Gene Symbol: ERK2
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Alias: ERK, ERK-2, ERK2, ERT1, MAPK2, P42MAPK, PRKM1, PRKM2, p38, p40, p41, p41mapk, p42-MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAP kinase isoform p42, MAPK 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, protein tyrosine kinase ERK2
Species: human
Products:     ERK2

Top Publications

  1. Toschi E, Bacigalupo I, Strippoli R, Chiozzini C, Cereseto A, Falchi M, et al. HIV-1 Tat regulates endothelial cell cycle progression via activation of the Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1985-94 pubmed
    ..cells results in the activation of the small GTPases Ras and Rac and the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK, specifically through its RGD region...
  2. Smith E, Cai K, Smedberg J, Ribeiro M, Rula M, Slater C, et al. Nuclear entry of activated MAPK is restricted in primary ovarian and mammary epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9295 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation by MEK activates MAPK/ERK in the cytoplasm, and phospho-ERK is thought to enter the nucleus readily to modulate transcription...
  3. Dyugovskaya L, Polyakov A, Cohen Kaplan V, Lavie P, Lavie L. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. J Transl Med. 2012;10:211 pubmed publisher
    ..IH induced ERK1/2 and p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only p38MAPK phosphorylation. Accordingly, both ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors attenuated the IH-induced Mcl-1 increase...
  4. Li Z, Li C, Du L, Zhou Y, Wu W. Human chorionic gonadotropin ? induces migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 and MMP-2 in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54592 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that hCG? induced cell motility via promoting ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-2 upregulation in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. ..
  5. Huang S, Liu F, Niu Q, Li Y, Liu C, Zhang L, et al. GLIPR-2 overexpression in HK-2 cells promotes cell EMT and migration through ERK1/2 activation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58574 pubmed publisher
    ..GLIPR-2 may be responsible for the development of renal fibrosis by increasing the accumulation of interstitial fibroblasts. ..
  6. Gogl G, Töro I, Remenyi A. Protein-peptide complex crystallization: a case study on the ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) the protein-peptide docking surface is comprised of a small hydrophobic surface patch that is often engaged in the ..
  7. Mace P, Wallez Y, Egger M, Dobaczewska M, Robinson H, Pasquale E, et al. Structure of ERK2 bound to PEA-15 reveals a mechanism for rapid release of activated MAPK. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1681 pubmed publisher
    ..understand this ERK1/2 signalling complex, we have solved the crystal structures of PEA-15 bound to three different ERK2 phospho-conformers...
  8. Bouazza B, Debba Pavard M, Amrani Y, Isaacs L, O Connell D, Ahamed S, et al. Basal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates unliganded glucocorticoid receptor function in airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:301-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Because p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) directly phosphorylates GR in different cell types in a stimulus- and cell-..
  9. Kuo H, Hsu H, Chang C, Jiang M, Yeh C, Shen K, et al. High nuclear phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression associated with poor differentiation, larger tumor size, and an advanced stage of breast cancer. Pol J Pathol. 2013;64:163-9 pubmed
    ..018) of the disease. Thus, nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 is associated with enhanced proliferation and invasion of mammary carcinomas and may be a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and the determination of therapeutic strategies. ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sheridan C, Brumatti G, Martin S. Oncogenic B-RafV600E inhibits apoptosis and promotes ERK-dependent inactivation of Bad and Bim. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..point mutation, V600E, which results in greatly elevated B-Raf kinase activity and constitutive activation of MAPK/ERK downstream...
  2. Kuang Y, Pang W, Zheng Y, Dupre D. NHERF1 regulates gp120-induced internalization and signaling by CCR5, and HIV-1 production. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that NHERF1 can associate with CCR5, and promote activation of the gp120-induced MAPK/ERK, focal adhesion kinase and RhoA (Ras homolog gene family member A) signaling pathways...
  3. Shukla A, Hillegass J, Macpherson M, Beuschel S, Vacek P, Pass H, et al. Blocking of ERK1 and ERK2 sensitizes human mesothelioma cells to doxorubicin. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:314 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that blocking ERK1 and 2, which play critical roles in multi-drug resistance and survival, may be beneficial in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of MMs and other tumors. ..
