Gene Symbol: FADS2
Description: fatty acid desaturase 2
Alias: D6D, DES6, FADSD6, LLCDL2, SLL0262, TU13, fatty acid desaturase 2, acyl-CoA 6-desaturase, delta-6 fatty acid desaturase, delta-6-desaturase, linoleoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-6-desaturase)-like 2
Species: human
Products:     FADS2

Top Publications

  1. Lattka E, Illig T, Heinrich J, Koletzko B. Do FADS genotypes enhance our knowledge about fatty acid related phenotypes?. Clin Nutr. 2010;29:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two desaturase encoding genes (FADS1 and FADS2) and the concentration of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids...
  2. Merino D, Ma D, Mutch D. Genetic variation in lipid desaturases and its impact on the development of human disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:63 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will highlight the current state-of-knowledge regarding three desaturases (Scd-1, Fads1 and Fads2) and their potential roles in disease onset and development...
  3. Truong H, Dibello J, Ruiz Narvaez E, Kraft P, Campos H, Baylin A. Does genetic variation in the Delta6-desaturase promoter modify the association between alpha-linolenic acid and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome?. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Delta(6)-desaturase enzyme converts ALA into EPA and DHA, and genetic variation in the Delta(6)-desaturase gene (FADS2) may affect this conversion...
  4. Lattka E, Illig T, Koletzko B, Heinrich J. Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster as related to essential fatty acid metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2010;21:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sequences and chromosomal localization of the desaturase encoding genes fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) opened the way for analyses of genetic factors as regulators of desaturase activity and LC-PUFA homeostasis...
  5. Rzehak P, Thijs C, Standl M, Mommers M, Glaser C, Jansen E, et al. Variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and eczema in children within the first 2 years of life. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13261 pubmed publisher
    Association of genetic-variants in the FADS1-FADS2-gene-cluster with fatty-acid-composition in blood of adult-populations is well established. We analyze this genetic-association in two children-cohort-studies...
  6. Gillingham L, Harding S, Rideout T, Yurkova N, Cunnane S, Eck P, et al. Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C]?-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:195-207 pubmed publisher
    ..linolenic acid (ALA) to omega-3 (n-3) long-chain fatty acids (FAs) is mediated through FA desaturases (FADS1-FADS2) and may be influenced by dietary FA composition...
  7. Molto Puigmarti C, Plat J, Mensink R, Muller A, Jansen E, Zeegers M, et al. FADS1 FADS2 gene variants modify the association between fish intake and the docosahexaenoic acid proportions in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1368-76 pubmed publisher
    The genes encoding Delta(5)- and Delta(6)-desaturases (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster) were reported to be associated with n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) fatty acid proportions in human plasma, tissues, and milk...
  8. Merino D, Johnston H, Clarke S, Roke K, Nielsen D, BADAWI A, et al. Polymorphisms in FADS1 and FADS2 alter desaturase activity in young Caucasian and Asian adults. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;103:171-8 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence indicates that genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) is associated with changes in plasma fatty acid profiles; however, the association with altered desaturase activity has not been ..
  9. Baylin A, Ruiz Narvaez E, Kraft P, Campos H. alpha-Linolenic acid, Delta6-desaturase gene polymorphism, and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:554-60 pubmed
    Delta(6)-Desaturase (FADS2) is the rate-limiting step in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthetic pathway...

More Information


  1. Tanaka T, Shen J, Abecasis G, Kisialiou A, Ordovas J, Guralnik J, et al. Genome-wide association study of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in the InCHIANTI Study. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000338 pubmed publisher
    ..for association was observed in a region of chromosome 11 that encodes three fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, FADS2, FADS3)...
  2. Kwak J, Paik J, Kim O, Jang Y, Lee S, Ordovas J, et al. FADS gene polymorphisms in Koreans: association with ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids, lipid peroxides, and coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..n=756, 40-79 years) and healthy controls (n=890) were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1 rs174537G>T), FADS2 (rs174575, rs2727270), and FADS3 (rs1000778)...
  3. Standl M, Lattka E, Stach B, Koletzko S, Bauer C, von Berg A, et al. FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, PUFA intake and blood lipids in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37780 pubmed publisher
    ..total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and lower triglyceride levels, but these associations did not interact with the FADS1 FADS2 genotype...
