Gene Symbol: ERbeta
Description: estrogen receptor 2
Alias: ER-BETA, ESR-BETA, ESRB, ESTRB, Erb, NR3A2, estrogen receptor beta, estrogen receptor beta 4, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 2, oestrogen receptor beta
Species: human
Products:     ERbeta

Top Publications

  1. Lurie G, Wilkens L, Thompson P, McDuffie K, Carney M, Terada K, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene and the risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Estrogen receptor beta is a predominant estrogen receptor in the normal ovary...
  2. Mah V, Marquez D, Alavi M, Maresh E, Zhang L, Yoon N, et al. Expression levels of estrogen receptor beta in conjunction with aromatase predict survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2011;74:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This predictive value is stronger than each individual marker alone. Our results suggest treatment with aromatase inhibitors alone or combined with estrogen receptor modulators may be of benefit in some subpopulations of these patients. ..
  3. Hamilton Burke W, Coleman L, Cummings M, Green C, Holliday D, Horgan K, et al. Phosphorylation of estrogen receptor beta at serine 105 is associated with good prognosis in breast cancer. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Although ERalpha phosphorylation correlates with patient outcome, ERbeta is similarly phosphorylated but its significance in breast cancer has not been addressed...
  4. Murphy L, Leygue E. The role of estrogen receptor-? in breast cancer. Semin Reprod Med. 2012;30:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports continued efforts to understand the nature and function of ER? in breast cancer, but it also suggests that ER status may need to be redefined to include an assessment of ER? isoforms in addition to ER?. ..
  5. Dey P, Jonsson P, Hartman J, Williams C, Strom A, Gustafsson J. Estrogen receptors ?1 and ?2 have opposing roles in regulating proliferation and bone metastasis genes in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1991-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in prostate cancer cells, ER?2 has oncogenic abilities that are in strong contrast to the tumor-suppressing effects of ER?1. ..
  6. Thomas C, Strom A, Lindberg K, Gustafsson J. Estrogen receptor beta decreases survival of p53-defective cancer cells after DNA damage by impairing G?/M checkpoint signaling. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:417-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ER?) inhibits proliferation in different cellular systems by regulating components of the cell cycle machinery...
  7. Yu K, Rao N, Chen A, Fan L, Yang C, Shao Z. A systematic review of the relationship between polymorphic sites in the estrogen receptor-beta (ESR2) gene and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the present systematic review suggests that SNP rs4986938 as well as haplotypes in the ESR2 gene might be associated with breast cancer. The need for additional studies examining these issues seems of vital importance. ..
  8. Vivar O, Zhao X, Saunier E, Griffin C, Mayba O, Tagliaferri M, et al. Estrogen receptor beta binds to and regulates three distinct classes of target genes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22059-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that ERbeta-selective agonists might be a new class of therapeutic and chemopreventive agents...
  9. Kontos S, Papatsoris A, Kominea A, Melachrinou M, Tanoglidi A, Kachrilas S, et al. Expression of ER? and its co-regulators p300 and NCoR in human transitional cell bladder cancer. Urol Int. 2011;87:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In bladder carcinogenesis, we demonstrated inhibition in the expression of ER? and its co-repressor NCoR as well as increased expression of the co-activator p300. ..

More Information


  1. Press O, Zhang W, Gordon M, Yang D, Haiman C, Azuma M, et al. Gender-related survival differences associated with polymorphic variants of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Pharmacogenomics J. 2011;11:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the role of an ER? (CA)n repeat polymorphism as a prognostic marker in metastatic colon cancer; however, this prognostic factor had opposite implications based on gender. ..
  2. Ogata T, Fukami M, Yoshida R, Nagata E, Fujisawa Y, Yoshida A, et al. Haplotype analysis of ESR2 in Japanese patients with spermatogenic failure. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results, in conjunction with our previous data indicating lack of a susceptibility factor on ESR1 encoding ER?, imply that the specific 'TGTAGA' haplotype of ESR2 raises the susceptibility to the development of SF. ..
