ERCC6

Summary

Gene Symbol: ERCC6
Description: ERCC excision repair 6, chromatin remodeling factor
Alias: ARMD5, CKN2, COFS, COFS1, CSB, CSB-PGBD3, POF11, RAD26, UVSS1, DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6, ERCC6-PGBD3 fusion protein, ATP-dependent helicase ERCC6, Chimeric CSB-PGBD3 protein, Chimeric ERCC6-PGBD3 protein, Cockayne syndrome group B protein, cockayne syndrome protein CSB, excision repair cross-complementation group 6, excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6
Species: human
Products:     ERCC6

Top Publications

  1. Dianov G, Bischoff C, Sunesen M, Bohr V. Repair of 8-oxoguanine in DNA is deficient in Cockayne syndrome group B cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:1365-8 pubmed
    ..the hOGG1 gene and the incision of 8-oxoguanine in DNAincreased markedly after transfection of CS-B cells with the CSB gene...
  2. Brosh R, Balajee A, Selzer R, Sunesen M, Proietti De Santis L, Bohr V. The ATPase domain but not the acidic region of Cockayne syndrome group B gene product is essential for DNA repair. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3583-94 pubmed
    ..Two of the genes involved, CSA and CSB, are required for transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that removes ..
  3. Bradsher J, Auriol J, Proietti de Santis L, Iben S, Vonesch J, Grummt I, et al. CSB is a component of RNA pol I transcription. Mol Cell. 2002;10:819-29 pubmed
    Mutation in the CSB gene results in the human Cockayne's syndrome (CS)...
  4. Proietti de Santis L, Drané P, Egly J. Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates the transcriptional program after UV irradiation. EMBO J. 2006;25:1915-23 pubmed
    ..After UV irradiation, even undamaged genes are not transcribed in CSB cells...
  5. Kamenisch Y, Fousteri M, Knoch J, von Thaler A, Fehrenbacher B, Kato H, et al. Proteins of nucleotide and base excision repair pathways interact in mitochondria to protect from loss of subcutaneous fat, a hallmark of aging. J Exp Med. 2010;207:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We show functional increase of CSA and CSB inside mt and complex formation with mtDNA, mt human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (mtOGG)-1, and mt single-stranded DNA ..
  6. Muftuoglu M, de Souza Pinto N, Dogan A, Aamann M, Stevnsner T, Rybanska I, et al. Cockayne syndrome group B protein stimulates repair of formamidopyrimidines by NEIL1 DNA glycosylase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be due to the hypersensitivity of CSB-deficient cells to oxidative stress...
  7. Newman J, Bailey A, Weiner A. Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) plays a general role in chromatin maintenance and remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9613-8 pubmed
    ..expression analysis called L2L, we sought to define this defect in cells lacking a functional CS group B (CSB) protein, the SWI/SNF-like ATPase responsible for most cases of CS...
  8. Sarker A, Tsutakawa S, Kostek S, Ng C, Shin D, Peris M, et al. Recognition of RNA polymerase II and transcription bubbles by XPG, CSB, and TFIIH: insights for transcription-coupled repair and Cockayne Syndrome. Mol Cell. 2005;20:187-98 pubmed
    ..Mutation of CSB, CSA, or the TFIIH helicases XPB and XPD can also cause defective TCR and CS...
  9. Gray L, Fong K, Pavelitz T, Weiner A. Tethering of the conserved piggyBac transposase fusion protein CSB-PGBD3 to chromosomal AP-1 proteins regulates expression of nearby genes in humans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002972 pubmed publisher
    The CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein arose more than 43 million years ago when a 2.5-kb piggyBac 3 (PGBD3) transposon inserted into intron 5 of the Cockayne syndrome Group B (CSB) gene in the common ancestor of all higher primates...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Anindya R, Mari P, Kristensen U, Kool H, Giglia Mari G, Mullenders L, et al. A ubiquitin-binding domain in Cockayne syndrome B required for transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Mol Cell. 2010;38:637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective TCR in humans is associated with Cockayne syndrome (CS), typically caused by defects in either CSA or CSB. Here, we show that CSB contains a ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD)...
  2. Meira L, Graham J, Greenberg C, Busch D, Doughty A, Ziffer D, et al. Manitoba aboriginal kindred with original cerebro-oculo- facio-skeletal syndrome has a mutation in the Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:1221-8 pubmed
    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rapidly progressive neurological disorder leading to brain atrophy with calcification, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure...