  4. Glaser C, Heinrich J, Koletzko B. Role of FADS1 and FADS2 polymorphisms in polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Metabolism. 2010;59:993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..between variants in the human genes fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1, encoding Delta-5 desaturase) and fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2, encoding Delta-6 desaturase) and blood levels of PUFAs and long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) have been ..
  5. Al Hilal M, AlSaleh A, Maniou Z, Lewis F, Hall W, Sanders T, et al. Genetic variation at the FADS1-FADS2 gene locus influences delta-5 desaturase activity and LC-PUFA proportions after fish oil supplement. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 310), genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174537, rs174561, and rs3834458 in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster were strongly associated with proportions of LC-PUFAs and desaturase activities estimated in plasma ..
  6. Koletzko B, Lattka E, Zeilinger S, Illig T, Steer C. Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster predict amounts of red blood cell docosahexaenoic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in the desaturase encoding genes FADS1 and FADS2 have been associated with several n-6 (omega-6) and n-3 (omega-3) FAs and especially with arachidonic acid (AA) ..
  7. Bokor S, Dumont J, Spinneker A, Gonzalez Gross M, Nova E, Widhalm K, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2325-33 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults...
  8. Schaeffer L, Gohlke H, Müller M, Heid I, Palmer L, Kompauer I, et al. Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1745-56 pubmed
    ..We report strong associations between variants in the human delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase genes FADS1 FADS2 and fatty acid composition in serum phospholipids...
  9. Roke K, Ralston J, Abdelmagid S, Nielsen D, BADAWI A, El Sohemy A, et al. Variation in the FADS1/2 gene cluster alters plasma n-6 PUFA and is weakly associated with hsCRP levels in healthy young adults. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;89:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A single SNP in FADS2 (rs526126) was weakly associated with hsCRP (p=0.05)...
  10. Marquardt A, Stohr H, White K, Weber B. cDNA cloning, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of three members of the human fatty acid desaturase family. Genomics. 2000;66:175-83 pubmed
    ..4-Mb region in 11q12-q13.1, full-length fatty acid desaturase-1 (FADS1) and fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2) transcripts were obtained by EST sequence assembly...
  11. Xie L, Innis S. Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation. J Nutr. 2008;138:2222-8 pubmed publisher
    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and FADS2 are rate-limiting enzymes in the desaturation of linoleic acid [LA; 18:2(n-6)] to arachidonic acid [ARA; 20:4(n-6)], and alpha-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3(n-3)] to ..
  12. Malerba G, Schaeffer L, Xumerle L, Klopp N, Trabetti E, Biscuola M, et al. SNPs of the FADS gene cluster are associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids in a cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease. Lipids. 2008;43:289-99 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of the human Delta-5 (FADS1) and Delta-6 (FADS2) desaturase genes have been recently described to be associated with the level of several long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum phospholipids...
  13. Nakayama K, Bayasgalan T, Tazoe F, Yanagisawa Y, Gotoh T, Yamanaka K, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the FADS1/FADS2 gene is associated with plasma lipid profiles in two genetically similar Asian ethnic groups with distinctive differences in lifestyle. Hum Genet. 2010;127:685-90 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 were associated with plasma lipid concentrations in populations with European ancestry...
  14. Caspi A, Williams B, Kim Cohen J, Craig I, Milne B, Poulton R, et al. Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18860-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the association between breastfeeding and IQ is moderated by a genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty acid pathways...
  15. Rzehak P, Heinrich J, Klopp N, Schaeffer L, Hoff S, Wolfram G, et al. Evidence for an association between genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 ( FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..gives further evidence for the recently found association between variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and PUFA in blood phospholipids and explores this association for cellular ..
  16. Lu Y, Feskens E, Dollé M, Imholz S, Verschuren W, Muller M, et al. Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake interacts with FADS1 genetic variation to affect total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:258-65 pubmed publisher
    The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are rate-limiting enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis...
  17. Cho H, Nakamura M, Clarke S. Cloning, expression, and nutritional regulation of the mammalian Delta-6 desaturase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:471-7 pubmed
    ..The RNA abundance data indicate that prior conclusions regarding the low level of Delta-6 desaturase expression in nonhepatic tissues may need to be reevaluated. ..