  4. Ahmed N, Niu J, Dorahy D, Gu X, Andrews S, Meldrum C, et al. Direct integrin alphavbeta6-ERK binding: implications for tumour growth. Oncogene. 2002;21:1370-80 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate a direct link between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 and the growth-promoting cell adhesion molecule, integrin alphavbeta6, in colon cancer cells...
  5. Dwivedi P, Hii C, Ferrante A, Tan J, Der C, Omdahl J, et al. Role of MAP kinases in the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced transactivation of the rat cytochrome P450C24 (CYP24) promoter. Specific functions for ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29643-53 pubmed
    ..Evidence was obtained for distinct roles of ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5 in the 1,25D-inductive actions...
  6. Juno J, Fowke K. Clarifying the role of G protein signaling in HIV infection: new approaches to an old question. AIDS Rev. 2010;12:164-76 pubmed
  7. Hong S, Kim J, Lin M, Park J. The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway can mediate growth inhibitory and differentiation signaling via androgen receptor downregulation in prostate cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of a constitutively active AR inhibited Raf/MEK/ERK-mediated regulation of the differentiation markers, neuron-specific enolase and neutral endopeptidase, and the ..
  8. Itoh M, Adachi M, Yasui H, Takekawa M, Tanaka H, Imai K. Nuclear export of glucocorticoid receptor is enhanced by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2382-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that JNK-mediated phosphorylation of the GR-Ser226 enhances GR nuclear export and may contribute to termination of GR-mediated transcription. ..
  9. Khokhlatchev A, Canagarajah B, Wilsbacher J, Robinson M, Atkinson M, Goldsmith E, et al. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinase ERK2 promotes its homodimerization and nuclear translocation. Cell. 1998;93:605-15 pubmed
    The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets...
  10. Theilade J, Hansen J, Haunsø S, Sheikh S. MAP kinase protects G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 from proteasomal degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:685-9 pubmed
    ..Further, ERK blockade had no effect on GRK2 synthesis as probed using a reporter construct carrying the GRK2 promoter upstream ..
  11. Crean J, Finlay D, Murphy M, Moss C, Godson C, Martin F, et al. The role of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B in connective tissue growth factor induced extracellular matrix protein production, cell migration, and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in human mesangial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44187-94 pubmed
  12. Chen C, Wang W, Kuo J, Tsai H, Lin J, Chang Z, et al. Bidirectional signals transduced by DAPK-ERK interaction promote the apoptotic effect of DAPK. EMBO J. 2005;24:294-304 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as a DAPK-interacting protein...
  13. Chen X, Zhang H, Wang H, Zhu J, Zhou W, Zhang H, et al. Transforming growth factor-?1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells via PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3549-56 pubmed publisher
  14. Wei F, Xie Y, Tao L, Tang D. Both ERK1 and ERK2 kinases promote G2/M arrest in etoposide-treated MCF7 cells by facilitating ATM activation. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, much less has been done to directly examine the contributions of ERK1 and ERK2 kinases to DDR. Etoposide induces G2/M arrest in a variety of cell lines, including MCF7 cells...
  15. Alessi D, Saito Y, Campbell D, Cohen P, Sithanandam G, Rapp U, et al. Identification of the sites in MAP kinase kinase-1 phosphorylated by p74raf-1. EMBO J. 1994;13:1610-9 pubmed
  16. Monje P, Marinissen M, Gutkind J. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain of c-Fos by extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates the transcriptional activation of AP-1 and cellular transformation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7030-43 pubmed
    ..regulates AP-1 by stimulating the expression and function of c-Fos through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)...
  17. Dozier C, Bonyadi M, Baricault L, Tonasso L, Darbon J. Regulation of Chk2 phosphorylation by interaction with protein phosphatase 2A via its B' regulatory subunit. Biol Cell. 2004;96:509-17 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that overexpressing B'gamma3 in HEK293 suppressed the phosphorylation of Chk2 induced by a genotoxic treatment, suggesting that PP2A may counteract the action of the checkpoint kinase in living cells. ..
  18. Dougherty M, Muller J, Ritt D, Zhou M, Zhou X, Copeland T, et al. Regulation of Raf-1 by direct feedback phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2005;17:215-24 pubmed the Ras pathway to transmit mitogenic, differentiative, and oncogenic signals to the downstream kinases MEK and ERK. Because of its integral role in cell signaling, Raf-1 activity must be precisely controlled...