  3. Guido C, Panza S, Santoro M, Avena P, Panno M, Perrotta I, et al. Estrogen receptor beta (ER?) produces autophagy and necroptosis in human seminoma cell line through the binding of the Sp1 on the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) promoter gene. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2911-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, supporting estrogen-dependency of human seminoma, propose ER? ligands for therapeutic use in the treatment of this pathological condition...
  4. Guo J, Xu C, Jiang Z, Dong M, Xie S, Shen J, et al. Estrogen receptor beta variants mRNA expressions in gastric cancer tissues and association with clinicopathologic parameters. Hepatogastroenterology. 2010;57:1584-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to examine the expression of estrogen receptor beta-1, 2 ,5 in gastric cancer tissues and evaluate their correlation with clinicopathological features...
  5. Madeira M, Mattar A, Logullo A, Soares F, Gebrim L. Estrogen receptor alpha/beta ratio and estrogen receptor beta as predictors of endocrine therapy responsiveness-a randomized neoadjuvant trial comparison between anastrozole and tamoxifen for the treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:425 pubmed publisher
    The role of estrogen receptor beta (ER-?) in breast cancer (BC) remains unclear...
  6. Guo L, Meng J, Yilamu D, Jakulin A, Fu M, Wang B, et al. Significance of ER? expression in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Diagn Pathol. 2014;9:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive ER? expression is a poor prognostic factor of breast cancer. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: ..
  7. Paris O, Ferraro L, Grober O, Ravo M, De Filippo M, Giurato G, et al. Direct regulation of microRNA biogenesis and expression by estrogen receptor beta in hormone-responsive breast cancer. Oncogene. 2012;31:4196-206 pubmed publisher
  8. Powell E, Shanle E, Brinkman A, Li J, Keles S, Wisinski K, et al. Identification of estrogen receptor dimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells that co-express ER? and ER?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30993 pubmed publisher
  9. Zulli K, Bianco B, Mafra F, Teles J, Christofolini D, Barbosa C. Polymorphism of the estrogen receptor ? gene is related to infertility and infertility-associated endometriosis. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010;54:567-71 pubmed
    ..4% the homozygous mutated genotype AA. The data suggest that the estrogen receptor ? gene (ER?) +1730 G/A polymorphism can be associated with risk of infertility and endometriosis-associated infertility. ..
  10. Zhao C, Dahlman Wright K, Gustafsson J. Estrogen signaling via estrogen receptor {beta}. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39575-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also highlight the recent work establishing new roles of ER? signaling, including protective functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in atherosclerosis, as well as regulation of cell proliferation in the colon. ..
  11. Nassa G, Tarallo R, Guzzi P, Ferraro L, Cirillo F, Ravo M, et al. Comparative analysis of nuclear estrogen receptor alpha and beta interactomes in breast cancer cells. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data provide new insights on the protein-protein interaction networks controlled by ER-? and -? that mediate their ability to transduce estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells. ..
  12. Xu C, Guo J, Jiang Z, Xie S, Shen J, Shen J, et al. Prognostic role of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2503-9 pubmed publisher
    The presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) have been reported in cell and tissue level in gastric cancer, but its impact on patients' survival remains unclear...
  13. Lurie G, Wilkens L, Thompson P, Shvetsov Y, Matsuno R, Carney M, et al. Estrogen receptor beta rs1271572 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20703 pubmed publisher
    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-..
  14. Bulzomi P, Galluzzo P, Bolli A, Leone S, Acconcia F, Marino M. The pro-apoptotic effect of quercetin in cancer cell lines requires ER?-dependent signals. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1891-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the quercetin pro-apoptotic action in the presence of ER? may render it as a dual-sided protective agent against E2-related cancer in the reduction of tumour growth in organs that express ER? and/or ER?. ..
  15. Honma N, Yamamoto K, Ohnaka K, Morita M, Toyomura K, Kono S, et al. Estrogen receptor-? gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: effect modified by body mass index and isoflavone intake. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Aging and estrogenic condition may be important in the colon cancer pathogenesis associated with ESR2 CA repeat polymorphism. ..