  18. Brookes K, Chen W, Xu X, Taylor E, Asherson P. Association of fatty acid desaturase genes with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:1053-61 pubmed
    ..15-2.23; transmission disequilibrium test [TDT] p = .014, OR 1.69) in the fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene...
  19. Standl M, Sausenthaler S, Lattka E, Koletzko S, Bauer C, Wichmann H, et al. FADS gene variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acid intake on allergic diseases in children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:1757-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster polymorphisms on the association between dietary fatty acid intake and atopic diseases and allergic ..
  20. Kröger J, Zietemann V, Enzenbach C, Weikert C, Jansen E, Döring F, et al. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:127-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear...
  21. Lattka E, Eggers S, Moeller G, Heim K, Weber M, Mehta D, et al. A common FADS2 promoter polymorphism increases promoter activity and facilitates binding of transcription factor ELK1. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..two of the associated polymorphisms (rs3834458 and rs968567) and showed an influence of polymorphism rs968567 on FADS2 promoter activity by luciferase reporter gene assays...
  22. Martinelli N, Girelli D, Malerba G, Guarini P, Illig T, Trabetti E, et al. FADS genotypes and desaturase activity estimated by the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid are associated with inflammation and coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:941-9 pubmed
    The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (LA) into arachidonic acid (AA) and that of alpha-..
  23. Lee S, Lee J, Choi I, Kim Y, Ryu K, Kim Y, et al. Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the FADS gene, and the risk of gastric cancer in a Korean population. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3823 pubmed publisher
    ..with the risk of gastric cancer and further investigated whether fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) modify this association. In a case-control study, 1,464 participants (402 cases and 1,062 controls) were enrolled...
  24. Zhou X, Wan D, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Long C, Chen S, et al. Diurnal variations in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and expression of genes involved in their de novo synthesis in pigs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:430-434 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important physiological and pathophysiological implications, since long chain PUFA are essential for cell function and closely involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. ..
  25. Irvine N, Lillycrop K, Fielding B, Torrens C, Hanson M, Burdge G. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015;101:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed...
  26. Sublette M, Vaquero C, Baca Garcia E, Pachano G, Huang Y, Oquendo M, et al. Lack of association of SNPs from the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster with major depression or suicidal behavior. Psychiatr Genet. 2016;26:81-6 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1-FADS2) encode desaturases participating in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
  27. Shi 史海粟 H, Wu 乌日娜 R, Zheng 郑艳 Y, Yue 岳喜庆 X. Molecular mechanisms underlying catalytic activity of delta 6 desaturase from Glossomastix chrysoplasta and Thalassiosira pseudonana. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:79-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Delta 6 desaturase (FADS2) is a critical bifunctional enzyme required for PUFA biosynthesis. In some organisms, FADS2s have high substrate specificity, whereas in others, they have high catalytic activity...
  28. Astudillo A, Meana C, Guijas C, Pereira L, Lebrero P, Balboa M, et al. Occurrence and biological activity of palmitoleic acid isomers in phagocytic cells. J Lipid Res. 2018;59:237-249 pubmed publisher
    ..appear to depend not only on the cellular content of linoleic acid, but also on the expression level of fatty acid desaturase 2, thus revealing a complex regulation both at the enzyme level, via fatty acid substrate competition, and ..
  29. Wu Y, Zeng L, Chen X, Xu Y, Ye L, Qin L, et al. Association of the FADS gene cluster with coronary artery disease and plasma lipid concentrations in the northern Chinese Han population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;117:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..there were significant differences in TC concentrations under a recessive genetic model for rs174575 (C/G) in FADS2 and for rs174450 (A/C) and rs7115739 (G/T) in FADS3 (P=0.053, 0.016 and 0.018, respectively)...
  30. Kabeya N, Yamamoto Y, Cummins S, Elizur A, Yazawa R, Takeuchi Y, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a marine teleost, Nibe croaker Nibea mitsukurii: Functional characterization of Fads2 desaturase and Elovl5 and Elovl4 elongases. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;188:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical functions of the Elovl5, Elovl4 and Fads2 enzymes involved in the DHA biosynthetic pathway in the Nibe croaker...