  19. Lopez Gines C, Gil Benso R, Benito R, Mata M, Pereda J, Sastre J, et al. The activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in glioblastoma pathobiology and its relationship with EGFR amplification. Neuropathology. 2008;28:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the activation of ERK1/2 also involves pathways that are independent of the EGFR. ..
  20. Janknecht R, Nordheim A. MAP kinase-dependent transcriptional coactivation by Elk-1 and its cofactor CBP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;228:831-7 pubmed
    ..Thereby MAP kinase stimulation can pleiotropically affect activation of genes regulated by different transcription factors interacting with the same coactivator CBP. ..
  21. Sanz Moreno V, Casar B, Crespo P. p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its nuclear activity by sustaining its phosphorylation levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3079-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that Mxi2-ERK interaction has profound effects on ERK function, demonstrating that Mxi2 prolongs the duration of the ERK signal ..
  22. Yokota S, Okabayashi T, Rehli M, Fujii N, Amano K. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides upregulate toll-like receptor 4 expression and proliferation of gastric epithelial cells via the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Infect Immun. 2010;78:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..H. pylori LPS may be a pathogenic factor causing gastric tumors by enhancing cell proliferation and inflammation via the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in gastric epithelial cells. ..
  23. Lin L, Wartmann M, Lin A, Knopf J, Seth A, Davis R. cPLA2 is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase. Cell. 1993;72:269-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that MAP kinase mediates, at least in part, the agonist-induced activation of cPLA2. ..
  24. Brondello J, Pouyssegur J, McKenzie F. Reduced MAP kinase phosphatase-1 degradation after p42/p44MAPK-dependent phosphorylation. Science. 1999;286:2514-7 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the importance of regulated protein degradation in the control of mitogenic signaling. ..
  25. Letourneux C, Rocher G, Porteu F. B56-containing PP2A dephosphorylate ERK and their activity is controlled by the early gene IEX-1 and ERK. EMBO J. 2006;25:727-38 pubmed
    The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) acts on several kinases in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but whether a specific holoenzyme dephosphorylates ERK and whether this activity is controlled during ..
  26. Slack D, Seternes O, Gabrielsen M, Keyse S. Distinct binding determinants for ERK2/p38alpha and JNK map kinases mediate catalytic activation and substrate selectivity of map kinase phosphatase-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16491-500 pubmed
    ..Both binding and catalytic activation of MKP-1 are abrogated by mutation of a conserved docking site in ERK2, p38alpha, and JNK1 MAP kinases...
  27. Oh Hora M, Ogata M, Mori Y, Adachi M, Imai K, Kosugi A, et al. Direct suppression of TCR-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by leukocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase, a tyrosine-specific phosphatase. J Immunol. 1999;163:1282-8 pubmed
    ..LC-PTP dephosphorylated ERK2 in vitro...
  28. Rowan B, Weigel N, O Malley B. Phosphorylation of steroid receptor coactivator-1. Identification of the phosphorylation sites and phosphorylation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4475-83 pubmed
    ..395 and threonine 1179) contained a perfect consensus sequence for the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (Erk-1 and Erk-2)...
  29. Dickinson R, Williams D, Slack D, Williamson J, Seternes O, Keyse S. Characterization of a murine gene encoding a developmentally regulated cytoplasmic dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase. Biochem J. 2002;364:145-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that this enzyme may have a critical role in regulating the activity of MAPK signalling during early development and organogenesis. ..
  30. Fiala M, Popik W, Qiao J, Lossinsky A, Alce T, Tran K, et al. HIV-1 induces cardiomyopathyby cardiomyocyte invasion and gp120, Tat, and cytokine apoptotic signaling. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2004;4:97-107 pubmed
    ..HIV-1, gp120, or Tat induced Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, activation of caspase-3, and apoptosis of NRVMs and CAECs; all of these were inhibited by a ..
  31. Tárrega C, Rios P, Cejudo Marín R, Blanco Aparicio C, van den Berk L, Schepens J, et al. ERK2 shows a restrictive and locally selective mechanism of recognition by its tyrosine phosphatase inactivators not shared by its activator MEK1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37885-94 pubmed
    The two regulatory residues that control the enzymatic activity of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK2 are phosphorylated by the unique MAP kinase kinases MEK1/2 and dephosphorylated by several tyrosine-specific and dual ..
