FCGR2B

Summary

Gene Symbol: FCGR2B
Description: Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIb
Alias: CD32, CD32B, FCG2, FCGR2, IGFR2, low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b, CDw32, Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity II, receptor for (CD32), Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32), Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor for (CD32), Fc gamma RIIb, Fc gamma receptor IIb, fc-gamma RII-b, fc-gamma-RIIb, fcRII-b, igG Fc receptor II-b
Species: human
Products:     FCGR2B

Top Publications

  1. Warmerdam P, van den Herik Oudijk I, Parren P, Westerdaal N, van de Winkel J, Capel P. Interaction of a human Fc gamma RIIb1 (CD32) isoform with murine and human IgG subclasses. Int Immunol. 1993;5:239-47 pubmed
    A group of Fc receptor molecules, classified CD32, recognize the Fc moiety of IgG with low affinity...
  2. Pricop L, Redecha P, Teillaud J, Frey J, Fridman W, Sautes Fridman C, et al. Differential modulation of stimulatory and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors on human monocytes by Th1 and Th2 cytokines. J Immunol. 2001;166:531-7 pubmed
  3. Siriboonrit U, Tsuchiya N, Sirikong M, Kyogoku C, Bejrachandra S, Suthipinittharm P, et al. Association of Fcgamma receptor IIb and IIIb polymorphisms with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Thais. Tissue Antigens. 2003;61:374-83 pubmed
    ..These results provided evidence that FcgammaR polymorphisms may be an important predisposing factor also in Thais in a complex manner. ..
  4. Chen J, Wang C, Ma C, Hsu L, Ho H, Wu Y, et al. A transmembrane polymorphism in FcgammaRIIb (FCGR2B) is associated with the production of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in Taiwanese RA. Genes Immun. 2008;9:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..038 (95% CI 1.046-3.973)) and the 187-Ile allele was associated with early-onset of RA in Taiwanese patients (P=0.045, OR 1.548 (95% CI 1.007-2.379)). Thus, FcgammaRIIb SNP 187-Ile/Thr may influence the RA phenotypes in Taiwanese RA. ..
  5. Zhou X, LV J, Bu D, Yu L, Yang Y, Zhao J, et al. Copy number variation of FCGR3A rather than FCGR3B and FCGR2B is associated with susceptibility to anti-GBM disease. Int Immunol. 2010;22:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated CNV of three FCGR genes, including two (FCGR3A and FCGR3B) for activating FcgammaRs and one (FCGR2B) for inhibitory FcgammaR by duplex quantitative real-time PCR...
  6. Kono H, Kyogoku C, Suzuki T, Tsuchiya N, Honda H, Yamamoto K, et al. FcgammaRIIB Ile232Thr transmembrane polymorphism associated with human systemic lupus erythematosus decreases affinity to lipid rafts and attenuates inhibitory effects on B cell receptor signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2881-92 pubmed
    ..We have identified a polymorphism FCGR2B c...
  7. Kyogoku C, Tsuchiya N, Matsuta K, Tokunaga K. Studies on the association of Fc gamma receptor IIA, IIB, IIIA and IIIB polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese: evidence for a genetic interaction between HLA-DRB1 and FCGR3A. Genes Immun. 2002;3:488-93 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to examine whether FCGR2B-I232T was associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese...
  8. Zhou X, LV J, Yu L, Cui Z, Zhao J, Yang R, et al. FCGR2B gene polymorphism rather than FCGR2A, FCGR3A and FCGR3B is associated with anti-GBM disease in Chinese. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping of the previously identified polymorphisms FCGR2A131H/R (rs1801274), FCGR2B 232I/T (rs1050501) and FCGR3A176F/V (rs396991) were detected by the TaqMan genotyping assay and FCGR3B NA1/2 by ..
  9. Chai L, Song Y, Zee K, Leung W. SNPs of Fc-gamma receptor genes and chronic periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2010;89:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..003, OR = 3.35). Within the limitations of this study, SNP rs445509 of FCGR3A seem to be negatively associated, while smoking was positively associated, with severe chronic periodontitis among Hong Kong Chinese. ..