  31. Sugasini D, Lokesh B. Curcumin and linseed oil co-delivered in phospholipid nanoemulsions enhances the levels of docosahexaenoic acid in serum and tissue lipids of rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;119:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2...
  32. Raffield L, Louie T, Sofer T, Jain D, Ipp E, Taylor K, et al. Genome-wide association study of iron traits and relation to diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL): potential genomic intersection of iron and glucose regulation?. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1966-1978 pubmed publisher
    ..iron traits generalized to HCHS/SOL, including variants at the transferrin (TF), hemochromatosis (HFE), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2)/myelin regulatory factor (MYRF), transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6), transferrin receptor ..
  33. Stawarska A, Białek A, Tokarz A. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats. Nutr Res. 2015;35:930-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined...
  34. Fahmida U, Htet M, Adhiyanto C, Kolopaking R, Yudisti M, Maududi A, et al. Genetic variants of FADS gene cluster, plasma LC-PUFA levels and the association with cognitive function of under-two-year-old Sasaknese Indonesian children. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MDI score was associated with a FADS2 index (DHA:EPA ratio) but not genotype (Adjusted R-square= 0.043)...
  35. Castellini C, Dal Bosco A, Mattioli S, Davidescu M, Corazzi L, Macchioni L, et al. Activity, Expression, and Substrate Preference of the Δ(6)-Desaturase in Slow- or Fast-Growing Rabbit Genotypes. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64:792-800 pubmed publisher
    In the present paper liver fatty acid Δ(6) desaturation (fads2) activity was analyzed in two rabbit strains with slow- (S, 27.5 g/day) or fast-growing (F, 48.5 g/day) rate...
  36. Li Q, Dong K, Xu L, Jia X, Wu J, Sun W, et al. The distribution of three candidate cold-resistant SNPs in six minorities in North China. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:134 pubmed publisher
    ..cold resistance-related SNPs (rs80356779 G?>?A in CPT1A, rs7115739 T?>?G in FADS3 and rs174570 C?>?T in FADS2) from six populations that included 1093 individuals who have lived in Heilongjiang Province for at least three ..
  37. Oboh A, Kabeya N, Carmona Antoñanzas G, Castro L, Dick J, Tocher D, et al. Two alternative pathways for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) biosynthesis are widespread among teleost fish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3889 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, some teleosts possess fatty acyl desaturases 2 (Fads2) that enable them to biosynthesis DHA through a more direct route termed the "Δ4 pathway"...
  38. Xia F, Li X, Li X, Zheng D, Sun Q, Liu J, et al. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158103 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high expression of foreign genes in yeast and Arabidopsis. ..
  39. Jaudszus A, Degen C, Barth S, Klempt M, Schlörmann W, Roth A, et al. Loss of FADS2 function severely impairs the use of HeLa cells as an in vitro model for host response studies involving fatty acid effects. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115610 pubmed publisher
    ..lines either with substrates (C18:2n-6 or C18:3n-3) or products (C18:3n-6, C18:4n-3) of fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), and analysed the fatty acid profiles after 24 h and 72 h by gas chromatography...
  40. Beam J, Botta A, Ye J, Soliman H, Matier B, Forrest M, et al. Excess Linoleic Acid Increases Collagen I/III Ratio and "Stiffens" the Heart Muscle Following High Fat Diets. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:23371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2), which metabolizes LA to downstream PUFAs, reduced collagen deposits, LOX maturation, and ..
  41. Peters B, Voineskos A, Szeszko P, Lett T, DeRosse P, Guha S, et al. Brain white matter development is associated with a human-specific haplotype increasing the synthesis of long chain fatty acids. J Neurosci. 2014;34:6367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These findings suggest that LC-PUFAs are involved in human brain WM development from childhood into adulthood. This haplotype and LC-PUFAs may play a role in myelin-related disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. ..
  42. Rahbar E, Ainsworth H, Howard T, Hawkins G, Ruczinski I, Mathias R, et al. Uncovering the DNA methylation landscape in key regulatory regions within the FADS cluster. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180903 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP) rs174537 and DNA methylation of CpG sites located in the putative enhancer region between FADS1 and FADS2, in human liver tissue. However, this array only featured 20 CpG sites within this 12kb region...
