Gene Symbol: ERVW-1
Description: endogenous retrovirus group W member 1, envelope
Alias: ENV, ENVW, ERVWE1, HERV-7q, HERV-W-ENV, HERV7Q, HERVW, HERVWENV, syncytin-1, HERV-7q envelope protein, HERV-W Env glycoprotein, HERV-W envelope protein, HERV-W_7q21.2 provirus ancestral Env polyprotein, HERV-tryptophan envelope protein, endogenous retroviral family W, env(C7), member 1, endogenous retrovirus group W member 1, envelope glycoprotein, envelope polyprotein gPr73, enverin, human endogenous retrovirus W envC7-1 envelope protein
Species: human
Products:     ERVW-1

Top Publications

  1. Blond J, Lavillette D, Cheynet V, Bouton O, Oriol G, Chapel Fernandes S, et al. An envelope glycoprotein of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W is expressed in the human placenta and fuses cells expressing the type D mammalian retrovirus receptor. J Virol. 2000;74:3321-9 pubmed
    ..Virol. 73:1175-1185, 1999). HERV-W mRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in placenta cells, and an env cDNA containing a complete open reading frame was recovered...
  2. Mangeney M, Renard M, Schlecht Louf G, Bouallaga I, Heidmann O, Letzelter C, et al. Placental syncytins: Genetic disjunction between the fusogenic and immunosuppressive activity of retroviral envelope proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20534-9 pubmed
    ..ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to have the env-expressing cells escape (at least transiently) immune rejection...
  3. Blaise S, de Parseval N, B nit L, Heidmann T. Genomewide screening for fusogenic human endogenous retrovirus envelopes identifies syncytin 2, a gene conserved on primate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13013-8 pubmed publisher
    ..identified a previously uncharacterized envelope (that we propose to name syncytin 2 after renaming syncytin as syncytin 1) with a potential role in placenta formation, and the identification of the complete set of retroviral envelopes ..
  4. de Parseval N, Lazar V, Casella J, Benit L, Heidmann T. Survey of human genes of retroviral origin: identification and transcriptome of the genes with coding capacity for complete envelope proteins. J Virol. 2003;77:10414-22 pubmed
    ..The present study provides a comprehensive survey of candidate genes and tools for a precise evaluation of their involvement in these processes. ..
  5. Cheng Y, Handwerger S. A placenta-specific enhancer of the human syncytin gene. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:500-9 pubmed
    ..Binding of SP1 and GATA family members to this enhancer is critical for cell-specific expression of the syncytin gene. ..
  6. Bonnaud B, Bouton O, Oriol G, Cheynet V, Duret L, Mallet F. Evidence of selection on the domesticated ERVWE1 env retroviral element involved in placentation. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:1895-901 pubmed publisher
    The human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, which contains gag and pol pseudogenes and has retained a full-length envelope open reading frame (ORF)...
  7. Kudo Y, Boyd C, Sargent I, Redman C. Hypoxia alters expression and function of syncytin and its receptor during trophoblast cell fusion of human placental BeWo cells: implications for impaired trophoblast syncytialisation in pre-eclampsia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1638:63-71 pubmed
  8. Huang W, Li S, Hu Y, Yu H, Luo F, Zhang Q, et al. Implication of the env gene of the human endogenous retrovirus W family in the expression of BDNF and DRD3 and development of recent-onset schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2011;37:988-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the role of the human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) env gene in the etiopathogenesis of recent-onset schizophrenia, using molecular and epidemiological approaches...
  9. Ruebner M, Langbein M, Strissel P, Henke C, Schmidt D, Goecke T, et al. Regulation of the human endogenous retroviral Syncytin-1 and cell-cell fusion by the nuclear hormone receptors PPAR?/RXR? in placentogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2383-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study characterized PPAR?/RXR? signaling in human CT and cell fusions identifying Syncytin-1 as a new target gene. Based on these results, a disturbed PPAR?/RXR? pathway could contribute to pathological human pregnancies...

More Information


  1. Larsen J, Christensen I, Nielsen H, Hansen U, Bjerregaard B, Talts J, et al. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer: potential prognostic impact. Cancer Lett. 2009;280:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type. ..
  2. Noorali S, Rotar I, Lewis C, Pestaner J, Pace D, Sison A, et al. Role of HERV-W syncytin-1 in placentation and maintenance of human pregnancy. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2009;17:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These 2 genes are HERV-W env glycoprotein (syncytin-1) and HERV-FRD env glycoprotein (syncytin-2)...