More Information

Publications87

  1. Breunis W, van Mirre E, Geissler J, Laddach N, Wolbink G, van der Schoot E, et al. Copy number variation at the FCGR locus includes FCGR3A, FCGR2C and FCGR3B but not FCGR2A and FCGR2B. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:E640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..No CNV of the FCGR2A and FCGR2B genes was observed in over 600 individuals...
  2. Bewarder N, Weinrich V, Budde P, Hartmann D, Flaswinkel H, Reth M, et al. In vivo and in vitro specificity of protein tyrosine kinases for immunoglobulin G receptor (FcgammaRII) phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4735-43 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the phosphorylation pattern of each PTK observed in vitro with the phosphorylation pattern observed in vivo suggests that Lyn is the most likely candidate for FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaRIIb1 phosphorylation in vivo. ..
  3. Brooks D, Qiu W, Luster A, Ravetch J. Structure and expression of human IgG FcRII(CD32). Functional heterogeneity is encoded by the alternatively spliced products of multiple genes. J Exp Med. 1989;170:1369-85 pubmed
    ..A minimum of three genes (Fc gamma RIIa, IIa', and Fc gamma RIIb) encode these transcripts, which demonstrate highly related extracellular and membrane spanning domains...
  4. Magnusson S, Engstrom M, Jacob U, Ulfgren A, Kleinau S. High synovial expression of the inhibitory FcgammaRIIb in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:R51 pubmed
    ..Anti-inflammatory drugs that target activating FcgammaRs may represent valuable therapeutics in this disease. ..
  5. Mackay M, Stanevsky A, Wang T, Aranow C, Li M, Koenig S, et al. Selective dysregulation of the FcgammaIIB receptor on memory B cells in SLE. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2157-64 pubmed
  6. Chen J, Wang C, Ma C, Luo S, Edberg J, Kimberly R, et al. Association of a transmembrane polymorphism of Fcgamma receptor IIb (FCGR2B) with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwanese patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3908-17 pubmed
    ..A combined analysis was conducted to assess the FCGR2B Thr187 allele as a common risk factor in different ethnic populations...
  7. Pan F, Zhang K, Li X, Xu J, Hao J, Ye D. Association of Fcgamma receptor IIB gene polymorphism with genetic susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese populations--a family-based association study. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;43:35-41 pubmed
    ..539, P=0.00042). Our findings provide strong evidence suggesting the FcgammaRIIB-50T-225C haplotype might be the susceptible factor of SLE in Chinese population. ..
  8. Floto R, Clatworthy M, Heilbronn K, Rosner D, Macary P, Rankin A, et al. Loss of function of a lupus-associated FcgammaRIIb polymorphism through exclusion from lipid rafts. Nat Med. 2005;11:1056-8 pubmed
    ..FcgammaRIIbT(232) is unable to inhibit activatory receptors because it is excluded from sphingolipid rafts, resulting in the unopposed proinflammatory signaling thought to promote SLE. ..
  9. Bruin M, Bierings M, Uiterwaal C, Revesz T, Bode L, Wiesman M, et al. Platelet count, previous infection and FCGR2B genotype predict development of chronic disease in newly diagnosed idiopathic thrombocytopenia in childhood: results of a prospective study. Br J Haematol. 2004;127:561-7 pubmed
    ..57) and FGR2B-232I/T genotype (OR 7.9, CI 0.96-65.27). The latter may point at an immune-modulating role of Fc gamma RIIb in ITP...
  10. Su K, Wu J, Edberg J, Li X, Ferguson P, Cooper G, et al. A promoter haplotype of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-bearing FcgammaRIIb alters receptor expression and associates with autoimmunity. I. Regulatory FCGR2B polymorphisms and their association with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol. 2004;172:7186-91 pubmed
    ..We have identified 10 novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of human FCGR2B gene and characterized two functionally distinct haplotypes in its proximal promoter...
