Gene Symbol: ERK1
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Alias: ERK-1, ERK1, ERT2, HS44KDAP, HUMKER1A, P44ERK1, P44MAPK, PRKM3, p44-ERK1, p44-MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, MAP kinase isoform p44, MAPK 1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, extracellular signal-related kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase
Species: human
Products:     ERK1

Top Publications

  1. Huang S, Liu F, Niu Q, Li Y, Liu C, Zhang L, et al. GLIPR-2 overexpression in HK-2 cells promotes cell EMT and migration through ERK1/2 activation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58574 pubmed publisher
    ..increased EGFR expression levels, we found that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) was highly elevated in the pcDNA3.0-GLIPR-2-transfected group...
  2. Caunt C, McArdle C. Stimulus-induced uncoupling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation from nuclear localization is dependent on docking domain interactions. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:4310-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It is, however, dependent upon D-domain binding, highlighting distinct roles of ERK motifs during nuclear targeting. ..
  3. Chen X, Zhang H, Wang H, Zhu J, Zhou W, Zhang H, et al. Transforming growth factor-?1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells via PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we performed a study to investigate whether PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways involved in EMT in the human lung cancer A549 cells...
  4. Kuang Y, Pang W, Zheng Y, Dupre D. NHERF1 regulates gp120-induced internalization and signaling by CCR5, and HIV-1 production. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results suggest a very important role of the scaffold NHERF1 in the regulation of HIV-1 entry and replication. ..
  5. Hong F, Saiman Y, Si C, Mosoian A, Bansal M. X4 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 promotes human hepatic stellate cell activation and collagen I expression through interactions with CXCR4. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33659 pubmed publisher
    ..X4 HIV-1 gp120 is pro-fibrogenic through its interactions with CXCR4 on activated HSCs. The availability of small molecule inhibitors to CXCR4 make this a potential anti-fibrotic target in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. ..
  6. Chihara T, Hashimoto M, Osman A, Hiyoshi Yoshidomi Y, Suzu I, Chutiwitoonchai N, et al. HIV-1 proteins preferentially activate anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. J Immunol. 2012;188:3620-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Li Z, Li C, Du L, Zhou Y, Wu W. Human chorionic gonadotropin ? induces migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 and MMP-2 in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54592 pubmed publisher
    ..More, hCG? standards promoted MAPK (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and increased MMP-2 expression and activity in both dose- and time-dependent manners in hCG? non-..
  8. Hong S, Kim J, Lin M, Park J. The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway can mediate growth inhibitory and differentiation signaling via androgen receptor downregulation in prostate cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2671-82 pubmed publisher
    Upregulated ERK1/2 activity is correlated with androgen receptor (AR) downregulation in certain prostate cancer (PCa) that exhibits androgen deprivation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation, but its functional relevance requires ..
  9. Dyugovskaya L, Polyakov A, Cohen Kaplan V, Lavie P, Lavie L. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. J Transl Med. 2012;10:211 pubmed publisher
    ..between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated...

More Information


  1. Guo D, Zhou H, Wu Y, Zhou F, Xu G, Wen H, et al. Involvement of ERK1/2/NF-?B signal transduction pathway in TF/FVIIa/PAR2-induced proliferation and migration of colon cancer cell SW620. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has investigated whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathways are involved in the events...
  2. Juno J, Fowke K. Clarifying the role of G protein signaling in HIV infection: new approaches to an old question. AIDS Rev. 2010;12:164-76 pubmed
  3. Mishra M, Taneja M, Malik S, Khalique H, Seth P. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat modulates proliferation and differentiation of human neural precursor cells: implication in NeuroAIDS. J Neurovirol. 2010;16:355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..D1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, particularly extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)...
  4. Yan Y, Spieker R, Kim M, Stoeger S, Cowan K. BRCA1-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest requires ERK1/2 kinase activation. Oncogene. 2005;24:3285-96 pubmed MCF-7 human breast cancer cells resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and G2/M cell cycle arrest...
  5. Yang C, Luo S, Hsieh H, Chi P, Lin C, Wu C, et al. Interleukin-1beta induces ICAM-1 expression enhancing leukocyte adhesion in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts: involvement of ERK, JNK, AP-1, and NF-kappaB. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:516-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in human RASFs, activation of ERK, JNK, AP-1, and NF-kappaB are essential for IL-1beta-induced ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion. ..