  32. Vomastek T, Iwanicki M, Burack W, Tiwari D, Kumar D, Parsons J, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation sites and docking domain on the nuclear pore complex protein Tpr cooperatively regulate ERK2-Tpr interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6954-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous work, we identified several new candidate substrates for the MAPK ERK2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2), including the nuclear pore complex protein Tpr (translocated promoter ..
  33. Brown J, Kohler J, Coberley C, Sleasman J, Goodenow M. HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3664 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute to immune pathogenesis, and provide important targets for therapeutic approaches. ..
  34. Caunt C, McArdle C. Stimulus-induced uncoupling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation from nuclear localization is dependent on docking domain interactions. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:4310-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also evident with a catalytically inactive ERK2-GFP mutant, and with a mutant incapable of binding the DEF (docking site for ERK, F/Y-X-F/Y-P) domains found in ..
  35. Chu Y, Solski P, Khosravi Far R, Der C, Kelly K. The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases PAC1, MKP-1, and MKP-2 have unique substrate specificities and reduced activity in vivo toward the ERK2 sevenmaker mutation. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6497-501 pubmed
    ..A hyperactive allele of ERK2 (D319N), analogous to the Drosophila sevenmaker gain-of-function mutation, has significantly reduced sensitivity to ..
  36. Wang W, Chen J, Liao R, Deng Q, Zhou J, Huang S, et al. Sequential activation of the MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and MKK3/6-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediates oncogenic ras-induced premature senescence. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3389-403 pubmed
    ..oncogenic ras induces premature senescence, depending on an active MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
  37. Adams D, Coffee R, Zhang H, Pelech S, Strack S, Wadzinski B. Positive regulation of Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling by protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A holoenzymes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42644-54 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological inhibitor studies as well as reporter assays for ERK-dependent activation of the transcription factor Elk1 revealed that the PP2A holoenzymes ABalphaC and ABdeltaC act ..
  38. Bai Y, Liu Y, Chen J, Song T, You Y, Tang Z, et al. Rosiglitazone attenuates NF-kappaB-dependent ICAM-1 and TNF-alpha production caused by homocysteine via inhibiting ERK1/2/p38MAPK activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360:20-6 pubmed
    ..investigated the effects of Hcy on NF-kappaB-mediated sICAM-1, TNF-alpha production and the possible involvement of ERK(1/2)/p38MAPK pathway. The effects of rosiglitazone intervention were also examined...
  39. Whetzel A, Bolick D, Hedrick C. Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits high glucose-mediated ERK1/2 action in endothelium through induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-3. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, one mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of S1P in diabetic EC is inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation through induction of MKP-3 expression via the S1P-S1P(1) receptor axis. ..
  40. Hong F, Saiman Y, Si C, Mosoian A, Bansal M. X4 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 promotes human hepatic stellate cell activation and collagen I expression through interactions with CXCR4. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33659 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, X4 gp120 promoted Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and pretreatment with an ERK inhibitor attenuated HSC activation and collagen I expression...
  41. Kumar S, Jiang M, Adams J, Lee J. Pyridinylimidazole compound SB 203580 inhibits the activity but not the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;263:825-31 pubmed
    b>p38 MAPK is a Ser/Thr protein kinase activated by various inflammatory cytokines and a variety of stress stimuli. It is involved in many physiological processes, including the production of inflammatory cytokines...
  42. Milanini Mongiat J, Pouyssegur J, Pages G. Identification of two Sp1 phosphorylation sites for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases: their implication in vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20631-9 pubmed
    ..These results highlight Sp1 as a key molecular link between elevated activation of the Ras > p42/p44MAPK signaling pathway and increased VEGF expression, two major steps deregulated in tumor cells. ..
  43. Imasato A, Desbois Mouthon C, Han J, Kai H, Cato A, Akira S, et al. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by glucocorticoids via induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 enhances nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced expression of toll-like receptor 2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47444-50 pubmed
    ..up-regulation of the MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) that, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of p38 MAPK, the negative regulator for TLR2 expression...