  11. Wenink M, Santegoets K, Roelofs M, Huijbens R, Koenen H, van Beek R, et al. The inhibitory Fc gamma IIb receptor dampens TLR4-mediated immune responses and is selectively up-regulated on dendritic cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients with quiescent disease. J Immunol. 2009;183:4509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This TLR4-FcgammaRIIb interaction was shown to dependent on the PI3K and Akt pathway. ..
  12. Magnusson V, Zunec R, Odeberg J, Sturfelt G, Truedsson L, Gunnarsson I, et al. Polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptor type IIB gene are not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Swedish population. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1348-50 pubmed
  13. Niederer H, Willcocks L, Rayner T, Yang W, Lau Y, Williams T, et al. Copy number, linkage disequilibrium and disease association in the FCGR locus. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus CN of FCGR3B, which controls IC responses and uptake by neutrophils, and variations in FCGR2B, which controls factors such as antibody production and macrophage activation, are important in SLE pathogenesis...
  14. Kyogoku C, Dijstelbloem H, Tsuchiya N, Hatta Y, Kato H, Yamaguchi A, et al. Fcgamma receptor gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: contribution of FCGR2B to genetic susceptibility. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1242-54 pubmed
    ..gene of primary significance exists within the FcgammaR region, we screened for polymorphisms of the human FCGR2B gene, and examined whether these polymorphisms are associated with SLE...
  15. Willcocks L, Carr E, Niederer H, Rayner T, Williams T, Yang W, et al. A defunctioning polymorphism in FCGR2B is associated with protection against malaria but susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7881-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a SNP in human FCGR2B that abrogates receptor function is strongly associated with susceptibility to SLE in both Caucasians and ..
  16. Li X, Wu J, Carter R, Edberg J, Su K, Cooper G, et al. A novel polymorphism in the Fcgamma receptor IIB (CD32B) transmembrane region alters receptor signaling. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:3242-52 pubmed
    ..Discovery of SNPs in FCGR2B was performed by direct cycle sequencing of complementary DNA samples derived by reverse transcriptase-polymerase ..
  17. Qiu W, de Bruin D, Brownstein B, Pearse R, Ravetch J. Organization of the human and mouse low-affinity Fc gamma R genes: duplication and recombination. Science. 1990;248:732-5 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the human and mouse genes generated a model for the evolutionary amplification of this locus. ..
  18. Hu X, Wu J, Zhu L, Wang X, Xu B, Wang R, et al. Association of Fc? receptor IIB polymorphism with cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-uninfected Chinese patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42439 pubmed publisher
    ..four functional polymorphisms in low-affinity Fc?Rs, including FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR3A 158F/V, FCGR3B NA1/NA2, and FCGR2B 232I/T, in 117 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and 190 healthy controls by multiplex SNaPshot technology...
  19. Joshi T, Ganesan L, Cao X, Tridandapani S. Molecular analysis of expression and function of hFcgammaRIIbl and b2 isoforms in myeloid cells. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:839-50 pubmed
    ..Finally, both b1 and b2 isoforms of FcgammaRIIb downregulate phagocytosis to a similar extent. Thus we conclude that FcgammaRIIbl and b2 are both functional inhibitory receptors in the phagocytic process. ..
  20. van der Pol W, Jansen M, Sluiter W, van De Sluis B, Leppers van de Straat F, Kobayashi T, et al. Evidence for non-random distribution of Fcgamma receptor genotype combinations. Immunogenetics. 2003;55:240-6 pubmed
    ..00001). This study provides important information for the interpretation of studies reporting associations of FcgammaR alleles with disease, and underscores the apparent differences in FcgammaR heterogeneity between ethnic groups. ..
  21. Chu Z, Tsuchiya N, Kyogoku C, Ohashi J, Qian Y, Xu S, et al. Association of Fcgamma receptor IIb polymorphism with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese: a common susceptibility gene in the Asian populations. Tissue Antigens. 2004;63:21-7 pubmed
    ..recently identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism encoding a non-synonymous substitution, Ile232Thr (I232T), of FCGR2B and its association with SLE in Japanese and in Thais...