  3. Citterio E, Van Den Boom V, Schnitzler G, Kanaar R, Bonte E, Kingston R, et al. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by the Cockayne syndrome B DNA repair-transcription-coupling factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7643-53 pubmed
    The Cockayne syndrome B protein (CSB) is required for coupling DNA excision repair to transcription in a process known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR)...
  4. Kristensen U, Epanchintsev A, Rauschendorf M, Laugel V, Stevnsner T, Bohr V, et al. Regulatory interplay of Cockayne syndrome B ATPase and stress-response gene ATF3 following genotoxic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2261-70 pubmed publisher
    Cockayne syndrome type B ATPase (CSB) belongs to the SwItch/Sucrose nonfermentable family...
  5. Berquist B, Wilson D. Nucleic acid binding activity of human Cockayne syndrome B protein and identification of Ca(2+) as a novel metal cofactor. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:820-32 pubmed publisher
    The Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) is a member of the SWI/SNF2 subgroup of Superfamily 2 ATPases/nucleic acid translocases/helicases and is defective in the autosomal recessive segmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome...
  6. Anindya R, Aygün O, Svejstrup J. Damage-induced ubiquitylation of human RNA polymerase II by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, but not Cockayne syndrome proteins or BRCA1. Mol Cell. 2007;28:386-97 pubmed
    ..Nedd4-dependent RNAPII ubiquitylation could also be reconstituted with highly purified proteins. Together, our results indicate that transcriptional arrest at DNA lesions triggers Nedd4 recruitment and RNAPII ubiquitylation. ..
  7. Wong H, Muftuoglu M, Beck G, Imam S, Bohr V, Wilson D. Cockayne syndrome B protein stimulates apurinic endonuclease 1 activity and protects against agents that introduce base excision repair intermediates. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4103-13 pubmed
    The Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein--defective in a majority of patients suffering from the rare autosomal disorder CS--is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family with roles in DNA repair and transcription...
  8. Aamann M, Sorensen M, Hvitby C, Berquist B, Muftuoglu M, Tian J, et al. Cockayne syndrome group B protein promotes mitochondrial DNA stability by supporting the DNA repair association with the mitochondrial membrane. FASEB J. 2010;24:2334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Most patients belong to complementation group B, and the CS group B (CSB) protein plays a role in genomic maintenance and transcriptome regulation...
  9. Stubbert L, Smith J, McKay B. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:207 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B) transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was ..
  10. Beerens N, Hoeijmakers J, Kanaar R, Vermeulen W, Wyman C. The CSB protein actively wraps DNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4722-9 pubmed
    The CSB protein is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors and is essential for transcription-coupled DNA repair...
  11. van den Boom V, Citterio E, Hoogstraten D, Zotter A, Egly J, van Cappellen W, et al. DNA damage stabilizes interaction of CSB with the transcription elongation machinery. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:27-36 pubmed
    The Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein is essential for transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), which is dependent on RNA polymerase II elongation. TCR is required to quickly remove the cytotoxic transcription-blocking DNA lesions...
  12. Horibata K, Saijo M, Bay M, Lan L, Kuraoka I, Brooks P, et al. Mutant Cockayne syndrome group B protein inhibits repair of DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. Genes Cells. 2011;16:101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..who have mild photosensitivity without detectable somatic abnormalities lack detectable Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein because of a homozygous null mutation in the CSB gene...
  13. Latini P, Frontini M, Caputo M, Gregan J, Cipak L, Filippi S, et al. CSA and CSB proteins interact with p53 and regulate its Mdm2-dependent ubiquitination. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3719-30 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in Cockayne syndrome (CS) A and B genes (CSA and CSB) result in a rare genetic disease that affects the development and homeostasis of a wide range of tissues and organs...
  14. Berquist B, Canugovi C, Sykora P, Wilson D, Bohr V. Human Cockayne syndrome B protein reciprocally communicates with mitochondrial proteins and promotes transcriptional elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8392-405 pubmed
    ..components of mitochondria, we sought to identify protein partners and roles for Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein in this organelle...
  15. Mallery D, Tanganelli B, Colella S, Steingrimsdottir H, van Gool A, Troelstra C, et al. Molecular analysis of mutations in the CSB (ERCC6) gene in patients with Cockayne syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:77-85 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed the sites of the mutations in the CSB gene in 16 patients, to determine the spectrum of mutations in this gene and to see whether the nature of the ..
  16. Tuo J, Jaruga P, Rodriguez H, Dizdaroglu M, Bohr V. The cockayne syndrome group B gene product is involved in cellular repair of 8-hydroxyadenine in DNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30832-7 pubmed
    ..CS has two complementation groups, CS-A and CS-B. The CSB gene encodes the CSB protein with 1493 amino acids...
