ER

Summary

Gene Symbol: ER
Description: estrogen receptor 1
Alias: ESR, ESRA, ESTRR, Era, NR3A1, estrogen receptor, E2 receptor alpha, ER-alpha, estradiol receptor, estrogen nuclear receptor alpha, estrogen receptor alpha E1-E2-1-2, estrogen receptor alpha E1-N2-E2-1-2, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 1, oestrogen receptor alpha
Species: human
Products:     ER

Top Publications

  1. Teng J, Wang Z, Jarrard D, Bjorling D. Roles of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in modulating urothelial cell proliferation. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which each ER subtype contributes to urothelial cell proliferation and their possible involvement in the regulation of the cell ..
  2. He S, Sun J, Li L, Davie J. Differential intranuclear organization of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4073-83 pubmed
    ..studies demonstrate that Sp1 and Sp3 associate with histone deacetylases 1 and 2 and with the estrogen receptor alpha, albeit at low frequencies in MCF-7 cells...
  3. Dhasarathy A, Kajita M, Wade P. The transcription factor snail mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transitions by repression of estrogen receptor-alpha. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2907-18 pubmed
    The estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha (ESR1) is a key regulatory molecule in mammary epithelial cell development...
  4. Chen Y, Jiang X, Xu L, Li X, Cao F, Li L, et al. Association of ER-alpha gene polymorphism with metabolic phenotypes in Chinese Hans. Lipids. 2009;44:719-23 pubmed publisher
    Recently, two polymorphisms (rs1884052 and rs3778099) of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene were identified as being associated with primary quantitative bone mineral density (BMD) in a genome-wide association (GWA) study in ..
  5. Acconcia F, Ascenzi P, Bocedi A, Spisni E, Tomasi V, Trentalance A, et al. Palmitoylation-dependent estrogen receptor alpha membrane localization: regulation by 17beta-estradiol. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:231-7 pubmed
    A fraction of the nuclear estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is localized to the plasma membrane region of 17beta-estradiol (E2) target cells. We previously reported that ERalpha is a palmitoylated protein...
  6. Fletcher O, Johnson N, Orr N, Hosking F, Gibson L, Walker K, et al. Novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2: results of a genome-wide association study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified two variants (rs3734805 and rs9383938) mapping to 6q25.1 estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), which were associated with breast cancer in subjects of northern European ancestry (rs3734805: OR =..
  7. Koller D, Zheng H, Karasik D, Yerges Armstrong L, Liu C, McGuigan F, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide studies identifies WNT16 and ESR1 SNPs associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the hypothesis that variants in these genes of known skeletal function also affect BMD during the premenopausal period. ..
  8. Karmakar S, Foster E, Smith C. Unique roles of p160 coactivators for regulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor-alpha transcriptional activity. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of the p160 steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family of coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2 and SRC-3) stimulates estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha function in trans-activation assays...
  9. Reid G, Métivier R, Lin C, Denger S, Ibberson D, Ivacevic T, et al. Multiple mechanisms induce transcriptional silencing of a subset of genes, including oestrogen receptor alpha, in response to deacetylase inhibition by valproic acid and trichostatin A. Oncogene. 2005;24:4894-907 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in the presence of VPA, local DNA methylation, deacetylation and demethylation of activated histones and recruitment of inhibitory complexes occurs on the pS2 promoter. ..