  43. Araya J, Rodrigo R, Pettinelli P, Araya A, Poniachik J, Videla L. Decreased liver fatty acid delta-6 and delta-5 desaturase activity in obese patients. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1460-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, liver PUFA desaturation is diminished in obese NAFLD patients, in association with underlying insulin resistance and oxidative stress, which may play a role in altering lipid metabolism favoring fatty infiltration. ..
  44. Ryu E, Yim S, Do H, Lim J, Yang E, Shin M, et al. Risk of secondary lymphedema in breast cancer survivors is related to serum phospholipid fatty acid desaturation. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:3767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The ALND + LE group showed increased activity indices for delta 6 desaturase (D6D) and D5D and increased ratio of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA) compared to the ALND and SLNB ..
  45. Steer C, Lattka E, Koletzko B, Golding J, Hibbeln J. Maternal fatty acids in pregnancy, FADS polymorphisms, and child intelligence quotient at 8 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..1 SD), with other factors contributing more substantially. The endogenous synthesis of these FAs by FADS genes, especially FADS2, may also be important. The replication of these results is recommended.
  46. Lauritzen L, Sørensen L, Harsløf L, Ritz C, Stark K, Astrup A, et al. Mendelian randomization shows sex-specific associations between long-chain PUFA-related genotypes and cognitive performance in Danish schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be a consequence of increased endogenous DHA synthesis in infancy but not at school-age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01457794. ..
  47. Ayed R, Ennouri K, Hlima H, Smaoui S, Hanana M, Mzid R, et al. Identification and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism markers in FADS2 gene associated with olive oil fatty acids composition. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:138 pubmed publisher
    Genotyping of the FAD2.1 and FAD2.3 polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene (FADS2) shows that they are associated with the fatty acids composition of olive oil samples...
  48. Weitkunat K, Schumann S, Petzke K, Blaut M, Loh G, Klaus S. Effects of dietary inulin on bacterial growth, short-chain fatty acid production and hepatic lipid metabolism in gnotobiotic mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..in lipogenesis (Fasn, Gpam) and fatty acid elongation/desaturation (Scd1, Elovl3, Elovl6, Elovl5, Fads1 and Fads2) were decreased in inulin-fed animals...
  49. Kuah M, Jaya Ram A, Shu Chien A. A fatty acyl desaturase (fads2) with dual Δ6 and Δ5 activities from the freshwater carnivorous striped snakehead Channa striata. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2016;201:146-155 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested a Fads2 protein that is closely related to previously characterised Fads2 proteins from freshwater carnivorous and marine ..
  50. Mathias R, Vergara C, Gao L, Rafaels N, Hand T, Campbell M, et al. FADS genetic variants and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a homogeneous island population. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..of 22 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography, of which ten fatty acids and five ratios defining FADS1 and FADS2 activity were tested for genetic association against 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 224 individuals...
  51. Park H, Park W, Kothapalli K, Brenna J. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells. FASEB J. 2015;29:3911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and 22:5n-6 are believed to proceed via a circuitous biochemical pathway requiring repeated use of a fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) protein to perform Δ6 desaturation on C24 fatty acids in the endoplasmic reticulum followed ..
  52. Zietemann V, Kröger J, Enzenbach C, Jansen E, Fritsche A, Weikert C, et al. Genetic variation of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and n-6 PUFA composition in erythrocyte membranes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:1748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The goals were to evaluate the associations between variation in genes encoding these desaturases (FADS1 and FADS2) and blood concentrations of n-6 PUFA and estimated D5D and D6D activities (evaluated as product/precursor ratio), ..
  53. Wang X, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Wang D, Jin G, Li B, et al. The comprehensive liver transcriptome of two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat content. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1018-1025 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol esterification, reverse ..
  54. Frutos P, Toral P, Hervás G. Individual variation of the extent of milk fat depression in dairy ewes fed fish oil: Milk fatty acid profile and mRNA abundance of candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9611-9622 pubmed publisher
    ..with fish oil showed a tendency to lower the mRNA abundance of lipogenic genes such as ACSS2, FASN, LPIN1, FADS2, and INSIG1, but only SCD and GPAT4 tended to differ between RESPON- and RESPON+...