  3. Knerr I, Weigel C, Linnemann K, Dotsch J, Meissner U, Fusch C, et al. Transcriptional effects of hypoxia on fusiogenic syncytin and its receptor ASCT2 in human cytotrophoblast BeWo cells and in ex vivo perfused placental cotyledons. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:583-8 pubmed
    ..Our data provide first evidence that syncytin gene expression is down-regulated by hypoxia, which strengthens the hypothesis that syncytin is reduced in disturbed pregnancies in the course of placental hypoxia. ..
  4. Trejbalova K, Blazkova J, Matouskova M, Kucerova D, Pecnova L, Vernerova Z, et al. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and splicing of syncytins, fusogenic glycoproteins of retroviral origin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8728-39 pubmed publisher
    Syncytin-1 and -2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast in chorionic villi...
  5. Yu C, Shen K, Lin M, Chen P, Lin C, Chang G, et al. GCMa regulates the syncytin-mediated trophoblastic fusion. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50062-8 pubmed
    ..Our results may help to explain the mechanism underlying the cell fusion event specific for syncytiotrophoblast formation. ..
  6. Voisset C, Bouton O, Bedin F, Duret L, Mandrand B, Mallet F, et al. Chromosomal distribution and coding capacity of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:731-40 pubmed
    ..The human haploid genome contains at least 70, 100, and 30 HERV-W-related gag, pro, and env regions, respectively, widely and heterogeneously dispersed among chromosomes...
  7. Perron H, Jouvin Marche E, Michel M, Ounanian Paraz A, Camelo S, Dumon A, et al. Multiple sclerosis retrovirus particles and recombinant envelope trigger an abnormal immune response in vitro, by inducing polyclonal Vbeta16 T-lymphocyte activation. Virology. 2001;287:321-32 pubmed
    ..Molecular analysis of Vbeta CDR3 showed that Vbeta16 expansions are polyclonal. Our results thus provide evidence that MSRV envelope protein can trigger an abnormal immune response with similar characteristics to that of superantigens. ..
  8. Blond J, Beseme F, Duret L, Bouton O, Bedin F, Perron H, et al. Molecular characterization and placental expression of HERV-W, a new human endogenous retrovirus family. J Virol. 1999;73:1175-85 pubmed
    ..These cDNAs spanned a 7.6-kb region containing gag, pol, and env genes; RU5 and U3R flanking sequences; a polypurine tract; and a primer binding site (PBS)...
  9. An D, Xie Ym -, Chen I. Envelope gene of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W encodes a functional retrovirus envelope. J Virol. 2001;75:3488-9 pubmed
    ..We found that the HERV-W envelope glycoprotein can form pseudotypes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions and confers tropism for CD4-negative ..
  10. Mallet F, Bouton O, Prudhomme S, Cheynet V, Oriol G, Bonnaud B, et al. The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1731-6 pubmed publisher the case for the ERVWE1 locus of the human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W), which encodes an envelope glycoprotein (syncytin) likely involved in trophoblast differentiation...
  11. Knerr I, Beinder E, Rascher W. Syncytin, a novel human endogenous retroviral gene in human placenta: evidence for its dysregulation in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:210-3 pubmed
    ..A reduced placental expression of syncytin may contribute to altered cell fusion processes in placentogenesis and disturbed placental function in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. ..
  12. Cheng Y, Richardson B, Hubert M, Handwerger S. Isolation and characterization of the human syncytin gene promoter. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:694-701 pubmed
  13. Frendo J, Olivier D, Cheynet V, Blond J, Bouton O, Vidaud M, et al. Direct involvement of HERV-W Env glycoprotein in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3566-74 pubmed
    We recently demonstrated that the product of the HERV-W env gene, a retroviral envelope protein also dubbed syncytin, is a highly fusogenic membrane glycoprotein inducing the formation of syncytia on interaction with the type D mammalian ..
  14. Wich C, Kausler S, Dotsch J, Rascher W, Knerr I. Syncytin-1 and glial cells missing a: hypoxia-induced deregulated gene expression along with disordered cell fusion in primary term human trophoblasts. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2009;68:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..g. at 6% O(2), which is assumed to resemble physiological conditions. Severe hypoxia is associated with reduced GCMa and syncytin-1 transcripts and altered fusion of primary trophoblasts. ..
  15. Lavillette D, Marin M, Ruggieri A, Mallet F, Cosset F, Kabat D. The envelope glycoprotein of human endogenous retrovirus type W uses a divergent family of amino acid transporters/cell surface receptors. J Virol. 2002;76:6442-52 pubmed
    ..The envelope glycoprotein (Env) encoded by HERV-W is highly fusogenic, is naturally expressed in human placental ..