  6. Bukrinskaya A, Ghorpade A, Heinzinger N, Smithgall T, Lewis R, Stevenson M. Phosphorylation-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and nuclear targeting of viral DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:367-71 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel level of regulation of primate lentivirus infectivity. ..
  7. Mangino G, Percario Z, Fiorucci G, Vaccari G, Manrique S, Romeo G, et al. In vitro treatment of human monocytes/macrophages with myristoylated recombinant Nef of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, IkappaB kinases, and interferon regulatory factor 3 and to the r. J Virol. 2007;81:2777-91 pubmed the rapid and transient phosphorylation of the alpha and beta subunits of the IkappaB kinase complex and of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family members...
  8. Mehdi M, Azar Z, Srivastava A. Role of receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases in H2O2-induced PKB and ERK1/2 signaling. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;47:1-10 pubmed
    ..The upstream elements responsible for H2O2-induced ERK1/2 and PKB activation remain poorly characterized, but a potential role of receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine ..
  9. Jinawath A, Akiyama Y, Yuasa Y, Pairojkul C. Expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and homeodomain protein CDX2 in cholangiocarcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:805-10 pubmed
    ..However, the roles of ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) and CDX2 in cholangiocarcinogenesis remain unknown...
  10. Gregorj C, Ricciardi M, Petrucci M, Scerpa M, De Cave F, Fazi P, et al. ERK1/2 phosphorylation is an independent predictor of complete remission in newly diagnosed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2007;109:5473-6 pubmed
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) is frequently found constitutively activated (p-ERK1/2) in hematopoietic diseases, suggesting a role in leukemogenesis...
  11. Yan Y, Black C, Cowan K. Irradiation-induced G2/M checkpoint response requires ERK1/2 activation. Oncogene. 2007;26:4689-98 pubmed
    ..gamma-irradiation (IR) exposure of MCF-7 cells resulted in extracellular signal regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation and induction of G2/M arrest...
  12. Schmitz K, Wohlschlaeger J, Alakus H, Bohr J, Stauder M, Worm K, et al. Activation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) but not AKT predicts poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma and is associated with k-ras mutations. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:151-9 pubmed
    ..of cell proliferation and apoptosis in 135 colorectal cancer cases: AKT and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2)...
  13. Toschi E, Bacigalupo I, Strippoli R, Chiozzini C, Cereseto A, Falchi M, et al. HIV-1 Tat regulates endothelial cell cycle progression via activation of the Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1985-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data provide novel evidence about the ability of Tat to activate the Ras-ERK cascade which may be relevant for endothelial cell proliferation and for Kaposi's sarcoma progression. ..
  14. Hayashi K, Pu H, Andras I, Eum S, Yamauchi A, Hennig B, et al. HIV-TAT protein upregulates expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 in the blood-brain barrier. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:1052-65 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Tat exposure can lead to alterations of the BBB functions and decrease HAART efficacy in the CNS through overexpression of drug efflux transporters. ..
  15. Handra Luca A, Bilal H, Bertrand J, Fouret P. Extra-cellular signal-regulated ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway activation in human salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: association to aggressive tumor behavior and tumor cell proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:957-67 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that deregulation of ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway contributes to mucoepidermoid carcinoma phenotype and, possibly, represents a target for new anticancer drugs...
  16. Jovanovic J, Czernik A, Fienberg A, Greengard P, Sihra T. Synapsins as mediators of BDNF-enhanced neurotransmitter release. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:323-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a causal link of synapsin phosphorylation via BDNF, TrkB receptors and MAP kinase with downstream facilitation of neurotransmitter release. ..
  17. Fiala M, Popik W, Qiao J, Lossinsky A, Alce T, Tran K, et al. HIV-1 induces cardiomyopathyby cardiomyocyte invasion and gp120, Tat, and cytokine apoptotic signaling. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2004;4:97-107 pubmed
    ..HIV-1, gp120, or Tat induced Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, activation of caspase-3, and apoptosis of NRVMs and CAECs; all of these were inhibited by a ..
  18. Vomastek T, Iwanicki M, Burack W, Tiwari D, Kumar D, Parsons J, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation sites and docking domain on the nuclear pore complex protein Tpr cooperatively regulate ERK2-Tpr interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6954-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Tpr is both a substrate and a scaffold for activated ERKs. ..