  55. de Toro Martín J, Guénard F, Rudkowska I, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl M. A common variant in ARHGEF10 alters delta-6 desaturase activity and influence susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2018;12:311-320.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) associated with fatty acid desaturase activities have been previously identified within the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster, which encodes delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases, respectively...
  56. Xie L, Innis S. Association of fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphisms with blood lipid essential fatty acids and perinatal depression among Canadian women: a pilot study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2009;2:243-50 pubmed publisher
    The FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster encodes Delta-5 and Delta-6 desaturase, rate-limiting enzymes in metabolism of linoleic (LA) to arachidonic (ARA) and alpha-linolenic to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
  57. Lattka E, Koletzko B, Zeilinger S, Hibbeln J, Klopp N, Ring S, et al. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1196-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. ..
  58. Harauma A, Hatanaka E, Yasuda H, Nakamura M, Salem N, Moriguchi T. Effects of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on brain development using artificial rearing of delta-6-desaturase knockout mice. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;127:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the lactation period of delta-6-desaturase knockout (D6D-KO) mice using an artificial rearing method...
  59. Verweij N, Mateo Leach I, van den Boogaard M, van Veldhuisen D, Christoffels V, Hillege H, et al. Genetic determinants of P wave duration and PR segment. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7:475-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in KCND3 (P=8.3×10(-11)) and FADS2 (P=2.7×10(-8)) were associated with P wave duration, whereas single-nucleotide polymorphisms near IL17D (P=2...
  60. Yang Q, Yin R, Cao X, Wu D, Chen W, Zhou Y. Association of two polymorphisms in the FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster and the risk of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:7318-31 pubmed
    Little is known about the association of the FADS1/FADS2 SNPs and serum lipid levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in the Chinese southern population...
  61. Tian Y, Zhang W, Zhao S, Sun Y, Bian Y, Chen T, et al. FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster confers risk to polycystic ovary syndrome. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21195 pubmed publisher
    ..00E-04). Decreased expression of FADS2 was detected in PCOS cases and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis revealed the risk allele C ..
  62. Chisaguano A, Montes R, Pérez Berezo T, Castellote A, Guerendiain M, Bustamante M, et al. Gene expression of desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) enzymes in peripheral blood: association with polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and atopic eczema in 4-year-old children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78245 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children...
  63. Roke K, Mutch D. The role of FADS1/2 polymorphisms on cardiometabolic markers and fatty acid profiles in young adults consuming fish oil supplements. Nutrients. 2014;6:2290-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (-13%) and glucose (-11%) by week 12; ..
  64. Tosi F, Sartori F, Guarini P, Olivieri O, Martinelli N. Delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases: crucial enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid-related pathways with pleiotropic influences in health and disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;824:61-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 desaturases (D6D), encoded respectively by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are the rate-limiting enzymes for PUFA conversion and are recognized as main determinants of PUFA levels...
  65. Yao M, Li J, Xie T, He T, Fang L, Shi Y, et al. Polymorphisms of rs174616 in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Han Chinese people. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;109:206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, among four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs174545, rs2072114, rs174602 and rs174616) in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster, only minor allele (T) of rs174616 was associated with decreased risk of T2DM in both codominant and ..
  66. Houston S, Karalazos V, Tinsley J, Betancor M, Martin S, Tocher D, et al. The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content. Br J Nutr. 2017;118:1010-1022 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2)...
  67. Zhang J, Qin X, Liang A, Kim E, Lawrence P, Park W, et al. Fads3 modulates docosahexaenoic acid in liver and brain. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;123:25-32 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) is the third member of the FADS gene cluster. FADS1 and FADS2 code for enzymes required for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) biosynthesis, but FADS3 function remains elusive...
  68. Lupu D, Cheatham C, Corbin K, Niculescu M. Genetic and epigenetic transgenerational implications related to omega-3 fatty acids. Part I: maternal FADS2 genotype and DNA methylation correlate with polyunsaturated fatty acid status in toddlers: an exploratory analysis. Nutr Res. 2015;35:939-47 pubmed publisher
    ..age (n = 65 mother-child pairs), we investigated the association between maternal genetic and epigenetic fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) profiles and toddlers' n-6 and n-3 fatty acid metabolism...