  44. Chen R, Abate C, Blenis J. Phosphorylation of the c-Fos transrepression domain by mitogen-activated protein kinase and 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10952-6 pubmed
    ..This study suggests a role for nuclear RSK and MAP kinase in modulating newly synthesized c-Fos phosphorylation and downstream signaling. ..
  45. Dalby K, Morrice N, Caudwell F, Avruch J, Cohen P. Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/p90rsk that are inducible by MAPK. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1496-505 pubmed
    ..Ser222, Ser364, and Ser381 are situated in analogous positions to phosphorylation sites in protein kinase B, protein kinase C, and p70S6K, suggesting a common mechanism of activation for these growth factor-stimulated protein kinases. ..
  46. Garcia J, Ye Y, Arranz V, Letourneux C, Pezeron G, Porteu F. IEX-1: a new ERK substrate involved in both ERK survival activity and ERK activation. EMBO J. 2002;21:5151-63 pubmed
    ..IEX-1 was isolated by phosphorylation screening with active ERK2 and found subsequently phosphorylated in vivo upon ERK activation...
  47. Wen Sheng W. ERK signaling pathway is involved in p15INK4b/p16INK4a expression and HepG2 growth inhibition triggered by TPA and Saikosaponin a. Oncogene. 2003;22:955-63 pubmed
    ..Western blot of three activated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38) demonstrated that phosphorylation of ERK is dramatically induced (11...
  48. Aoki K, Yamada M, Kunida K, Yasuda S, Matsuda M. Processive phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..dissect these input-output behaviors, we quantitatively measured the kinetic parameters involved in the MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase)-ERK MAP kinase signaling module in HeLa cells...
  49. Boulton T, Nye S, Robbins D, Ip N, Radziejewska E, Morgenbesser S, et al. ERKs: a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF. Cell. 1991;65:663-75 pubmed
    ..We now describe cloning and characterization of two ERK1-related kinases, ERK2 and ERK3, and provide evidence suggesting that there are additional ERK family members...
  50. Armstrong S, Caunt C, McArdle C. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and protein kinase C signaling to ERK: spatiotemporal regulation of ERK by docking domains and dual-specificity phosphatases. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:510-9 pubmed publisher
    ..roles using short inhibitory RNA to knock down endogenous ERK, adenoviruses to express GnRH receptors and add-back ERK2-GFP, and automated microscopy to monitor ERK location and activation...
  51. Powell C, Wright M, Jackson R. p38mapk and MEK1/2 inhibition contribute to cellular oxidant injury after hypoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L826-33 pubmed
    ..Stress-related signaling pathways in epithelial cells are modulated by hypoxia and confer protection from reoxygenation, since hypoxia and chemical inhibition of p38mapk and MEK1/2 similarly increase cytolysis resulting from O2-. ..
  52. Yan Y, Black C, Cao P, Haferbier J, Kolb R, Spieker R, et al. Gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage checkpoint activation involves feedback regulation between extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and BRCA1. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate an important interaction between BRCA1 and ERK1/2 in the regulation of cellular response after IR-induced DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. ..
  53. Tanoue T, Maeda R, Adachi M, Nishida E. Identification of a docking groove on ERK and p38 MAP kinases that regulates the specificity of docking interactions. EMBO J. 2001;20:466-79 pubmed
    ..Here we have identified a novel site on p38 and ERK2 MAPKs that regulates the docking specificity towards MAPKAPKs...
  54. Conner S, Scott G, Aplin A. Adhesion-dependent activation of the ERK1/2 cascade is by-passed in melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34548-54 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that alterations in the adhesion requirement for ERK1/2 signaling in melanocytes are associated with the acquisition of malignant cell behavior. ..
  55. Zhang D, Guo M, Zhang W, Lu X. Adiponectin stimulates proliferation of adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?)/?-catenin signaling cascade. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathways in adult hNSCs...
  56. Blanco Aparicio C, Torres J, Pulido R. A novel regulatory mechanism of MAP kinases activation and nuclear translocation mediated by PKA and the PTP-SL tyrosine phosphatase. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1129-36 pubmed
    ..PKA activators, or overexpression of the Calpha catalytic subunit of PKA, inhibited the cytoplasmic retention of ERK2 and p38alpha by wild-type PTP-SL, but not by a PTP-SL S231A mutant...