  22. Clatworthy M, Willcocks L, Urban B, Langhorne J, Williams T, Peshu N, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated defects in the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb reduce susceptibility to malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7169-74 pubmed
  23. Skilbeck C, Lu X, Sheikh S, Savage C, Nash G. Capture of flowing human neutrophils by immobilised immunoglobulin: roles of Fc-receptors CD16 and CD32. Cell Immunol. 2006;241:26-31 pubmed
    ..and activation of flowing human neutrophils through their Fc-receptors, FcRgammaIIIB (CD16) and FcRgammaIIA (CD32)...
  24. Radstake T, Franke B, Wenink M, Nabbe K, Coenen M, Welsing P, et al. The functional variant of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor IIb (CD32B) is associated with the rate of radiologic joint damage and dendritic cell function in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3828-37 pubmed
    ..was to unravel the role of the inhibitory FcgammaRIIb in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by studying the effect of the FCGR2B 695T>C polymorphism on susceptibility to RA, severity of the disease, and DC function...
  25. Fujita H, Kobayashi T, Tai H, Nagata M, Hoshina H, Nishizawa R, et al. Assessment of 14 functional gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with oral lichen planus: a pilot case-control study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..049). The other 13 SNPs were unassociated with OLP. These results suggest that TNFR2 +587 gene polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to OLP. ..
  26. Fournier E, Siberil S, Costes A, Varin A, Fridman W, Teillaud J, et al. Activation of human peripheral IgM+ B cells is transiently inhibited by BCR-independent aggregation of Fc gammaRIIB. J Immunol. 2008;181:5350-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Fc gammaRIIB could negatively regulate IgM(+) B cells before class-switch occurrence and that its unique engagement by immune complexes represents a reversible checkpoint for peripheral IgM(+) B cells. ..
  27. Berntzen G, Andersen J, Ustgård K, Michaelsen T, Mousavi S, Qian J, et al. Identification of a high affinity FcgammaRIIA-binding peptide that distinguishes FcgammaRIIA from FcgammaRIIB and exploits FcgammaRIIA-mediated phagocytosis and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It is thus overlapping but not identical to that of IgG. Neither activating receptors FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII, nor FcgammaRIIB, all of which lack Phe(163), bound the peptide. ..
  28. Roussel M, Ferrell P, Greenplate A, Lhomme F, Le Gallou S, Diggins K, et al. Mass cytometry deep phenotyping of human mononuclear phagocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells from human blood and bone marrow. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:437-447 pubmed publisher
    ..measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274...
  29. Boross P, Arandhara V, Martin Ramirez J, Santiago Raber M, Carlucci F, Flierman R, et al. The inhibiting Fc receptor for IgG, Fc?RIIB, is a modifier of autoimmune susceptibility. J Immunol. 2011;187:1304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of the Yaa lupus-susceptibility locus, Fc?RIIB(B6)(-/-) mice do develop lethal lupus, confirming that Fc?RIIB deficiency only amplifies spontaneous autoimmunity determined by other loci. ..
  30. Auray G, Keller I, Python S, Gerber M, Bruggmann R, Ruggli N, et al. Characterization and Transcriptomic Analysis of Porcine Blood Conventional and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Reveals Striking Species-Specific Differences. J Immunol. 2016;197:4791-4806 pubmed
    ..As described in other species, only cDC1 express BATF3 and XCR1, cDC2 express FCER1A and FCGR2B, and only pDCs express TCF4 and NRP1 Nevertheless, despite these cross-species conserved subset-specific ..
  31. You Y, Huang X, Chen H, Lyu X, Liu H, Lan H. C-Reactive Protein Promotes Diabetic Kidney Disease in db/db Mice via the CD32b-Smad3-mTOR signaling Pathway. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26740 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced T2DN in CRPtg-db/db mice were associated with over-activation of CRP-CD32b, NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad3, and mTOR signaling...
