconventional protein secretion. Cell. 2008;132:818-31 pubmed publisher
    ..By this mechanism, stress-induced activation of caspase-1 directly links inflammation to cytoprotection, cell survival, and regenerative processes. ..
  4. Ma X, Dang X, Claus P, Hirst C, Fandrich R, Jin Y, et al. Chromatin compaction and cell death by high molecular weight FGF-2 depend on its nuclear localization, intracrine ERK activation, and engagement of mitochondria. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:690-8 pubmed
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is produced as CUG-initiated, 22-34 kDa or AUG-initiated 18 kDa isoforms (hi- and lo-FGF-2, respectively), with potentially distinct functions...
  5. Valtink M, Knels L, Stanke N, Engelmann K, Funk R, Lindemann D. Overexpression of human HMW FGF-2 but not LMW FGF-2 reduces the cytotoxic effect of lentiviral gene transfer in human corneal endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Such cotransduction of a survival factor may increase cell survival after gene transfer, thereby improving gene therapeutic approaches. ..
  6. Ribatti D, Vacca A, Rusnati M, Presta M. The discovery of basic fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor-2 and its role in haematological malignancies. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2007;18:327-34 pubmed
    ..This review describes its history, as well as its role in tumor angiogenesis associated with haematological malignancies, as traced by the main contributions to the international medical literature. ..
  7. Kakudo N, Shimotsuma A, Kusumoto K. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;359:239-44 pubmed
    ..The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration. ..
  8. Tholozan F, Gribbon C, Li Z, Goldberg M, Prescott A, McKie N, et al. FGF-2 release from the lens capsule by MMP-2 maintains lens epithelial cell viability. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4222-31 pubmed
    ..The lens capsule is also a source of soluble factors including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and perlecan, an extracellular matrix component that enhances FGF-2 activity...
  9. Muddasani P, Norman J, Ellman M, Van Wijnen A, Im H. Basic fibroblast growth factor activates the MAPK and NFkappaB pathways that converge on Elk-1 to control production of matrix metalloproteinase-13 by human adult articular chondrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31409-21 pubmed
    The pathology of joint destruction is associated with elevated production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)...

More Information


  1. Yu P, Ferrari G, Pirelli L, Galloway A, Mignatti P, Pintucci G. Thrombin cleaves the high molecular weight forms of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2): a novel mechanism for the control of FGF-2 and thrombin activity. Oncogene. 2008;27:2594-601 pubmed
    ..This post-translational control mechanism adds a novel level of complexity to the regulation of FGF-2, and links the activities of thrombin and FGF-2 in patho-physiological processes in which both molecules are expressed. ..
  2. Fujii T, Yonemitsu Y, Onimaru M, Inoue M, Hasegawa M, Kuwano H, et al. VEGF function for upregulation of endogenous PlGF expression during FGF-2-mediated therapeutic angiogenesis. Atherosclerosis. 2008;200:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the FGF-2-mediated enhancement of PlGF expression was dependent on VEGF function, and the FGF-2/VEGF axis participates in FGF-2-mediated angiogenesis indirectly via PlGF as well as directly. ..
  3. Petrovic M, Krkovic M, Osredkar J, Hawlina M, Petrovic D. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the basic fibroblast growth factor gene and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:168-72 pubmed publisher
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression is implicated in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)...
  4. Mutti D, Cooper M, O BRIEN S, Jones L, Marazita M, Murray J, et al. Candidate gene and locus analysis of myopia. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1012-9 pubmed
    ..Associations in the current analysis are suggestive of involvement of COL2A1. Future studies should focus on replication in other samples and in genome-wide approaches. ..
  5. Temmerman K, Ebert A, Muller H, Sinning I, Tews I, Nickel W. A direct role for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate in unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2. Traffic. 2008;9:1204-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a mitogen that is exported from cells by an endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-independent secretory pathway...
  6. Goodger S, Robinson C, Murphy K, Gasiunas N, Harmer N, Blundell T, et al. Evidence that heparin saccharides promote FGF2 mitogenesis through two distinct mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, depending on saccharide structure, there are different architectures and modes of ternary complex assembly that differ in stability and/or efficiency of transmembrane signaling. ..