  19. Kinoshita T, Yoshida I, Nakae S, Okita K, Gouda M, Matsubara M, et al. Crystal structure of human mono-phosphorylated ERK1 at Tyr204. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The isoforms ERK1 and ERK2 have markedly similar amino acid sequences, but exhibit distinctive physiological functions...
  20. Whetzel A, Bolick D, Hedrick C. Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits high glucose-mediated ERK1/2 action in endothelium through induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-3. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation of diabetic NOD endothelial cells (EC) with S1P (100 nmol/l) reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 90%, with no significant changes in total ERK1/2 protein...
  21. Kinet S, Bernard F, Mongellaz C, Perreau M, Goldman F, Taylor N. gp120-mediated induction of the MAPK cascade is dependent on the activation state of CD4(+) lymphocytes. Blood. 2002;100:2546-53 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a mechanism via which gp120 may differentially modulate the fate of activated and quiescent T cells in vivo. ..
  22. Casar B, Sanz Moreno V, Yazicioglu M, Rodriguez J, Berciano M, Lafarga M, et al. Mxi2 promotes stimulus-independent ERK nuclear translocation. EMBO J. 2007;26:635-46 pubmed
    Spatial regulation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases is an essential yet largely unveiled mechanism for ensuring the fidelity and specificity of their signals. Mxi2 is a p38alpha isoform with the ability to bind ERK1/2...
  23. Yang X, Gabuzda D. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and regulates the HIV-1 Vif protein. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29879-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MAPK plays a direct role in regulating HIV-1 replication and infectivity by phosphorylating Vif and identify a novel mechanism for activation of HIV-1 replication by mitogens and other extracellular stimuli. ..
  24. Philipova R, Whitaker M. Active ERK1 is dimerized in vivo: bisphosphodimers generate peak kinase activity and monophosphodimers maintain basal ERK1 activity. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5767-76 pubmed
    b>ERK1 and ERK2 are widely involved in cell signalling. Using a recombinant approach, it has been shown that exogenous ERK2 is capable of dimerization and that preventing dimerization reduces its nuclear accumulation on stimulation...
  25. Marti A, Luo Z, Cunningham C, Ohta Y, Hartwig J, Stossel T, et al. Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2620-8 pubmed
    ..ABP-280 participates in TNF-alpha signal transduction to SAPKs, in part through the binding of SEK-1. ..
  26. Aebersold D, Shaul Y, Yung Y, Yarom N, Yao Z, Hanoch T, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1c (ERK1c), a novel 42-kilodalton ERK, demonstrates unique modes of regulation, localization, and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10000-15 pubmed
    ..We have previously identified an alternatively spliced 46-kDa form of ERK1 that is expressed in rats and mice and named ERK1b...
  27. Shaul Y, Seger R. ERK1c regulates Golgi fragmentation during mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:885-97 pubmed
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1c (ERK1c) is an alternatively spliced form of ERK1 that is regulated differently than other ERK isoforms...
  28. Roux P, Ballif B, Anjum R, Gygi S, Blenis J. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters and activated Ras inactivate the tuberous sclerosis tumor suppressor complex via p90 ribosomal S6 kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13489-94 pubmed
    ..Together, our data unveil a regulatory mechanism by which the Ras/MAPK and PI3K pathways converge on the tumor suppressor tuberin to inhibit its function. ..
  29. Saxena M, Williams S, Tasken K, Mustelin T. Crosstalk between cAMP-dependent kinase and MAP kinase through a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:305-11 pubmed
    The haematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) is a negative regulator of the MAP kinases Erk1, Erk2 and p38...
  30. Jacque J, Mann A, Enslen H, Sharova N, Brichacek B, Davis R, et al. Modulation of HIV-1 infectivity by MAPK, a virion-associated kinase. EMBO J. 1998;17:2607-18 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate regulation of an early step in HIV-1 infection by the host cell MAPK signal transduction pathway. ..
  31. Slack D, Seternes O, Gabrielsen M, Keyse S. Distinct binding determinants for ERK2/p38alpha and JNK map kinases mediate catalytic activation and substrate selectivity of map kinase phosphatase-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16491-500 pubmed
    ..assay to demonstrate that MKP-1 is able to interact selectively with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38alpha, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) MAP kinase isoforms...