  32. Devaraj S, Davis B, Simon S, Jialal I. CRP promotes monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion via Fcgamma receptors in human aortic endothelial cells under static and shear flow conditions. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H1170-6 pubmed
    ..02) compared with those of control. Preincubation with antibodies to CD32 and CD64 but not CD16 effectively inhibited this activation...
  33. Kobayashi T, Ito S, Yasuda K, Kuroda T, Yamamoto K, Sugita N, et al. The combined genotypes of stimulatory and inhibitory Fc gamma receptors associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontitis in Japanese adults. J Periodontol. 2007;78:467-74 pubmed
    ..The combination of stimulatory FcgammaRIIA and inhibitory FcgammaRIIB genotypes may increase susceptibility to SLE and periodontitis in the Japanese population. ..
  34. Wilson T, Garner L, Metcalfe C, King E, Margraf S, Brown M. Fine specificity and molecular competition in SLAM family receptor signalling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92184 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a mechanism for direct recruitment of phosphatases in inhibitory signalling by ITSMs, while explaining competitive dominance of SAP and EAT-2. ..
  35. Peng H, Geil Nickell C, Chen K, McClain J, Nixon K. Increased expression of M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in isolated microglia after four-day binge alcohol exposure in male rats. Alcohol. 2017;62:29-40 pubmed publisher
    ..microglia were evaluated by expression of M1 surface markers, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, CD32, CD86, and M2 surface marker, CD206 (mannose receptor)...
  36. Pauls S, Ray A, Hou S, Vaughan A, Cragg M, Marshall A. Fc?RIIB-Independent Mechanisms Controlling Membrane Localization of the Inhibitory Phosphatase SHIP in Human B Cells. J Immunol. 2016;197:1587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Membrane recruitment of SHIP via Syk-dependent mechanisms may be an important factor modulating immunoreceptor signaling. ..
  37. Sandilands G, MacPherson S, Burnett E, Russell A, Downie I, MacSween R. Differential expression of CD32 isoforms following alloactivation of human T cells. Immunology. 1997;91:204-11 pubmed
    ..Normal PBL were activated in vitro using a two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and expression of CD32 monitored by flow cytometry and by immunoperoxidase staining using specific monoclonal antibodies and aggregated ..
  38. Macardle P, Mardell C, Bailey S, Wheatland L, Ho A, Jessup C, et al. FcgammaRIIb expression on human germinal center B lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:3736-44 pubmed
    ..Our results cast some doubt on the value of anti-IgG as a model for antigen-antibody complexes in studying human B cell regulation. ..
  39. Chang L, Lo M, Li S, Yang M, Hsieh K, Kuo H. The effect of FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB on coronary artery lesion formation and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment responses in children with Kawasaki disease. Oncotarget. 2017;8:2044-2052 pubmed publisher
    ..FcγRIIA expression influenced the IVIG treatment response of KD patients. The FcγRIIA/IIB mRNA expression ratio was greater in KD patients with CAL formation. ..
  40. Vaughan A, Iriyama C, Beers S, Chan C, Lim S, Williams E, et al. Inhibitory Fc?RIIb (CD32b) becomes activated by therapeutic mAb in both cis and trans and drives internalization according to antibody specificity. Blood. 2014;123:669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications when designing new antibody-based therapeutics. ..
  41. Dhodapkar K, Banerjee D, Connolly J, Kukreja A, Matayeva E, Veri M, et al. Selective blockade of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaRIIB) in human dendritic cells and monocytes induces a type I interferon response program. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1359-69 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of FcgammaR balance on DCs and monocytes may provide a novel approach to regulating IFN-mediated pathways in autoimmunity and human cancer. ..
  42. James J. Clinical perspectives on lupus genetics: advances and opportunities. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2014;40:413-32, vii pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances have also shown several genetic associations with SLE subphenotypes and subcriteria. Many areas for further exploration remain to move lupus genetic studies toward clinically informative end points. ..
  43. Jeon J, Kim K, Kim B, Jung J, Kim H, Suh C. FcγRIIB Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Disease Risk and Clinical Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Koreans. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2015;236:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, FcγRIIB rs12117530 polymorphism (T allele) may be an important risk factor in SLE. ..