  57. Sun H, Charles C, Lau L, Tonks N. MKP-1 (3CH134), an immediate early gene product, is a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates MAP kinase in vivo. Cell. 1993;75:487-93 pubmed
    ..factor-inducible gene, 3CH134, encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates p42MAPK both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 3CH134 protein dephosphorylates both T183 and Y185 in p42MAPK...
  58. Camps M, Nichols A, Gillieron C, Antonsson B, Muda M, Chabert C, et al. Catalytic activation of the phosphatase MKP-3 by ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Science. 1998;280:1262-5 pubmed
    ..MKP-3 was activated by direct binding to purified ERK2. Activation was independent of protein kinase activity and required binding of ERK2 to the noncatalytic amino-..
  59. Bardwell A, Flatauer L, Matsukuma K, Thorner J, Bardwell L. A conserved docking site in MEKs mediates high-affinity binding to MAP kinases and cooperates with a scaffold protein to enhance signal transmission. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10374-86 pubmed
    ..sequences in human MEK1 and MEK2 are necessary and sufficient for the direct binding of the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2. Mutations in MEK1, MEK2, or Ste7 that altered conserved residues in the docking site diminished binding of the ..
  60. Shi H, Asher C, Chigaev A, Yung Y, Reuveny E, Seger R, et al. Interactions of beta and gamma ENaC with Nedd4 can be facilitated by an ERK-mediated phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13539-47 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that the protein kinase acting on betaThr-613 and gammaThr-623 is the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)...
  61. Zhou B, Wang Z, Zhao Y, Brautigan D, Zhang Z. The specificity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31818-25 pubmed
    The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) is the founding member of a family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are central components of signal transduction pathways for cell proliferation, stress ..
  62. Chen J, Plotkin L, Aguirre J, Han L, Jilka R, Kousteni S, et al. Transient versus sustained phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of ERKs underlie anti-versus pro-apoptotic effects of estrogens. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4632-8 pubmed
    ..of leptomycin B-induced inhibition of ERK export from the nucleus or overexpression of a green fluorescent protein-ERK2 mutant that resides permanently in the nucleus, converted the anti-apoptotic effect of 17beta-estradiol to a pro-..
  63. Prast J, Saleh L, Husslein H, Sonderegger S, Helmer H, Knöfler M. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates trophoblast invasion through extracellularly regulated kinase and AKT signaling. Endocrinology. 2008;149:979-87 pubmed
    ..Addition of the hormone activated ERK-1/2 and AKT in SGHPL-5 cells and pure, extravillous trophoblasts...
  64. Pulido R, Zuniga A, Ullrich A. PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif. EMBO J. 1998;17:7337-50 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of ERK2 with catalytically active PTP-SL in COS-7 cells impaired the EGF-induced activation of ERK2, whereas a PTP-SL ..
  65. Zuniga A, Torres J, Ubeda J, Pulido R. Interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinases with the kinase interaction motif of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL provides substrate specificity and retains ERK2 in the cytoplasm. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21900-7 pubmed
    ERK1 and ERK2 associate with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL through a kinase interaction motif (KIM) located in the juxtamembrane region of PTP-SL...
  66. Luttrell L, Roudabush F, Choy E, Miller W, Field M, Pierce K, et al. Activation and targeting of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by beta-arrestin scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2449-54 pubmed
    ..examined the role of beta-arrestins in the activation and targeting of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) following stimulation of angiotensin II type 1a receptors (AT1aR)...
  67. Tresini M, Lorenzini A, Frisoni L, Allen R, Cristofalo V. Lack of Elk-1 phosphorylation and dysregulation of the extracellular regulated kinase signaling pathway in senescent human fibroblast. Exp Cell Res. 2001;269:287-300 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation of p62(TCF)/Elk-1, which is catalyzed by the members of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) family was strikingly diminished and correlated with a decrease in the abundance of activated ERK proteins...
  68. Roy M, Li Z, Sacks D. IQGAP1 binds ERK2 and modulates its activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17329-37 pubmed
    ..In vitro analysis with purified proteins demonstrated a direct interaction between ERK2 and IQGAP1...
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