  17. Troelstra C, Hesen W, Bootsma D, Hoeijmakers J. Structure and expression of the excision repair gene ERCC6, involved in the human disorder Cockayne's syndrome group B. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:419-26 pubmed
    The human repair gene ERCC6--a presumed DNA (or RNA) helicase--has recently been found to function specifically in preferential nucleotide excision repair (NER)...
  18. Selby C, Sancar A. Human transcription-repair coupling factor CSB/ERCC6 is a DNA-stimulated ATPase but is not a helicase and does not disrupt the ternary transcription complex of stalled RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1885-90 pubmed
    ..Proteins encoded by the mfd gene in E. coli and by the ERCC6/CSB gene in humans, both of which possess the so-called helicase motifs, are required for the coupling reaction...
  19. Yuan X, Feng W, Imhof A, Grummt I, Zhou Y. Activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by cockayne syndrome group B protein and histone methyltransferase G9a. Mol Cell. 2007;27:585-95 pubmed
    Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein plays a role in both transcription-coupled DNA repair and transcriptional regulation of all three classes of nuclear RNA polymerases...
  20. Selby C, Sancar A. Cockayne syndrome group B protein enhances elongation by RNA polymerase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11205-9 pubmed
    ..Two complementation groups, CSA and CSB, have been identified. Here we report that the CSB gene product enhances elongation by RNA polymerase II...
  21. Fousteri M, Vermeulen W, Van Zeeland A, Mullenders L. Cockayne syndrome A and B proteins differentially regulate recruitment of chromatin remodeling and repair factors to stalled RNA polymerase II in vivo. Mol Cell. 2006;23:471-82 pubmed
    ..In mammals, TCR is dependent on CSA and CSB proteins; however, their functions are largely unknown...
  22. Cleaver J, Thompson L, Richardson A, States J. A summary of mutations in the UV-sensitive disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. Hum Mutat. 1999;14:9-22 pubmed
    ..XP-E by this definition contains only those cell lines and patients that have mutations in the small subunit, DDB2, of a damage-specific DNA binding protein. ..
  23. Colella S, Nardo T, Botta E, Lehmann A, Stefanini M. Identical mutations in the CSB gene associated with either Cockayne syndrome or the DeSanctis-cacchione variant of xeroderma pigmentosum. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:1171-5 pubmed
    ..of a severe form of XP were unexpectedly associated with the CS cellular phenotype and with a defect in the CSB gene...
  24. Kyng K, May A, Brosh R, Cheng W, Chen C, Becker K, et al. The transcriptional response after oxidative stress is defective in Cockayne syndrome group B cells. Oncogene. 2003;22:1135-49 pubmed
    ..B (CS-B) fibroblasts after exposure to oxidative stress (H2O2) before and after complete complementation with the CSB gene...
  25. Christiansen M, Stevnsner T, Modin C, Martensen P, Brosh R, Bohr V. Functional consequences of mutations in the conserved SF2 motifs and post-translational phosphorylation of the CSB protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:963-73 pubmed
    ..Two genes are involved: CSA and CSB. The CS group B (CSB) protein has roles in transcription, transcription-coupled repair, and base excision repair...
  26. Lake R, Fan H. Structure, function and regulation of CSB: a multi-talented gymnast. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:202-11 pubmed publisher
    The Cockayne syndrome complementation group B protein, CSB, plays pivotal roles in transcription regulation and DNA repair...
  27. Lake R, Geyko A, Hemashettar G, Zhao Y, Fan H. UV-induced association of the CSB remodeling protein with chromatin requires ATP-dependent relief of N-terminal autorepression. Mol Cell. 2010;37:235-46 pubmed publisher
    The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CSB is essential for transcription-coupled DNA repair, and mutations in CSB lead to Cockayne syndrome...
  28. Velez Cruz R, Egly J. Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein: at the crossroads of transcriptional networks. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..CS arises due to mutations in the CSA and CSB genes...
  29. Scheibye Knudsen M, Ramamoorthy M, Sykora P, Maynard S, Lin P, Minor R, et al. Cockayne syndrome group B protein prevents the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by promoting mitochondrial autophagy. J Exp Med. 2012;209:855-69 pubmed publisher
    ..80% of the cases are caused by mutations in the CS complementation group B (CSB) gene known to be involved in DNA repair and transcription...