  7. Chikazawa M, Inoue K, Fukata S, Karashima T, Shuin T. Expression of angiogenesis-related genes regulates different steps in the process of tumor growth and metastasis in human urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Pathobiology. 2008;75:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We selected the clones with the highest and lowest expression level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular permeability factor or interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the highly ..
  8. Timmer M, Cesnulevicius K, Winkler C, Kolb J, Lipokatic Takacs E, Jungnickel J, et al. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF receptor 3 are required for the development of the substantia nigra, and FGF-2 plays a crucial role for the rescue of dopaminergic neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. J Neurosci. 2007;27:459-71 pubmed
    ..The lack of FGF-2 seems to be (over)compensated during development, but, after lesion, compensation mechanisms fail. The transgenic mice showed that endogenous FGF-2 protects DA neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. ..
  9. Yu P, Ferrari G, Galloway A, Mignatti P, Pintucci G. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2): the high molecular weight forms come of age. J Cell Biochem. 2007;100:1100-8 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the biochemical features and biological activities of the different FGF-2 forms. In particular, we focus on the properties that are unique to the HMW forms and its biological functions. ..
  10. Zaragosi L, Ailhaud G, Dani C. Autocrine fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling is critical for self-renewal of human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2412-9 pubmed
    ..This decrease is associated with a decrease in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression and can be circumvented by chronic treatment with exogenous FGF2...
  11. Zhang X, Ibrahimi O, Olsen S, Umemori H, Mohammadi M, Ornitz D. Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family. The complete mammalian FGF family. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15694-700 pubmed
    ..This study completes the mitogenesis-based comparison of receptor specificity of the entire FGF family under standard conditions and should help in interpreting and predicting in vivo biological activity. ..
  12. Bae Y, Bae M, Kim S, Lee J, Wee H, Bae S. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 by visfatin that promotes endothelial angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further suggest an integral role for visfatin-FGF-2 signaling axis in modulating endothelial angiogenesis. ..
  13. Izikki M, Guignabert C, Fadel E, Humbert M, Tu L, Zadigue P, et al. Endothelial-derived FGF2 contributes to the progression of pulmonary hypertension in humans and rodents. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:512-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, endothelial FGF2 is overproduced in IPH and contributes to SMC hyperplasia in IPH, identifying FGF2 as a promising target for new treatments against PH. ..
  14. Donnem T, Al Shibli K, Al Saad S, Busund L, Bremnes R. Prognostic impact of fibroblast growth factor 2 in non-small cell lung cancer: coexpression with VEGFR-3 and PDGF-B predicts poor survival. J Thorac Oncol. 2009;4:578-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2; basic fibroblast growth factor, b-FGF) and its main receptor FGFR-1 are important in both hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis...
  15. Lin H, Wan L, Tsai Y, Liu S, Chen W, Tsai S, et al. Sclera-related gene polymorphisms in high myopia. Mol Vis. 2009;15:1655-63 pubmed
    Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and fibromodulin (FMOD) are important extracellular matrix components of the sclera and have been shown to be associated with the development of high ..
  16. Marzioni D, Lorenzi T, Mazzucchelli R, Capparuccia L, Morroni M, Fiorini R, et al. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, its receptors and syndecans in bladder cancer. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:627-38 pubmed
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a heparin-binding cationic protein involved in a variety of pathological conditions including angiogenesis and solid tumour growth...
  17. Kariz S, Grabar D, Krkovic M, Osredkar J, Petrovic D. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the basic fibroblast growth factor gene are not associated with myocardial infarction in a Slovene population with type 2 diabetes. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1596-603 pubmed
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional growth factor that may play a significant role in atherosclerotic vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  18. Liao S, Bodmer J, Azhar M, Newman G, Coffin J, Doetschman T, et al. The influence of FGF2 high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms in the development of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:1245-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) consists of multiple protein isoforms (low [LMW] and high molecular weight [HMW]), which are localized to different cellular compartments, indicating unique biological activity...
  19. Harfouche G, Vaigot P, Rachidi W, Rigaud O, Moratille S, Marie M, et al. Fibroblast growth factor type 2 signaling is critical for DNA repair in human keratinocyte stem cells. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, apart from its well-known role as a strong mitogen and prosurvival factor, FGF2 helps to maintain genomic integrity in stem cells by activating stress-induced DNA repair. ..