  69. Su H, Zhou D, Pan Y, Wang X, Nakamura M. Compensatory induction of Fads1 gene expression in heterozygous Fads2-null mice and by diet with a high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:1995-2004 pubmed
    ..Here we tested the feasibility of using heterozygous Fads2-null-mice (HET) as an animal model of human FADS polymorphisms...
  70. Lane J, Mansel R, Jiang W. Expression of human delta-6-desaturase is associated with aggressiveness of human breast cancer. Int J Mol Med. 2003;12:253-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that aggressive breast tumours have a reduced level of delta-6-desaturase. This aberrant expression has clinical bearings to the outcome in patients with breast cancer. ..
  71. Zhao M, Ralat M, Da Silva V, Garrett T, Melnyk S, James S, et al. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk. ..
  72. Park W, Kothapalli K, Reardon H, Lawrence P, Qian S, Brenna J. A novel FADS1 isoform potentiates FADS2-mediated production of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..FADS1 alternative transcript 1 (FADS1AT1) enhances desaturation of FADS2, leading to increased production of eicosanoid precursors, the first case of an isoform modulating the enzymatic ..
  73. Stohr H, Marquardt A, Rivera A, Cooper P, Nowak N, Shows T, et al. A gene map of the Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy region in chromosome 11q12-q13.1. Genome Res. 1998;8:48-56 pubmed
    ..The GenBank/EMBL accession numbers and details of the isolation, localization, and characterization of ESTs and selected cDNAs are available as online supplements in Online Tables 1-3 at http://www.genome.org.] ..
  74. Yeates A, Love T, Engström K, Mulhern M, McSorley E, Grzesik K, et al. Genetic variation in FADS genes is associated with maternal long-chain PUFA status but not with cognitive development of infants in a high fish-eating observational study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015;102-103:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..or synthesized endogenously from precursor PUFA by Δ-5 (encoded by FADS1) and Δ-6 desaturases (encoded by FADS2)...
  75. Sharma S, Zhou X, Thibault D, Himes B, LIU A, Szefler S, et al. A genome-wide survey of CD4(+) lymphocyte regulatory genetic variants identifies novel asthma genes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134:1153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..9 × 10(-8)). Reproducible associations were also observed for eSNPs in 3 additional genes: fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2; P = .002), N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminidase (NAGA; P = .0002), and Factor XIII, A1 (F13A1; P = ...
  76. Vaittinen M, Walle P, Kuosmanen E, Männistö V, Käkelä P, Ågren J, et al. FADS2 genotype regulates delta-6 desaturase activity and inflammation in human adipose tissue. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..in subcutaneous and visceral fat correlated with serum FAs, and the associations between serum PUFAs and estimated D6D enzyme activity with AT inflammation were also replicated with corresponding AT FAs and AT inflammation...
  77. Chen P, Takeuchi F, Lee J, Li H, Wu J, Liang J, et al. Multiple nonglycemic genomic loci are newly associated with blood level of glycated hemoglobin in East Asians. Diabetes. 2014;63:2551-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in these populations. ..
  78. Cheatham C, Lupu D, Niculescu M. Genetic and epigenetic transgenerational implications related to omega-3 fatty acids. Part II: maternal FADS2 rs174575 genotype and DNA methylation predict toddler cognitive performance. Nutr Res. 2015;35:948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..abilities, as the level of fatty acids transferred across the placenta may be affected by the maternal fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) rs174575 single nucleotide polymorphism...
  79. Hester A, Murphy R, Uhlson C, Ivester P, Lee T, Sergeant S, et al. Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:22482-9 pubmed publisher
  80. Ge L, Gordon J, Hsuan C, Stenn K, Prouty S. Identification of the delta-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:707-14 pubmed
    Delta-6 desaturase, also known as fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that converts the essential fatty acids linoleate and alpha-linolenate into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
  81. Steer C, Hibbeln J, Golding J, Davey Smith G. Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood during pregnancy, at birth and at 7 years: their associations with two common FADS2 polymorphisms. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..analysed to investigate the associations of polyunsaturated FAs with rs1535 and rs174575-two polymorphisms in the FADS2 gene...