  44. Lee Y, Ji J, Song G. Fcgamma receptor IIB and IIIB polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis. Lupus. 2009;18:727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis shows that the FcgammaRIIB T/I232 polymorphism confers susceptibility to SLE, especially in Asian-derived populations. ..
  45. El Kebir D, Zhang Y, Potempa L, Wu Y, Fournier A, Filep J. C-reactive protein-derived peptide 201-206 inhibits neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and platelets through CD32. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;90:1167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-CD32 but not anti-CD16 or anti-CD64 mAb effectively prevented the inhibitory actions of CRP peptide 201-206...
  46. Piccioni M, Monari C, Bevilacqua S, Perito S, Bistoni F, Kozel T, et al. A critical role for FcgammaRIIB in up-regulation of Fas ligand induced by a microbial polysaccharide. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:190-201 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of immunosuppression that accompanies cryptococcosis. ..
  47. Li W, Yang H, Dimitrov D. Identification of high-affinity anti-CD16A allotype-independent human antibody domains. Exp Mol Pathol. 2016;101:281-289 pubmed publisher
    ..with EC50 of 4nM and 8nM, respectively, but not other Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs) such as CD64 (Fc?RI), CD32 (Fc?RII) and CD16B (Fc?RIIIB)...
  48. Xu J, Zhao L, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Chen H. CD16 and CD32 Gene Polymorphisms May Contribute to Risk of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Med Sci Monit. 2016;22:2086-96 pubmed
    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations of CD16 158F>V and CD32 131H>R gene polymorphisms with the risk of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)...
  49. Engelhardt W, Geerds C, Frey J. Distribution, inducibility and biological function of the cloned and expressed human beta Fc receptor II. Eur J Immunol. 1990;20:1367-77 pubmed
    ..The leader sequence and the cytoplasmic domain are strikingly different from the CDw32 antigen but show great homology to the mouse beta 2FcR...
  50. Xu J, Huang Y, Tao J, Zhou Z, Chen Z, Ge J, et al. An FcgammaRIIb transmembrane polymorphism in Chinese ITP patients. Platelets. 2010;21:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the PAIgA/IgM levels associated with the clinical experience of developing chronic ITP. Here we concluded one hot-spot polymorphism in FcgammaRIIb transmembrane sequences was not associated with the development of ITP. ..
  51. Torkildsen O, Utsi E, Mellgren S, Harbo H, Vedeler C, Myhr K. Ethnic variation of Fc gamma receptor polymorphism in Sami and Norwegian populations. Immunology. 2005;115:416-21 pubmed
    ..The Fc gammaR genotypes were non-randomly distributed in both populations. These findings may be important for the prevalence of autoimmune and infectious diseases in the two populations. ..
  52. Rankin C, Veri M, Gorlatov S, Tuaillon N, Burke S, Huang L, et al. CD32B, the human inhibitory Fc-gamma receptor IIB, as a target for monoclonal antibody therapy of B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2006;108:2384-91 pubmed
    Human CD32B (FcgammaRIIB), the low-affinity inhibitory receptor for IgG, is the predominant Fc receptor (FcR) present on B cells...
  53. Liu Y, Liu M, Zhang Y, Qu C, Lu G, Huang Y, et al. The expression of Fcγ receptors in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Cell Immunol. 2015;294:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore provides evidence for FcγRs, especially FcγRIIB, being involved in the pathogenesis of HT. ..
  54. Isaák A, Gergely P, Szekeres Z, Prechl J, Poor G, Erdei A, et al. Physiological up-regulation of inhibitory receptors Fc gamma RII and CR1 on memory B cells is lacking in SLE patients. Int Immunol. 2008;20:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..cells of healthy individuals and SLE patients with regard to their expression of Fc gamma R type II (Fc gamma RII, CD32), complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) and sIgG/IgM...