  16. Cheynet V, Ruggieri A, Oriol G, Blond J, Boson B, Vachot L, et al. Synthesis, assembly, and processing of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin human endogenous retroviral envelope. J Virol. 2005;79:5585-93 pubmed
    ..This protein is encoded by the envelope gene of the ERVWE1 proviral locus belonging to the human endogenous retrovirus W (HERV-W) family...
  17. Bonnaud B, Beliaeff J, Bouton O, Oriol G, Duret L, Mallet F. Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus. Retrovirology. 2005;2:57 pubmed
    The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure...
  18. Gong R, Huang L, Shi J, Luo K, Qiu G, Feng H, et al. Syncytin-A mediates the formation of syncytiotrophoblast involved in mouse placental development. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:517-26 pubmed
    ..These results present evidence in support of the direct role for syncytin-A in mouse TS cell fusion and differentiation involved in placental development. ..
  19. Bjerregaard B, Holck S, Christensen I, Larsson L. Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:1906-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a syncytin inhibitory peptide also inhibits fusions between cancer and endothelial cells. These results are the first to show that syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions. ..
  20. Mi S, Lee X, Li X, Veldman G, Finnerty H, Racie L, et al. Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis. Nature. 2000;403:785-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that syncytin may mediate placental cytotrophoblast fusion in vivo, and thus may be important in human placental morphogenesis. ..
  21. Muir A, Lever A, Moffett A. Human endogenous retrovirus-W envelope (syncytin) is expressed in both villous and extravillous trophoblast populations. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2067-71 pubmed
    ..It was also present in ectopic trophoblast from tubal implantations. This study confirms that syncytin is expressed widely by a variety of normal human trophoblast populations, as well as choriocarcinoma cell lines. ..
  22. Menendez L, Benigno B, McDonald J. L1 and HERV-W retrotransposons are hypomethylated in human ovarian carcinomas. Mol Cancer. 2004;3:12 pubmed
    ..Consistent with these results, we find that relative L1 and HERV-W expression levels are elevated in representative samples of malignant vs. non-malignant ovarian tissues. ..
  23. Kim H, Lee W. Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W family: chromosomal localization, identification, and phylogeny. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:643-8 pubmed
    ..Using the polymerase chain reaction approach with a human monochromosomal somatic cell hybrid DNA panel, 15 env fragments of the HERV-W family from chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 17, 20, and X were identified and ..
  24. Antony J, van Marle G, Opii W, Butterfield D, Mallet F, Yong V, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus glycoprotein-mediated induction of redox reactants causes oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:1088-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, syncytin's proinflammatory properties in the nervous system demonstrate a novel role for an endogenous retrovirus protein, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  25. Chang C, Chen P, Chang G, Huang C, Chen H. Functional characterization of the placental fusogenic membrane protein syncytin. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1956-62 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of syncytin is not essential for syncytin-mediated fusion but may play a regulatory role, and an intramolecular interaction between HRA and B is involved in the fusion process. ..
  26. Gimenez J, Montgiraud C, Oriol G, Pichon J, Ruel K, Tsatsaris V, et al. Comparative methylation of ERVWE1/syncytin-1 and other human endogenous retrovirus LTRs in placenta tissues. DNA Res. 2009;16:195-211 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope ..
  27. Ponferrada V, Mauck B, Wooley D. The envelope glycoprotein of human endogenous retrovirus HERV-W induces cellular resistance to spleen necrosis virus. Arch Virol. 2003;148:659-75 pubmed
    Human endogenous retrovirus type W (HERV-W) envelope glycoprotein (Env) has recently been reported to induce fusion in cells expressing the RD-114 and type D retrovirus receptor (RDR) and to serve as a functional retroviral envelope ..
  28. Smallwood A, Papageorghiou A, Nicolaides K, Alley M, Jim A, Nargund G, et al. Temporal regulation of the expression of syncytin (HERV-W), maternally imprinted PEG10, and SGCE in human placenta. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:286-93 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the relative levels of 3.1 kb and 8 kb mRNAs in trophoblasts could regulate syncytin protein synthesis, possibly by competition of the two mRNA species for translational apparatus. ..
  29. Cheynet V, Oriol G, Mallet F. Identification of the hASCT2-binding domain of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin-1 fusogenic glycoprotein. Retrovirology. 2006;3:41 pubmed
    The cellular HERV-W envelope/syncytin-1 protein, encoded by the envelope gene of the ERVWE1 proviral locus is a fusogenic glycoprotein probably involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer...