  16. Passarelli M, Phipps A, Potter J, Makar K, Coghill A, Wernli K, et al. Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor ? promoter are associated with colorectal cancer survival in postmenopausal women. Cancer Res. 2013;73:767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..79; CI, 0.64-0.98 in replication]. No associations were noted for SNPs of AR, ESR1, or PGR. SNPs in the promoter of ESR2 may be important to pathways related to the association between ER? and tumor progression and metastasis. ..
  17. Su E, Ernst L, Abdallah N, Chatterton R, Xin H, Monsivais D, et al. Estrogen receptor-? and fetoplacental endothelial prostanoid biosynthesis: a link to clinically demonstrated fetal growth restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1558-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial ESR2 appears to be a master regulator of prostanoid biosynthesis and contributes to high-resistance fetoplacental blood flow, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality associated with FGR. ..
  18. Honma N, Arai T, Takubo K, Younes M, Tanaka N, Mieno M, et al. Oestrogen receptor-? CA repeat polymorphism is associated with incidence of colorectal cancer among females. Histopathology. 2011;59:216-24 pubmed publisher
    Increasing evidence suggests an association between oestrogens and colorectal cancer. Oestrogen receptor beta, ER-?, putatively plays a pathobiological role in colorectal cancer as colorectal epithelial cells frequently express ER-?...
  19. Nassa G, Tarallo R, Giurato G, De Filippo M, Ravo M, Rizzo F, et al. Post-transcriptional regulation of human breast cancer cell proteome by unliganded estrogen receptor ? via microRNAs. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:1076-90 pubmed publisher
  20. Navaratnam S, Skliris G, Qing G, Banerji S, Badiani K, Tu D, et al. Differential role of estrogen receptor beta in early versus metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Horm Cancer. 2012;3:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort that were more often later stage, assessable tissue samples from 48 cases were available however higher ER beta 1 expression correlated with poorer survival (HR= 1.94, 95%CI 1.01–3.75 P=0.047)...
  21. Bianco B, Peluso C, Gava M, Ghirelli Filho M, Lipay M, Lipay M, et al. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men: a case-control study. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the Brazilian population, genetic variations in both estrogen receptors alpha (PvuII and XbaI) and beta (AluI and RsaI) were not relevant to idiopathic infertility. ..
  22. Paulmurugan R, Tamrazi A, Massoud T, Katzenellenbogen J, Gambhir S. In vitro and in vivo molecular imaging of estrogen receptor ? and ? homo- and heterodimerization: exploration of new modes of receptor regulation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:2029-40 pubmed publisher
    ..They also probe what combinations of ER? and ER? dimers might be the mediators of the effects of different types of ER ligands given at different doses. ..
  23. Lamp M, Peters M, Reinmaa E, Haller Kikkatalo K, Kaart T, Kadastik U, et al. Polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2 and HSD17B1 genes are associated with fertility status in endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27:425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants in ESR1, ESR2, and HSD17B1 genes could modify susceptibility to endometriosis and might influence the fertility status in endometriosis patients. ..
  24. Richardson A, Hamilton N, Davis W, Brito C, De Leon D. Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) activates estrogen receptor-? and -? via the IGF-1 and the insulin receptors in breast cancer cells. Growth Factors. 2011;29:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel mechanism of IGF-2 synergistic cross-talk signaling with ER-? and ER-? can promote estrogen-independent BC progression and provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of BC patients. ..
  25. Magri F, Capelli V, Rotondi M, Leporati P, La Manna L, Ruggiero R, et al. Expression of estrogen and androgen receptors in differentiated thyroid cancer: an additional criterion to assess the patient's risk. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;19:463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..ER and AR expressions may represent an additional criterion in deciding whether to perform radioiodine ablation in these tumors. ..