  20. Tu L, Dewachter L, Gore B, Fadel E, Dartevelle P, Simonneau G, et al. Autocrine fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling contributes to altered endothelial phenotype in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:311-22 pubmed publisher
  21. Shi C, Lu J, Wu W, Ma F, Georges J, Huang H, et al. Endothelial cell-specific molecule 2 (ECSM2) localizes to cell-cell junctions and modulates bFGF-directed cell migration via the ERK-FAK pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21482 pubmed publisher
    ..and transwell assays showed that ECSM2 promoted cell-cell adhesion and attenuated basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-driven EC migration...
  22. Platonova N, Miquel G, Regenfuss B, Taouji S, Cursiefen C, Chevet E, et al. Evidence for the interaction of fibroblast growth factor-2 with the lymphatic endothelial cell marker LYVE-1. Blood. 2013;121:1229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well established that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induces lymphangiogenesis...
  23. Zhou B, Ma R, Si W, Li S, Xu Y, Tu X, et al. MicroRNA-503 targets FGF2 and VEGFA and inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Cancer Lett. 2013;333:159-69 pubmed publisher
  24. Rades D, Seibold N, Gebhard M, Noack F, Bruchhage K, Schild S. Fibroblast growth factor 2 is of prognostic value for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strahlenther Onkol. 2014;190:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the prognostic value of the tumor cell expression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in patients treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy...
  25. Coleman S, Chioni A, Ghallab M, Anderson R, Lemoine N, Kocher H, et al. Nuclear translocation of FGFR1 and FGF2 in pancreatic stellate cells facilitates pancreatic cancer cell invasion. EMBO Mol Med. 2014;6:467-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a novel therapeutic approach, where preventing nuclear FGF/FGFR mediated proliferation and invasion in PSCs leads to disruption of the tumour microenvironment, preventing pancreatic cancer cell invasion. ..
  26. Moy F, Seddon A, Bohlen P, Powers R. High-resolution solution structure of basic fibroblast growth factor determined by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1996;35:13552-61 pubmed
    ..9 A resolution X-ray structure by Zhu et al. (1991) yields a backbone atomic rms difference of 0.94 A, indicative of a close similarity between the NMR and X-ray structures. ..
  27. Stachowiak E, Maher P, Tucholski J, Mordechai E, Joy A, Moffett J, et al. Nuclear accumulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors in human glial cells--association with cell proliferation. Oncogene. 1997;14:2201-11 pubmed
  28. Ho C, Sheu L, Li C. Immunohistochemical expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and their receptors in stage IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2002;10:316-21 pubmed
    ..of two important angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), are associated with a poor prognosis...
  29. Pazgal I, Zimra Y, Tzabar C, Okon E, Rabizadeh E, Shaklai M, et al. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor is associated with poor outcome in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Cancer. 2002;86:1770-5 pubmed
  30. Abraham J, Whang J, Tumolo A, Mergia A, Friedman J, Gospodarowicz D, et al. Human basic fibroblast growth factor: nucleotide sequence and genomic organization. EMBO J. 1986;5:2523-8 pubmed
    ..All of the basic, heparin-binding endothelial cell mitogens of similar amino acid composition that have been described must therefore be products of this single gene. ..
  31. Schlessinger J, Plotnikov A, Ibrahimi O, Eliseenkova A, Yeh B, Yayon A, et al. Crystal structure of a ternary FGF-FGFR-heparin complex reveals a dual role for heparin in FGFR binding and dimerization. Mol Cell. 2000;6:743-50 pubmed
    ..This model provides a structural basis for FGFR activation by small molecule heparin analogs and may facilitate the design of heparin mimetics capable of modulating FGF signaling. ..
  32. Ibrahimi O, Eliseenkova A, Plotnikov A, Yu K, Ornitz D, Mohammadi M. Structural basis for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 activation in Apert syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7182-7 pubmed
    ..substitutions cause AS, we determined the crystal structures of these two FGFR2 mutants in complex with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)...
  33. Eriksson A, Cousens L, Weaver L, Matthews B. Three-dimensional structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:3441-5 pubmed
    The three-dimensional structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been determined by x-ray crystallography and refined to a crystallographic residual of 17.4% at 2.2-A resolution...