  55. Asahi A, Nishimoto T, Okazaki Y, Suzuki H, Masaoka T, Kawakami Y, et al. Helicobacter pylori eradication shifts monocyte Fcgamma receptor balance toward inhibitory FcgammaRIIB in immune thrombocytopenic purpura patients. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that the recovery in platelet numbers observed in ITP patients after H. pylori eradication is mediated through a change in FcgammaR balance toward the inhibitory FcgammaRIIB. ..
  56. Syam S, Mero P, Pham T, McIntosh C, Bruhns P, Booth J. Differential recruitment of activating and inhibitory Fc gamma RII during phagocytosis. J Immunol. 2010;184:2966-73 pubmed publisher
  57. De S, Venkateshan C, Seth P, Gajdusek D, Gibbs C. Adenovirus-mediated human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef expression in human monocytes/macrophages and effect of Nef on downmodulation of Fcgamma receptors and expression of monokines. Blood. 1998;91:2108-17 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a subpopulation of Nef-expressing HMOs underwent apoptosis. Our data suggest that HIV-1 nef downmodulated FcgammaRs in myeloid cells in a manner similar to that previously reported for its effect on CD4+ in T cells. ..
  58. Cassard L, Cohen Solal J, Galinha A, Sastre Garau X, Mathiot C, Galon J, et al. Modulation of tumor growth by inhibitory Fc(gamma) receptor expressed by human melanoma cells. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1549-57 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Fc(gamma)R expression on human tumors may be one component of the efficacy of antibody-mediated therapies, and Fc(gamma)R-positive tumors could be the most sensitive candidates for such treatments. ..
  59. Tsuchiya N, Kobayashi S, Kawasaki A, Kyogoku C, Arimura Y, Yoshida M, et al. Genetic background of Japanese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: association of HLA-DRB1*0901 with microscopic polyangiitis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:1534-40 pubmed
    ..HLA-DRB1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter (TNF), TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), Fcgamma receptor IIa (FCGR2A), IIb (FCGR2B), IIIa (FCGR3A), IIIb (FCGR3B), and CTLA-4 (CTLA4) polymorphisms were examined in a case-control analysis...
  60. Carter N, Harnett M. Dissection of the signalling mechanisms underlying FcgammaRIIB-mediated apoptosis of mature B-cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:973-5 pubmed
  61. Xia Y, Schuliga M, Shepherd M, Powell M, Harris T, Langenbach S, et al. Functional expression of IgG-Fc receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies functional expression of Fc?RIIb in hASM cells, with the potential to suppress their remodeling and immunomodulatory roles. ..
  62. Siqueira J, Rôças I, Provenzano J, Daibert F, Silva M, Lima K. Relationship between Fcgamma receptor and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms and post-treatment apical periodontitis. J Endod. 2009;35:1186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Data from the present study suggest that some conditions associated with polymorphism of Fcgamma receptor genes might influence the patient's response to endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. ..
  63. Burshtyn D, Yang W, Yi T, Long E. A novel phosphotyrosine motif with a critical amino acid at position -2 for the SH2 domain-mediated activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13066-72 pubmed
    ..The contribution of a hydrophobic amino acid two residues upstream of the tyrosine in the SHP-1-binding motif may be an important feature that distinguishes inhibitory receptors from those that provide activation signals. ..
  64. Seki T. Identification of multiple isoforms of the low-affinity human IgG Fc receptor. Immunogenetics. 1989;30:5-12 pubmed
    ..of both prototype clones into Cos-7 cells and subsequent specific staining with monoclonal antibodies of the CDw32 group confirmed the identification of the gene products...
  65. Brown N, Meade J, Wang J, Marino S. Reanalysis of the role of pronase treatment of B cells in the flow cytometric crossmatch assay: Fc receptor is not the primary target. Hum Immunol. 2017;78:704-709 pubmed publisher
    ..T cell results when testing serum from HIV-positive patients, we tested whether specifically blocking Fc receptor CD32 could replace pronase. Anti-CD32 mAb 6C4 was superior to pronase for blocking binding of aggregated IgG to B cells...