  26. Yan M, Rayoo M, Takano E, Fox S. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expressions of ER?1 and ER?2 are predictive of response to therapy and alters prognosis in familial breast cancers. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:395-405 pubmed publisher
  27. Papaxoinis K, Triantafyllou K, Sasco A, Nicolopoulou Stamati P, Ladas S. Subsite-specific differences of estrogen receptor beta expression in the normal colonic epithelium: implications for carcinogenesis and colorectal cancer epidemiology. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:614-9 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at investigating whether a differential estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) expression between the colonic subsites could correspond to a modification in proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion of the normal colonocytes.
  28. Bartella V, Rizza P, Barone I, Zito D, Giordano F, Giordano C, et al. Estrogen receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a corepressor complex to the estrogen receptor alpha gene promoter. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;134:569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal breast tissues display a relative higher expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically changes during breast tumorogenesis...
  29. Lazaros L, Xita N, Kaponis A, Zikopoulos K, Plachouras N, Georgiou I. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta polymorphisms are associated with semen quality. J Androl. 2010;31:291-8 pubmed publisher
    The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) gene polymorphisms on semen quality is the aim of our study...
  30. Lee M, Ouyang B, Ho S, Leung Y. Differential expression of estrogen receptor beta isoforms in prostate cancer through interplay between transcriptional and translational regulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;376:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that expression of ER?1 is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level, whereas that of ER?2 and ER?5 is controlled by the interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. ..
  31. Huang B, Omoto Y, Iwase H, Yamashita H, Toyama T, Coombes R, et al. Differential expression of estrogen receptor ?, ?1, and ?2 in lobular and ductal breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1933-8 pubmed publisher
  32. Wimberly H, Han G, Pinnaduwage D, Murphy L, Yang X, Andrulis I, et al. ER? splice variant expression in four large cohorts of human breast cancer patient tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;146:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ER?5 appears to be a context-dependent marker of worse outcome in HER2-positive and triple-negative patients, suggesting an unknown biological function in the absence of ER?. ..
  33. Bozkurt K, Kapucuoglu N. Investigation of immunohistochemical ER?, ER? and ER?cx expressions in normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Pathol Res Pract. 2012;208:133-9 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is a well-established prognostic marker in breast cancer. The role of estrogen receptor beta (ER?) in breast cancers is still under investigation...
  34. Verma M, Miki Y, Abe K, Niikawa H, Sasano H. Cytoplasmic estrogen receptor ? as a potential marker in human non-small cell lung carcinoma. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2012;16 Suppl 1:S91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These actions of estrogen in NSCLCs may be abrogated by combination therapy with ICI 182780 and U0126. ..
  35. Lindberg K, Helguero L, Omoto Y, Gustafsson J, Haldosén L. Estrogen receptor ? represses Akt signaling in breast cancer cells via downregulation of HER2/HER3 and upregulation of PTEN: implications for tamoxifen sensitivity. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R43 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study could be taken as indicative for also using ER? as a target in selected groups of breast cancer. ..
  36. Thomas C, Rajapaksa G, Nikolos F, Hao R, Katchy A, McCollum C, et al. ERbeta1 represses basal breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition by destabilizing EGFR. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R148 pubmed publisher
    ..60% of basal-like cancers have been shown to express wild-type estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta1)...
  37. Yan Y, Li X, Blanchard A, Bramwell V, Pritchard K, Tu D, et al. Expression of both estrogen receptor-beta 1 (ER-?1) and its co-regulator steroid receptor RNA activator protein (SRAP) are predictive for benefit from tamoxifen therapy in patients with estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?)-negative early breast cancer (EBC. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:1986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..02). The interaction test was not significant in ER-?-positive cohorts. This study provides evidence that both ER-?1 and SRAP could be predictive biomarkers of tamoxifen benefit in ER-?-negative premenopausal EBC. ..
  38. Madak Erdogan Z, Charn T, Jiang Y, Liu E, Katzenellenbogen J, Katzenellenbogen B. Integrative genomics of gene and metabolic regulation by estrogen receptors α and β, and their coregulators. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:676 pubmed publisher
  39. Su Y, Zheng Y, Zheng W, Gu K, Chen Z, Li G, et al. Distinct distribution and prognostic significance of molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Chinese women: a population-based cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:292 pubmed publisher
  40. Edvardsson K, Strom A, Jonsson P, Gustafsson J, Williams C. Estrogen receptor ? induces antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic networks in colon cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:969-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that enhancing ER? action has potential as a novel therapeutic approach for prevention and/or treatment of colon cancer. ..