  30. Prudhomme S, Oriol G, Mallet F. A retroviral promoter and a cellular enhancer define a bipartite element which controls env ERVWE1 placental expression. J Virol. 2004;78:12157-68 pubmed
    ..A unique locus termed ERVWE1 encodes an envelope glycoprotein (syncytin) involved in hominoid placental physiology...
  31. Nishigami M, Mori T, Tomita M, Takiguchi K, Tsumoto K. Membrane fusion between baculovirus budded virus-enveloped particles and giant liposomes generated using a droplet-transfer method for the incorporation of recombinant membrane proteins. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017;155:248-256 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination may be useful for preparing giant proteoliposomes containing the desired membranes and inner phases. ..
  32. Liang Y, Guttman M, Williams J, Verkerke H, Alvarado D, Hu S, et al. Changes in Structure and Antigenicity of HIV-1 Env Trimers Resulting from Removal of a Conserved CD4 Binding Site-Proximal Glycan. J Virol. 2016;90:9224-36 pubmed publisher
    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the major target for HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
  33. Purcell M, Pearman Gillman S, Thompson R, Gregg J, Hart L, Winton J, et al. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2016;28:382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing...
  34. Fellinger C, Gardner M, Bailey C, Farzan M. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239, but Not SIVmac316, Binds and Utilizes Human CD4 More Efficiently than Rhesus CD4. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of two SIVmac316 CD4-binding site residues (G382R and H442Y) into the SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein (Env) markedly increased its neutralization sensitivity to rhesus CD4-Ig without altering neutralization ..
  35. Gómara M, Pérez Pomeda I, Gatell J, Sánchez Merino V, Yuste E, Haro I. Lipid raft-like liposomes used for targeted delivery of a chimeric entry-inhibitor peptide with anti-HIV-1 activity. Nanomedicine. 2017;13:601-609 pubmed publisher
    ..The described liposome preparations are suitable nanosystems for managing hydrophobic entry-inhibitor peptides as putative therapeutics. ..
  36. Gallais F, Gay Andrieu F, Picot V, Magassouba N, Mély S, Peyrefitte C, et al. [Field assessment of the new rapid diagnostic test Ebola eZYSCREEN®]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2017;110:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Assay) Ebola eZYSCREEN® was developed in this emergency frame using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein of the virus...
  37. Christensen T. Human endogenous retroviruses in the aetiology of MS. Acta Neurol Scand. 2017;136 Suppl 201:18-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are needed...
  38. Matho M, Schlossman A, Gilchuk I, Miller G, Mikulski Z, Hupfer M, et al. Structure-function characterization of three human antibodies targeting the vaccinia virus adhesion molecule D8. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that through structure-based protein engineering, an improved D8 tetramer could be used as a potential diagnostic tool to detect expression of CS-E, which is a possible biomarker for ovarian cancer. ..
  39. de Taeye S, de la Peña A, Vecchione A, Scutigliani E, Sliepen K, Burger J, et al. Stabilization of the gp120 V3 loop through hydrophobic interactions reduces the immunodominant V3-directed non-neutralizing response to HIV-1 envelope trimers. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:1688-1701 pubmed publisher
    ..primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP...
  40. Al Dossary R, Alkharsah K, Kussaibi H. Prevalence of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-like sequences in human breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal breast tissues in Saudi Arabia. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:170 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of MMTV-like envelope gene (env) positivity in breast cancer and non-cancerous breast tissue from Saudi Arabia...
  41. Wetzel K, Yi Y, Elliott S, Romero D, Jacquelin B, Hahn B, et al. CXCR6-Mediated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmSab Entry into Sabaeus African Green Monkey Lymphocytes Implicates Widespread Use of Non-CCR5 Pathways in Natural Host Infections. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..CXCR6, CCR5, and GPR15 mediated robust entry into transfected cells by pseudotypes carrying SIVagmSab92018ivTF Env, with lower-level entry through GPR1 and APJ...
  42. Zurawski G, Shen X, Zurawski S, Tomaras G, Montefiori D, Roederer M, et al. Superiority in Rhesus Macaques of Targeting HIV-1 Env gp140 to CD40 versus LOX-1 in Combination with Replication-Competent NYVAC-KC for Induction of Env-Specific Antibody and T Cell Responses. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    We compared the HIV-1-specific immune responses generated by targeting HIV-1 envelope protein (Env gp140) to either CD40 or LOX-1, two endocytic receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), in rhesus macaques primed with a poxvirus vector (NYVAC-..