  34. Ensoli B, Gendelman R, Markham P, Fiorelli V, Colombini S, Raffeld M, et al. Synergy between basic fibroblast growth factor and HIV-1 Tat protein in induction of Kaposi's sarcoma. Nature. 1994;371:674-80 pubmed
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein synergize in inducing angiogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions in mice...
  35. Perollet C, Han Z, Savona C, Caen J, Bikfalvi A. Platelet factor 4 modulates fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) activity and inhibits FGF-2 dimerization. Blood. 1998;91:3289-99 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PF-4 interacts with FGF-2 by complex formation, inhibiting FGF-2 dimerization, binding to FGF receptors, and internalization. This mechanism most likely contributes to the antiangiogenic properties of PF-4. ..
  36. Ortega S, Ittmann M, Tsang S, Ehrlich M, Basilico C. Neuronal defects and delayed wound healing in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5672-7 pubmed
  37. Arnaud E, Touriol C, Boutonnet C, Gensac M, Vagner S, Prats H, et al. A new 34-kilodalton isoform of human fibroblast growth factor 2 is cap dependently synthesized by using a non-AUG start codon and behaves as a survival factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:505-14 pubmed
    Four isoforms of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) result from alternative initiations of translation at three CUG start codons and one AUG start codon...
  38. Plotnikov A, Schlessinger J, Hubbard S, Mohammadi M. Structural basis for FGF receptor dimerization and activation. Cell. 1999;98:641-50 pubmed
    ..A general model for FGF- and heparin-induced FGFR dimerization is inferred from the crystal structure, unifying a wealth of biochemical data. ..
  39. Chellaiah A, Yuan W, Chellaiah M, Ornitz D. Mapping ligand binding domains in chimeric fibroblast growth factor receptor molecules. Multiple regions determine ligand binding specificity. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:34785-94 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that multiple regions of the FGFR regulate ligand binding specificity and that these regions are distinct with respect to different members of the FGF family. ..
  40. Plotnikov A, Hubbard S, Schlessinger J, Mohammadi M. Crystal structures of two FGF-FGFR complexes reveal the determinants of ligand-receptor specificity. Cell. 2000;101:413-24 pubmed
    ..These structures provide a molecular basis for FGF1 as a universal FGFR ligand and for modulation of FGF-FGFR specificity through primary sequence variations and alternative splicing. ..
  41. Knox S, Merry C, Stringer S, Melrose J, Whitelock J. Not all perlecans are created equal: interactions with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14657-65 pubmed
  42. Deo D, Axelrad T, Robert E, Marcheselli V, Bazan N, Hunt J. Phosphorylation of STAT-3 in response to basic fibroblast growth factor occurs through a mechanism involving platelet-activating factor, JAK-2, and Src in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Evidence for a dual kinase mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21237-45 pubmed
    ..We have shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation induces rapid proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which is reduced ..
  43. Zhang H, Issekutz A. Down-modulation of monocyte transendothelial migration and endothelial adhesion molecule expression by fibroblast growth factor: reversal by the anti-angiogenic agent SU6668. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:2219-30 pubmed
    Basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and aFGF, respectively) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exert angiogenic actions and have a role in wound healing, inflammation, and tumor growth...
  44. Collin Osdoby P, Rothe L, Bekker S, Anderson F, Huang Y, Osdoby P. Basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates osteoclast recruitment, development, and bone pit resorption in association with angiogenesis in vivo on the chick chorioallantoic membrane and activates isolated avian osteoclast resorption in vitro. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:1859-71 pubmed
    ..adjacent to a bone chip was used to investigate if a potent angiogenic stimulator, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), could promote OC recruitment, differentiation, and resorption in vivo...
  45. Beranek M, Tschoplova S, Kankova K, Kuhrová V, Vacha J. Genetic variation in the promoter region of the basic fibroblast growth factor gene. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:374-7 pubmed
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family that possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and is involved in a variety of biological processes...
  46. Meier F, Caroli U, Satyamoorthy K, Schittek B, Bauer J, Berking C, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-2 but not Mel-CAM and/or beta3 integrin promotes progression of melanocytes to melanoma. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12:296-306 pubmed
    ..The described results of the current and previous studies emphasise the key role of FGF-2 in melanoma development and progression, underscoring the promise of FGF-2 as a target for therapy. ..