  32. Volmat V, Camps M, Arkinstall S, Pouyssegur J, Lenormand P. The nucleus, a site for signal termination by sequestration and inactivation of p42/p44 MAP kinases. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3433-43 pubmed
    ..Hence, the nucleus is a critical site for mitogenic signal termination by: (1) nuclear sequestration of p42/p44 MAPKs away from MEK, their cytoplasmic activator; and (2) dephosphorylation by specific nuclear phosphatases. ..
  33. Milanini Mongiat J, Pouyssegur J, Pages G. Identification of two Sp1 phosphorylation sites for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases: their implication in vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20631-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that p42/p44 MAPK directly phosphorylates Sp1 on threonines 453 and 739 both in vitro and in vivo...
  34. Yao H, Allen J, Zhu X, Callen S, Buch S. Cocaine and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 mediate neurotoxicity through overlapping signaling pathways. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings thus underscore the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial and MAPK signal pathways in cocaine and HIV gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
  35. Pulverer B, Kyriakis J, Avruch J, Nikolakaki E, Woodgett J. Phosphorylation of c-jun mediated by MAP kinases. Nature. 1991;353:670-4 pubmed
    ..MAP kinase activation of c-jun may underlie the common stimulation of this transcription factor by mitogens, growth factors and oncogenes. ..
  36. Bai L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Li X, Yu Q, Lin H, et al. HIV-1 Tat protein alter the tight junction integrity and function of retinal pigment epithelium: an in vitro study. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of ERK1/2 was detected by Western blot analysis with specific antiphospho protein antibodies...
  37. Conner S, Scott G, Aplin A. Adhesion-dependent activation of the ERK1/2 cascade is by-passed in melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34548-54 pubmed
    ..Integrins regulate these processes partially through control of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). A trait of malignant cells is their ability to undergo anchorage-independent growth...
  38. Prast J, Saleh L, Husslein H, Sonderegger S, Helmer H, Knöfler M. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates trophoblast invasion through extracellularly regulated kinase and AKT signaling. Endocrinology. 2008;149:979-87 pubmed
    ..Because the increase of CG during the first trimester of pregnancy correlates with rising trophoblast motility, the hormone could be a critical regulator of the early invasion process. ..
  39. Patel D, King C, Bailey S, Holt J, Venkatachalam K, Agrawal A, et al. Interleukin-17 stimulates C-reactive protein expression in hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2-dependent NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27229-38 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of wild type p50, p65, and C/EBPbeta stimulated CRP transcription. IL-17 stimulated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation, and SB203580 and PD98059 blunted IL-17-mediated NF-kappaB and C/EBP activation and CRP transcription...
  40. Lopez Gines C, Gil Benso R, Benito R, Mata M, Pereda J, Sastre J, et al. The activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in glioblastoma pathobiology and its relationship with EGFR amplification. Neuropathology. 2008;28:507-15 pubmed publisher
    The ERK1/2 activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a critical signaling system that mediates ligand-stimulated signals for the induction of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, involved in malignant transformation...
  41. Sharma G, He J, Bazan H. p38 and ERK1/2 coordinate cellular migration and proliferation in epithelial wound healing: evidence of cross-talk activation between MAP kinase cascades. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21989-97 pubmed
    ..factor (KGF), induced rapid and marked activation and prompt nuclear accumulation of phospho-p38 (p-p38) and -ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), but not of JNK (p-JNK1/2), in corneal epithelial cells...
  42. Whitehurst A, Cobb M, White M. Stimulus-coupled spatial restriction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity contributes to the specificity of signal-response pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10145-50 pubmed
    ..factors may include regulation of the duration, amplitude, and/or subcellular compartmentalization of active ERK1/2...
  43. Nishihara H, Hwang M, Kizaka Kondoh S, Eckmann L, Insel P. Cyclic AMP promotes cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-dependent induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and suppresses apoptosis of colon cancer cells through ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26176-83 pubmed
    ..Studies with pharmacological inhibitors revealed that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of CREB required activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK but was largely independent of protein kinase A...
  44. Wang J, Zhao Y, Kauss M, Spindel S, Lian H. Akt regulates vitamin D3-induced leukemia cell functional differentiation via Raf/MEK/ERK MAPK signaling. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:103-15 pubmed publisher
  45. Wei F, Xie Y, Tao L, Tang D. Both ERK1 and ERK2 kinases promote G2/M arrest in etoposide-treated MCF7 cells by facilitating ATM activation. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, much less has been done to directly examine the contributions of ERK1 and ERK2 kinases to DDR. Etoposide induces G2/M arrest in a variety of cell lines, including MCF7 cells...