  43. Gelaye E, Achenbach J, Ayelet G, Jenberie S, Yami M, Grabherr R, et al. Genetic characterization of poxviruses in Camelus dromedarius in Ethiopia, 2011-2014. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:17-25 pubmed publisher
  44. Rizzo G, Forti K, Serroni A, Cagiola M, Baglivo S, Scoccia E, et al. Single N-glycosylation site of bovine leukemia virus SU is involved in conformation and viral escape. Vet Microbiol. 2016;197:21-26 pubmed publisher
    The bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) envelope protein (Env) is synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (gp72) proteolytically cleaved into the mature surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins...
  45. Gach J, Venzon D, Vaccari M, Keele B, Franchini G, Forthal D. Relationship between Vaccine-Induced Antibody Capture of Infectious Virus and Infection Outcomes following Repeated Low-Dose Rectal Challenges with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251. J Virol. 2016;90:8487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Capture also correlated with results of Env binding assays, indicating that greater immunogenicity resulted in greater capture...
  46. Yin P, Zhang L, Ye F, Deng Y, Lu S, Li Y, et al. A screen for inhibitory peptides of hepatitis C virus identifies a novel entry inhibitor targeting E1 and E2. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3976 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we observed that E2-42 associated with E1 and E2. Our results indicate that E2-42 inhibits HCV entry via E1 and E2. These findings suggest a new avenue for HCV therapeutic development. ..
  47. Handley S, Desai C, Zhao G, Droit L, Monaco C, Schroeder A, et al. SIV Infection-Mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Are Associated with Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:323-35 pubmed publisher
    ..challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens...
  48. Tolbert W, Gohain N, Alsahafi N, Van V, Orlandi C, Ding S, et al. Targeting the Late Stage of HIV-1 Entry for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity: Structural Basis for Env Epitopes in the C11 Region. Structure. 2017;25:1719-1731.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most potent ADCC-inducing epitopes on HIV-1 Env is recognized by the C11 antibody. Here, we present the crystal structure, at 2...
  49. Reynolds T, Buonocore L, Rose N, Rose J, Robek M. Virus-Like Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Vectors for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. J Virol. 2015;89:10407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the evolved VLV vector engineered to additionally express the HBV middle surface envelope glycoprotein (MHBs) induces functional CD8 T cell responses in mice...
  50. Nishimura Y, Martin M. Of Mice, Macaques, and Men: Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Immunotherapy for HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2017;22:207-216 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines recent findings from animal models and human clinical trials and discusses the future use of bNAbs for HIV-1 treatment. ..
  51. Rahman M, McKinnon K, Karpova T, Ball D, Venzon D, Fan W, et al. Associations of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Specific Follicular CD8+ T Cells with Other Follicular T Cells Suggest Complex Contributions to SIV Viremia Control. J Immunol. 2018;200:2714-2726 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Env- and Gag-specific IL-21+ Tfh of LVL but not HVL macaques negatively correlated with viral load, ..
  52. Connell B, Chang S, Prakash E, Yousfi R, Mohan V, Posch W, et al. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0165386 pubmed publisher the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising ..
  53. Li J, Murtaugh M. Functional analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus N-glycans in infection of permissive cells. Virology. 2015;477:82-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycans themselves appear not to be required for infection of permissive cells, but may have important roles in avoidance of host immunity and in protein structure, intracellular virion growth and assembly. ..
  54. Priščáková P, Konkoľová J, Petrovic R, Lipov J, Minarik G, Bohmer D, et al. ERVW-1 gene polymorphisms related to preeclampsia. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2016;117:340-4 pubmed
    ..Abnormal placentation frequently occurs during severe preeclampsia. Protein syncytin 1, a product of the ERVW-1 gene, plays a crucial role in the syncytiotrophoblast differentiation and optimal ..
  55. Heeke D, Lin R, Rao E, Woo J, McCarthy M, Marshall J. Identification of GLA/SE as an effective adjuvant for the induction of robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to EBV-gp350 in mice and rabbits. Vaccine. 2016;34:2562-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A vaccine targeting the envelope glycoprotein gp350 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide complexed with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) ..
  56. Huang Q, Chen H, Wang F, Brost B, Li J, Gao Y, et al. Reduced syncytin-1 expression in choriocarcinoma BeWo cells activates the calpain1-AIF-mediated apoptosis, implication for preeclampsia. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014;71:3151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel mechanism may contribute to the structural and functional deficiencies of syncytium frequently observed in preeclamptic placentas. ..