  47. Fahmy R, Dass C, Sun L, Chesterman C, Khachigian L. Transcription factor Egr-1 supports FGF-dependent angiogenesis during neovascularization and tumor growth. Nat Med. 2003;9:1026-32 pubmed
    ..Egr-1 DNAzymes also repressed neovascularization of rat cornea. Thus, microvascular endothelial cell growth, neovascularization, tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth are processes that are critically dependent on Egr-1. ..
  48. Taverna S, Ghersi G, Ginestra A, Rigogliuso S, Pecorella S, Alaimo G, et al. Shedding of membrane vesicles mediates fibroblast growth factor-2 release from cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51911-9 pubmed
    ..The comparison of the stimulatory effects of shed vesicles and vesicle-free conditioned medium showed that vesicles represent a major reservoir of FGF-2. Thus, FGF-2 can be released from cells through vesicle shedding. ..
  49. Li C, Lee F, Hwang S, Lu R, Lee W, Chao Y, et al. Spider angiomas in patients with liver cirrhosis: role of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:2832-5 pubmed
    To investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) are associated with spider angiomas in patients with liver cirrhosis...
  50. Prochnau D, Rödel J, Hartmann M, Straube E, Figulla H. Growth factor production in human endothelial cells after Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:53-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae on expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in human endothelial cells...
  51. Loeser R, Chubinskaya S, Pacione C, Im H. Basic fibroblast growth factor inhibits the anabolic activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 and osteogenic protein 1 in adult human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:3910-7 pubmed
    To determine the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the chondrocyte anabolic activity promoted by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1)...
  52. Lafage Pochitaloff M, Galland F, Simonetti J, Prats H, Mattei M, Birnbaum D. The human basic fibroblast growth factor gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 4 at bands q26-q27. Oncogene Res. 1990;5:241-4 pubmed
    ..This location is on the same chromosome as that of a related gene, FGF.5, but on a distinct region. ..
  53. Barclay C, Li A, Geldenhuys L, Baguma Nibasheka M, Porter G, Veugelers P, et al. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) overexpression is a risk factor for esophageal cancer recurrence and reduced survival, which is ameliorated by coexpression of the FGF-2 antisense gene. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7683-91 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that FGF-AS is a novel tumor suppressor that modulates the effect of FGF-2 expression and may have potential clinical application to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  54. Wang G, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Li J, Cai J, Wang P, et al. Noggin and bFGF cooperate to maintain the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder layers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:934-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found that the combination of noggin and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was sufficient to maintain the prolonged growth of hES cells while retaining all hES cell features...
  55. Mohammadi M, Dikic I, Sorokin A, Burgess W, Jaye M, Schlessinger J. Identification of six novel autophosphorylation sites on fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and elucidation of their importance in receptor activation and signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:977-89 pubmed
    ..Binding of the Grb2/Sos complex to phosphorylated Shc and pp90 may therefore be the key link between FGFR1 and the Ras signaling pathway, mito-genesis, and neuronal differentiation. ..
  56. Mohammadi M, McMahon G, Sun L, Tang C, Hirth P, Yeh B, et al. Structures of the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor in complex with inhibitors. Science. 1997;276:955-60 pubmed
    ..This structural information will facilitate the design of new inhibitors for use in the treatment of cancer and other diseases in which cell signaling by tyrosine kinases plays a crucial role in disease pathogenesis. ..
  57. Lai J, Chien J, Moser D, Staub J, Aderca I, Montoya D, et al. hSulf1 Sulfatase promotes apoptosis of hepatocellular cancer cells by decreasing heparin-binding growth factor signaling. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:231-48 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation of hSulf1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing heparin-binding growth factor signaling and resistance to apoptosis. ..
  58. Ornitz D, Itoh N. Fibroblast growth factors. Genome Biol. 2001;2:REVIEWS3005 pubmed
    ..When inappropriately expressed, some FGFs can contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. A subset of the FGF family, expressed in adult tissue, is important for neuronal signal transduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems. ..
  59. Zhu X, Komiya H, Chirino A, Faham S, Fox G, Arakawa T, et al. Three-dimensional structures of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors. Science. 1991;251:90-3 pubmed
    ..These sites include beta-sheet strand 10, which is adjacent to the site of an extended sequence insertion in several oncogene proteins of the FGF family, and which shows sequence conservation among the FGF family and interleukin-1 beta. ..