  46. Dickinson R, Williams D, Slack D, Williamson J, Seternes O, Keyse S. Characterization of a murine gene encoding a developmentally regulated cytoplasmic dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase. Biochem J. 2002;364:145-55 pubmed
    ..These properties define the ability of this enzyme to dephosphorylate and inactivate ERK1/2 and p38alpha, but not JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) in vivo...
  47. Gille H, Sharrocks A, Shaw P. Phosphorylation of transcription factor p62TCF by MAP kinase stimulates ternary complex formation at c-fos promoter. Nature. 1992;358:414-7 pubmed
    ..Our results link the expression of the human c-fos proto-oncogene to signal transduction pathways known to be activated before its own induction. ..
  48. Tresini M, Lorenzini A, Frisoni L, Allen R, Cristofalo V. Lack of Elk-1 phosphorylation and dysregulation of the extracellular regulated kinase signaling pathway in senescent human fibroblast. Exp Cell Res. 2001;269:287-300 pubmed
    ..These impairments, together with the impaired DNA binding activity of SRF, could potentially account for the lack of c-fos expression in senescent cells and for multiple other molecular changes dependent upon this pathway. ..
  49. Yan Y, Haas J, Kim M, Sgagias M, Cowan K. BRCA1-induced apoptosis involves inactivation of ERK1/2 activities. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33422-30 pubmed
    ..In this study, we monitored the activities of three members of the MAPK family (ERK1/2, JNK, p38) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and U2OS osteosarcoma cells after their exposure to a recombinant ..
  50. Tomkowicz B, Lee C, Ravyn V, Cheung R, Ptasznik A, Collman R. The Src kinase Lyn is required for CCR5 signaling in response to MIP-1beta and R5 HIV-1 gp120 in human macrophages. Blood. 2006;108:1145-50 pubmed
  51. Pulido R, Zuniga A, Ullrich A. PTP-SL and STEP protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 by association through a kinase interaction motif. EMBO J. 1998;17:7337-50 pubmed
    Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by controlling the phosphorylation of specific residues...
  52. Sanz Moreno V, Casar B, Crespo P. p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its nuclear activity by sustaining its phosphorylation levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3079-90 pubmed
    ..this kinase activity can be attributed not to Mxi2 but rather to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which coimmunoprecipitated with Mxi2 both by ectopic expression and in a physiological environment like the ..
  53. Crean J, Finlay D, Murphy M, Moss C, Godson C, Martin F, et al. The role of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B in connective tissue growth factor induced extracellular matrix protein production, cell migration, and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in human mesangial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44187-94 pubmed
  54. Dwivedi P, Hii C, Ferrante A, Tan J, Der C, Omdahl J, et al. Role of MAP kinases in the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced transactivation of the rat cytochrome P450C24 (CYP24) promoter. Specific functions for ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29643-53 pubmed
    ..Evidence was obtained for distinct roles of ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5 in the 1,25D-inductive actions...
  55. Tsai E, Chan T, Chen Y, Hsu S, Chuang C, Lee J. Mifepristone attenuates human chorionic gonadotropin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2 production in human granulosa luteal cells. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1522-9 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the role of RU486 in regulating the function of granulosa luteal cells and its possible involvement in ovarian dysfunction...
  56. Yang H, Cohen P, Rousseau S. IL-1beta-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and p38alpha MAPK mediates the transcriptional up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO-alpha in HeLa cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:375-80 pubmed
    ..Specific inhibition of p38alpha MAP kinase or preventing the activation of ERK1/ERK2 partially reduced the production of these substances, while the combined blockade of both pathways almost ..
  57. Yan Y, Black C, Cao P, Haferbier J, Kolb R, Spieker R, et al. Gamma-irradiation-induced DNA damage checkpoint activation involves feedback regulation between extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and BRCA1. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cells to gamma-irradiation (IR) is dependent on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling...
  58. Pearson G, Hunter T. Real-time imaging reveals that noninvasive mammary epithelial acini can contain motile cells. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1555-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible activation of ERK1/2 in mature acini elicits cell motility and disrupts epithelial architecture in a manner that is reminiscent of ..