  41. Han B, Cui D, Jing Y, Hong Y, Xia S. Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is a novel prognostic marker of recurrence survival in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer potentially by inhibiting cadherin switch. World J Urol. 2012;30:861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ER? is a prognostic marker of recurrence-free rate in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, potentially through suppressing cadherin switch, and may act as a potential target for bladder cancer therapy. ..
  42. Nadal A, Alonso Magdalena P, Soriano S, Ripoll C, Fuentes E, Quesada I, et al. Role of estrogen receptors alpha, beta and GPER1/GPR30 in pancreatic beta-cells. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011;16:251-60 pubmed
    ..In this respect, ERalpha is directly implicated in the E2-regulation of insulin content and secretion, while ERbeta is in the E2-potentiation of glucose-induced insulin release...
  43. Menendez D, Inga A, Resnick M. Estrogen receptor acting in cis enhances WT and mutant p53 transactivation at canonical and noncanonical p53 target sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This relationship greatly expands the transcriptional master network regulated by p53 in terms of genes affected and levels of expression and has implications for the appearance and possible treatments of cancer. ..
  44. Lim W, Park Y, Cho J, Park C, Park J, Park Y, et al. Estrogen receptor beta inhibits transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor-1 through the downregulation of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ER? suppresses HIF-1?-mediated transcription via ARNT down-regulation, which may account for the tumour suppressive function of ER?. ..
  45. Fang Y, Lu Z, Wang F, Wu X, Li L, Zhang L, et al. Prognostic impact of ER? and MMP7 expression on overall survival in colon cancer. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:651-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ER?) is the most highly expressed protein in patients with colon cancer. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) is consistently expressed throughout cancer progression...
  46. Safarinejad M, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. Association of polymorphisms in the estrogen receptors alpha, and beta (ESR1, ESR2) with the occurrence of male infertility and semen parameters. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;122:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to replicate our findings as well as to better elucidate the biological mechanisms of the modulation of ESR-?, and ER-? on male infertility...
  47. Heikkilä A, Hagstrom J, Mäenpää H, Louhimo J, Siironen P, Heiskanen I, et al. Loss of estrogen receptor Beta expression in follicular thyroid carcinoma predicts poor outcome. Thyroid. 2013;23:456-65 pubmed publisher
    ..ER? is a differential marker for malignancy and could thus be used as a preoperative tool. FTC patients with a low ER? score need more thorough follow-up and may benefit from more aggressive treatment. ..
  48. Fuqua S, Schiff R, Parra I, Friedrichs W, Su J, McKee D, et al. Expression of wild-type estrogen receptor beta and variant isoforms in human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1999;59:5425-8 pubmed
    ..Shorter ER-beta isoforms were detected in the ER-alpha-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell lines, likely corresponding to previously described COOH-terminal RNA variant isoforms. ..
  49. Bianco B, Christofolini D, Mafra F, Brandes A, Zulli K, Barbosa C. +1730 G/A polymorphism of the estrogen receptor beta gene (ERbeta) may be an important genetic factor predisposing to endometriosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:1397-401 pubmed publisher
    To determine the frequency of the estrogen receptor gene (ERbeta) +1730 G/A polymorphism in Brazilian women with endometriosis. Case-control study...
  50. Arpino G, Wiechmann L, Osborne C, Schiff R. Crosstalk between the estrogen receptor and the HER tyrosine kinase receptor family: molecular mechanism and clinical implications for endocrine therapy resistance. Endocr Rev. 2008;29:217-33 pubmed publisher
  51. Kisiel B, Bednarczuk T, Kostrzewa G, Kosińska J, Miskiewicz P, Płazińska M, et al. Polymorphism of the oestrogen receptor beta gene (ESR2) is associated with susceptibility to Graves' disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68:429-34 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether a polymorphism in the ESR2 gene (rs4986938, previously associated with endometriosis, ovulatory dysfunction and premature onset of coronary heart disease) increases the risk of Graves' disease (GD)...