  30. Abbasi R, Ramroth H, Becher H, Dietz A, Schmezer P, Popanda O. Laryngeal cancer risk associated with smoking and alcohol consumption is modified by genetic polymorphisms in ERCC5, ERCC6 and RAD23B but not by polymorphisms in five other nucleotide excision repair genes. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer with 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 NER genes (XPC, XPA, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6 and RAD23B) was analyzed with respect to smoking and alcohol exposure...
  31. Frontini M, Proietti de Santis L. Cockayne syndrome B protein (CSB): linking p53, HIF-1 and p300 to robustness, lifespan, cancer and cell fate decisions. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:693-6 pubmed
    Our recent data demonstrate that the CSB protein, besides its role in DNA repair, functions also as a master switch factor that can selectively influence the transcription of specific sets of genes, after DNA damage or hypoxia, by ..
  32. Henning K, Li L, Iyer N, McDaniel L, Reagan M, Legerski R, et al. The Cockayne syndrome group A gene encodes a WD repeat protein that interacts with CSB protein and a subunit of RNA polymerase II TFIIH. Cell. 1995;82:555-64 pubmed
    ..The cloned CSB gene encodes a member of a protein family that includes the yeast Snf2 protein, a component of the transcriptional ..
  33. Troelstra C, van Gool A, de Wit J, Vermeulen W, Bootsma D, Hoeijmakers J. ERCC6, a member of a subfamily of putative helicases, is involved in Cockayne's syndrome and preferential repair of active genes. Cell. 1992;71:939-53 pubmed
    ..This system permits quick resumption of transcription after UV exposure. Here we report the characterization of ERCC6, a gene involved in preferential repair in eukaryotes...
  34. Newman J, Bailey A, Fan H, Pavelitz T, Weiner A. An abundant evolutionarily conserved CSB-PiggyBac fusion protein expressed in Cockayne syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000031 pubmed publisher
    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling protein...
  35. Tantin D, Kansal A, Carey M. Recruitment of the putative transcription-repair coupling factor CSB/ERCC6 to RNA polymerase II elongation complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6803-14 pubmed
    ..The two principle proteins involved in CS, CSA and CSB/ERCC6, have been hypothesized to bind RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and link transcription to DNA repair...
  36. Groisman R, Kuraoka I, Chevallier O, Gaye N, Magnaldo T, Tanaka K, et al. CSA-dependent degradation of CSB by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway establishes a link between complementation factors of the Cockayne syndrome. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1429-34 pubmed
    Mutations in the CSA or CSB complementation genes cause the Cockayne syndrome, a severe genetic disorder that results in patients' death in early adulthood...
  37. Christiansen M, Thorslund T, Jochimsen B, Bohr V, Stevnsner T. The Cockayne syndrome group B protein is a functional dimer. FEBS J. 2005;272:4306-14 pubmed
    ..The CS group B (CSB) protein belongs to the SNF2-family of DNA-dependent ATPases and is implicated in transcription elongation, ..
  38. Horibata K, Iwamoto Y, Kuraoka I, Jaspers N, Kurimasa A, Oshimura M, et al. Complete absence of Cockayne syndrome group B gene product gives rise to UV-sensitive syndrome but not Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15410-5 pubmed
    ..Because the gene responsible for CS group B (CSB), which involves neurological abnormalities and photosensitivity as well as a defect in transcription-coupled DNA ..
  39. Lebedev A, Scharffetter Kochanek K, Iben S. Truncated Cockayne syndrome B protein represses elongation by RNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:266-74 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) gene result in the human form of Cockayne syndrome. CSB protein has been shown to be a component of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription...
  40. Aamann M, Muftuoglu M, Bohr V, Stevnsner T. Multiple interaction partners for Cockayne syndrome proteins: implications for genome and transcriptome maintenance. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:212-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of CS cases are caused by defects in the CS complementation group B (CSB) protein and the rest are mainly caused by defects in the CS complementation group A (CSA) protein...
  41. Tantin D. RNA polymerase II elongation complexes containing the Cockayne syndrome group B protein interact with a molecular complex containing the transcription factor IIH components xeroderma pigmentosum B and p62. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27794-9 pubmed
    ..The targeting of TFIIH or a TFIIH-like repair factor to transcriptionally active DNA indicates a potential mechanism for transcription-coupled repair in human cells. ..
  42. Colella S, Nardo T, Mallery D, Borrone C, Ricci R, Ruffa G, et al. Alterations in the CSB gene in three Italian patients with the severe form of Cockayne syndrome (CS) but without clinical photosensitivity. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:935-41 pubmed
    ..They all were altered in the CSB gene...