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    ..We examined the expression of FcgammaR (CD32, CD16 and CD64) and compared the effect of anti-CD32 antibody on the viability of myeloma cells to that on the ..
  67. Szili D, Cserhalmi M, Bankó Z, Nagy G, Szymkowski D, Sarmay G. Suppression of innate and adaptive B cell activation pathways by antibody coengagement of Fc?RIIb and CD19. MAbs. 2014;6:991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..XmAb5871 also inhibited differentiation of citrullinated peptide-specific plasma cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients. XmAb5871 may therefore have potential to suppress pathogenic B cells in autoimmune diseases. ..
  68. Wu J, Lin R, Huang J, Guan W, Oetting W, Sriramarao P, et al. Functional Fcgamma receptor polymorphisms are associated with human allergy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89196 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional SNPs of FCGR2A (Fc?RIIA-131His>Arg, rs1801274), FCGR2B (Fc?RIIB-187Ile>Thr, rs1050501), FCGR2C (Fc?RIIC-13Gln>Stop, rs10917661), FCGR3A (Fc?RIIIA-158Val>Phe, ..
  69. Bonatti F, Adorni A, Percesepe A, Martorana D. Discrimination of FCGR2B polymorphism without coamplification of FCGR2A and FCGR2C genes. Int J Immunogenet. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the Ile232Thr polymorphism in the FCGR2B gene results in inaccurate genotyping in most published papers...
  70. Fomin M, Beyer A, Muench M. Human fetal liver cultures support multiple cell lineages that can engraft immunodeficient mice. Open Biol. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..of albumin+ cytokertin-19+ hepatoblasts, hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, CD14++CD32+ liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and CD34+CD133+ haematopoietic stem ..
  71. Morgan A, Barrett J, Griffiths B, Subramanian D, Robinson J, Keyte V, et al. Analysis of Fcgamma receptor haplotypes in rheumatoid arthritis: FCGR3A remains a major susceptibility gene at this locus, with an additional contribution from FCGR3B. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R5 pubmed
    ..In view of the close molecular proximity with FCGR2A, FCGR2B and FCGR3B, additional polymorphisms within these genes and FCGR haplotypes were examined to refine the extent of ..
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    ..the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four genes encoding Fc gamma receptors (FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR3A, FCGR3B) and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in a case-control study of paediatric patients...
  73. Nagelkerke S, Tacke C, Breunis W, Geissler J, Sins J, Appelhof B, et al. Nonallelic homologous recombination of the FCGR2/3 locus results in copy number variation and novel chimeric FCGR2 genes with aberrant functional expression. Genes Immun. 2015;16:422-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a rare FCGR2B null-variant allele was found, in which a polymorphic stop codon of FCGR2C is introduced into one FCGR2B gene, ..
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    ..These findings support the notion that increased serum anti-FcγRIIB/C Ab levels are involved in aberrant immune responses in SSc. ..
  75. Sugita N, Iwanaga R, Kobayashi T, Yoshie H. Association of the Fc?RIIB-nt645+25A/G polymorphism with the expression level of the Fc?RIIb receptor, the antibody response to Porphyromonas gingivalis and the severity of periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..03). The higher expression levels of Fc?RIIb in subjects with the Fc?RIIB-nt645+25AA genotype may induce a lower level of production of IgG against P. gingivalis and therefore more severe periodontitis. ..
  76. Baerenwaldt A, Lux A, Danzer H, Spriewald B, Ullrich E, Heidkamp G, et al. Fc? receptor IIB (Fc?RIIB) maintains humoral tolerance in the human immune system in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the inhibitory Fc?RIIB may be an important checkpoint of humoral tolerance in the human immune system. ..
  77. Amezcua Vesely M, Schwartz M, Bermejo D, Montes C, Cautivo K, Kalergis A, et al. Fc?RIIb and BAFF differentially regulate peritoneal B1 cell survival. J Immunol. 2012;188:4792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined results demonstrate that Fc?RIIb controls peritoneal B1 cell survival and this program can be modulated by the BAFF signaling axis. ..
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