  52. Lee G, Kim S, Choi Y, Suh C, Kim J, Moon S. Estrogen receptor beta gene +1730 G/A polymorphism in women with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:785-8 pubmed
    To investigate whether the +1730 G/A polymorphism of the estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) gene is associated with the risk of endometriosis in a Korean population. Case-control study. University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology...
  53. Wang M, Pan J, Song G, Chen H, An L, Qu S. Altered expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: correlation with prothymosin alpha and clinicopathological parameters. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:195-201 pubmed
    We aimed to investigate the sources of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and estimate the value of both ER subtypes in gastric adenocarcinoma and analyze the possible relationship of prothymosin alpha (..
  54. Anghel A, Raica M, Marian C, Ursoniu S, Mitrasca O. Combined profile of the tandem repeats CAG, TA and CA of the androgen and estrogen receptor genes in breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:727-33 pubmed
    ..In addition to that, we found that the combination of long CAG, short TA and CA repeats are strongly associated with breast cancer. ..
  55. Qui W, Yue L, Ding A, Sun J, Yao Y, Shen Z, et al. Co-expression of ER-beta and HER2 associated with poorer prognosis in primary breast cancer. Clin Invest Med. 2009;32:E250-60 pubmed
    ..In both HER2 positive and HER2 negative subgroups, ER-beta positive was associated with poorer distant disease free survival (DDFS) but not OS, which implied that ER-beta might relate to metastasis in breast cancer. ..
  56. Treeck O, Lattrich C, Springwald A, Ortmann O. Estrogen receptor beta exerts growth-inhibitory effects on human mammary epithelial cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:557-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is widely expressed in mammary epithelium. ERbeta expression is reported to decline during carcinogenesis of the breast and other tissues...
  57. Sotoca A, van den Berg H, Vervoort J, van der Saag P, Strom A, Gustafsson J, et al. Influence of cellular ERalpha/ERbeta ratio on the ERalpha-agonist induced proliferation of human T47D breast cancer cells. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:303-11 pubmed publisher
    Breast cancer cells show overexpression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha relative to ERbeta compared to normal breast tissues. This observation has lead to the hypothesis that ERbeta may modulate the proliferative effect of ERalpha...
  58. Sun J, Baudry J, Katzenellenbogen J, Katzenellenbogen B. Molecular basis for the subtype discrimination of the estrogen receptor-beta-selective ligand, diarylpropionitrile. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:247-58 pubmed
    Although the two subtypes of the human estrogen receptor (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, share only 56% amino acid sequence identity in their ligand binding domain (LBD), the residues that surround the ligand are nearly identical; nevertheless, ..
  59. Matsuyama S, Ohkura Y, Eguchi H, Kobayashi Y, Akagi K, Uchida K, et al. Estrogen receptor beta is expressed in human stomach adenocarcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002;128:319-24 pubmed
    ..Recently, a new estrogen receptor, called estrogen receptor beta (ER beta), was found to be expressed in various tissues including normal gastrointestinal tract...
  60. Migliaccio A, Castoria G, Di Domenico M, de Falco A, Bilancio A, Lombardi M, et al. Steroid-induced androgen receptor-oestradiol receptor beta-Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation. EMBO J. 2000;19:5406-17 pubmed
    ..The role of this phosphotyrosine is stressed by its requirement for association of oestradiol receptor alpha with Src and consequent activation of Src in intact Cos cells. ..
  61. Suen C, Berrodin T, Mastroeni R, Cheskis B, Lyttle C, Frail D. A transcriptional coactivator, steroid receptor coactivator-3, selectively augments steroid receptor transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27645-53 pubmed
    Estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta are members of the family of nuclear hormone receptors and act as ligand-inducible transcriptional factors, which regulate the expression of target genes on binding to cognate response elements...