  43. Bailey A, Gray L, Pavelitz T, Newman J, Horibata K, Tanaka K, et al. The conserved Cockayne syndrome B-piggyBac fusion protein (CSB-PGBD3) affects DNA repair and induces both interferon-like and innate antiviral responses in CSB-null cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:488-501 pubmed publisher
    Cockayne syndrome is a segmental progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF-like ATPase required for transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR)...
  44. Yu A, Fan H, Liao D, Bailey A, Weiner A. Activation of p53 or loss of the Cockayne syndrome group B repair protein causes metaphase fragility of human U1, U2, and 5S genes. Mol Cell. 2000;5:801-10 pubmed
    ..We now show that loss of the Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) or overexpression of the p53 carboxy-terminal domain induces fragility of the same loci; ..
  45. Selzer R, Nyaga S, Tuo J, May A, Muftuoglu M, Christiansen M, et al. Differential requirement for the ATPase domain of the Cockayne syndrome group B gene in the processing of UV-induced DNA damage and 8-oxoguanine lesions in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:782-93 pubmed
    ..The CSB protein is thought to play a pivotal role in transcription-coupled repair and CS-B cells are defective in the ..
  46. Lake R, Basheer A, Fan H. Reciprocally regulated chromatin association of Cockayne syndrome protein B and p53 protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34951-8 pubmed publisher
    The Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB) protein is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler with an essential function in transcription-coupled DNA repair, and mutations in the CSB gene are associated with Cockayne syndrome...
  47. Thorslund T, Von Kobbe C, Harrigan J, Indig F, Christiansen M, Stevnsner T, et al. Cooperation of the Cockayne syndrome group B protein and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in the response to oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7625-36 pubmed
    ..The CS group B (CSB) protein has previously been implicated in transcription-coupled repair, transcriptional elongation, and ..
  48. Laugel V, Dalloz C, Durand M, Sauvanaud F, Kristensen U, Vincent M, et al. Mutation update for the CSB/ERCC6 and CSA/ERCC8 genes involved in Cockayne syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:113-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This rare disease is linked to mutations in the CSB/ERCC6 and CSA/ERCC8 genes encoding proteins involved in the transcription-coupled DNA repair pathway...
  49. Filippi S, Latini P, Frontini M, Palitti F, Egly J, Proietti de Santis L. CSB protein is (a direct target of HIF-1 and) a critical mediator of the hypoxic response. EMBO J. 2008;27:2545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that CSB mutant cells are unable to react to hypoxic stimuli by properly activating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) ..
  50. Caputo M, Frontini M, Velez Cruz R, Nicolai S, Prantera G, Proietti de Santis L. The CSB repair factor is overexpressed in cancer cells, increases apoptotic resistance, and promotes tumor growth. DNA Repair (Amst). 2013;12:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cell lines from different tissues display dramatically increased expression of the Cockayne Syndrome group B (CSB) protein, a DNA repair factor, that has recently been shown to be involved in cell robustness...
  51. Tuo J, Ning B, Bojanowski C, Lin Z, Ross R, Reed G, et al. Synergic effect of polymorphisms in ERCC6 5' flanking region and complement factor H on age-related macular degeneration predisposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9256-61 pubmed
    ..We chose ERCC6 because of its roles in the aging process, DNA repair, and ocular degeneration from the gene disruption...
  52. Xu S, Liang R, Zhan T, Qi Q, Zhao X. Construction of 2D covalent organic frameworks by taking advantage of the variable orientation of imine bonds. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017;53:2431-2434 pubmed publisher
    A model system has been established to construct two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) by taking advantage of the variable orientation of imine bonds...
  53. Biswas P, Kar P, Ghosh S. Nitrosative stress induces a novel intra-S checkpoint pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe involving phosphorylation of Cdc2 by Wee1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;86:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We checked the roles of Rad3, Rad17, Rad26, Swi1, Swi3, Cds1, and Chk1 under nitrosative stress but those were not involved in the activation of the DNA ..
  54. Kamenisch Y, Berneburg M. Mitochondrial CSA and CSB: protein interactions and protection from ageing associated DNA mutations. Mech Ageing Dev. 2013;134:270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..autosomal recessive disease with progeroid symptoms, which is caused mainly by mutations in the CS genes CSA and CSB. Although the relevance of mitochondria in the aging process is known for several decades, research focused ..
  55. Sun J, Klechikov A, Moise C, Prodana M, Enachescu M, Talyzin A. Molecular pillar approach to grow vertical covalent organic framework nanosheets on graphene: new hybrid materials for energy storage. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Hybrid 2D-2D materials composed by perpendicularly oriented covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and graphene were prepared and tested for energy storage applications...