  57. Poveda E, Freeman M. Hot News: Exosomes as New Players in HIV Pathogenesis - New Data from the IAS 2017. AIDS Rev. 2017;19:173-175 pubmed interesting observation that could lead to the discovery of new antiviral drugs targeting EVs that contain HIV-Env. Exosomes might also have an effect on the viral reservoir. Kashanchi et al...
  58. Sun X, Zhang H, Xu S, Shi L, Dong J, Gao D, et al. Membrane-anchored CCL20 augments HIV Env-specific mucosal immune responses. Virol J. 2017;14:163 pubmed publisher
    ..0085) or intravaginal (n = 10, p = 0.0091)) showed much higher potency in inducing Env-specific IgA antibody response than those administered by intramuscular route (n = 10)...
  59. Maung R, Medders K, Sejbuk N, Desai M, Russo R, Kaul M. Genetic knockouts suggest a critical role for HIV co-receptors in models of HIV gp120-induced brain injury. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:306-18 pubmed publisher
  60. Yu H, Liu T, Zhao Z, Chen Y, Zeng J, Liu S, et al. Mutations in 3'-long terminal repeat of HERV-W family in chromosome 7 upregulate syncytin-1 expression in urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder through interacting with c-Myb. Oncogene. 2014;33:3947-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrated that HERV-W env (syncytin-1) was overexpressed in 75...
  61. Sun Y, Zhu H, Song J, Jiang Y, Ouyang H, Dong T, et al. Expression of Leukocytic Syncytin-1 in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients. Clin Lab. 2017;63:1567-1574 pubmed publisher
    ..Syncytin-1 is improperly expressed in several cancers. However, its expression profile across leukocytes in leukemia patients has not yet been analyzed...
  62. Mercorio R, Bonzini M, Angelici L, Iodice S, Delbue S, Mariani J, et al. Effects of metal-rich particulate matter exposure on exogenous and endogenous viral sequence methylation in healthy steel-workers. Environ Res. 2017;159:452-457 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies investigating a larger panel of viral sequences could better elucidate possible mechanisms and their role in pro-inflammatory pathways leading to systemic health effects. ..
  63. Rangasamy S, Menon V, Dhopeshwarkar P, Pal R, Vaniambadi K, Mahalingam S. Membrane bound Indian clade C HIV-1 envelope antigen induces antibodies to diverse and conserved epitopes upon DNA prime/protein boost in rabbits. Vaccine. 2016;34:2444-2452 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that priming with DNA encoding cytoplasmic domains of Env alters the quality of antibodies elicited following protein boost and hence may be utilized to generate protective ..
  64. He W, Han X, An M, Hai Y, Chang L, Liu C, et al. Near Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Novel HIV-1 Second-Generation Recombinant Form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) Detected Among Blood Donors in North China. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017;33:1265-1269 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC HIV-1 recombinant form, with five breakpoints in the pol, vpr, env, and nef gene regions, was identified from a voluntary blood donor in North China...
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    b>Purpose: We investigated the role of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) envelope (env) gene in pancreatic cancer...
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    Soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers (SOSIP.664 gp140) are attractive HIV-1 vaccine candidates, with structures that mimic the native membrane-bound Env spike (gp160)...
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    ..However, the envelope glycoprotein (GP)-1 of LASV elicits weak antibody responses due to extensive glycan shielding...
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    ..overlapping the twelve SIV protease cleavage sites (-10/+10), respectively (PCS peptides), and three non-PCS Gag or Env peptides. Natural antibodies to SIV antigens were detected in subsets of monkeys...
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    ..These data suggest that a putative receptor might be involved in the immunomodulatory effects observed previously. ..
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    ..The indirect mechanism by which Tat activates the HERV-Ws through induction of TNFα could add a new piece to the puzzle of CNS pathogenesis, that is the HERV-Wenv contribute to the HIV-related neurodegeneration. ..
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    Oligomannose-type glycans are among the major targets on the gp120 component of the HIV envelope protein (Env) for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs)...
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    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity...
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    ..The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents...
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    Membrane fusion induced by the envelope glycoprotein enables the intracellular replication of HIV-1; hence, this process constitutes a major target for antiretroviral compounds...
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    ..VS formation is initiated by adhesive interactions between viral Envelope (Env) glycoproteins on the infected cell and CD4 receptor molecules on the uninfected cell...