More Information

Publications615 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gaughan L, Brady M, Cook S, Neal D, Robson C. Tip60 is a co-activator specific for class I nuclear hormone receptors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46841-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Tip60 may specifically regulate a subset of nuclear hormone receptors, giving an indication to how regulated nuclear receptor activation can be achieved. ..
  2. Stevens T, Meech R. BARX2 and estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) coordinately regulate the production of alternatively spliced ESR1 isoforms and control breast cancer cell growth and invasion. Oncogene. 2006;25:5426-35 pubmed
    The estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ESR1) was previously identified as a direct target of the homeobox transcription factor BARX2 in MCF7 cells...
  3. Skliris G, Leygue E, Curtis Snell L, Watson P, Murphy L. Expression of oestrogen receptor-beta in oestrogen receptor-alpha negative human breast tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006;95:616-26 pubmed
    ..Based on our in vivo observations, ERbeta may have the potential to become a therapeutic target in the specific subcohort of ERalpha-negative breast cancers. ..
  4. Richardson A, Hamilton N, Davis W, Brito C, De Leon D. Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) activates estrogen receptor-? and -? via the IGF-1 and the insulin receptors in breast cancer cells. Growth Factors. 2011;29:82-93 pubmed publisher
    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a primary target for breast cancer (BC) treatment...
  5. Vesuna F, Lisok A, Kimble B, Domek J, Kato Y, van der Groep P, et al. Twist contributes to hormone resistance in breast cancer by downregulating estrogen receptor-?. Oncogene. 2012;31:3223-34 pubmed publisher
    The role of estrogen receptor-? (ER) in breast cancer development, and as a primary clinical marker for breast cancer prognosis, has been well documented...
  6. Ryba M, Malinowska E, Rybarczyk Kapturska K, Brandt A, Myśliwiec M, Mysliwska J. The association of the IVS1-397T>C estrogen receptor α polymorphism with the regulatory conditions in longstanding type 1 diabetic girls. Mol Immunol. 2011;49:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..control and systemic inflammatory state, we aimed to examine if this can be associated with IVSI-397T>C estrogen receptor α polymorphism...
  7. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Pfeufer A, Mueller J, Schomig A, Kastrati A. No replication of association between estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to myocardial infarction in a large sample of patients of European descent. Circulation. 2005;112:2138-42 pubmed
    ..association studies, the -397T/C (rs2234693) and -351A/G (rs9340799) single nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) have been implicated in the risk of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction...
  8. Lupien M, Jeyakumar M, Hébert E, Hilmi K, Cotnoir White D, Loch C, et al. Raloxifene and ICI182,780 increase estrogen receptor-alpha association with a nuclear compartment via overlapping sets of hydrophobic amino acids in activation function 2 helix 12. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:797-816 pubmed
    The basis for the differential repressive effects of antiestrogens on transactivation by estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) remains incompletely understood...
  9. Lupien M, Meyer C, Bailey S, Eeckhoute J, Cook J, Westerling T, et al. Growth factor stimulation induces a distinct ER(alpha) cistrome underlying breast cancer endocrine resistance. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2219-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in breast cancer is predictive of response to endocrine therapy; however, resistance is common in ER?-positive tumors that overexpress the growth factor receptor ERBB2...
  10. Wang X, Belguise K, O Neill C, Sánchez Morgan N, Romagnoli M, Eddy S, et al. RelB NF-kappaB represses estrogen receptor alpha expression via induction of the zinc finger protein Blimp1. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher RelB subunit expression was demonstrated in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-negative breast cancers versus ERalpha-positive ones, due in part to repression of RelB ..
  11. Aiyar S, Sun J, Blair A, Moskaluk C, Lu Y, Ye Q, et al. Attenuation of estrogen receptor alpha-mediated transcription through estrogen-stimulated recruitment of a negative elongation factor. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2134-46 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) signaling is paramount for normal mammary gland development and function and the repression of breast cancer...
  12. Valero C, Perez Castrillon J, Zarrabeitia M, Hernandez J, Alonso M, del Pino Montes J, et al. Association of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with hip fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:787-92 pubmed
    Two polymorphisms of the aromatase and estrogen receptor genes appeared to interact to influence the risk of hip fractures in women...
  13. Toy W, Shen Y, Won H, Green B, Sakr R, Will M, et al. ESR1 ligand-binding domain mutations in hormone-resistant breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1439-45 pubmed publisher
    Seventy percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptor (ER), and most of these are sensitive to ER inhibition...
  14. Okazaki R, Inoue D, Shibata M, Saika M, Kido S, Ooka H, et al. Estrogen promotes early osteoblast differentiation and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines that express estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta. Endocrinology. 2002;143:2349-56 pubmed
    ..from a mouse bone marrow stromal cell line, ST-2, which had been manipulated to overexpress either human ER alpha (ST2ER alpha) or ER beta (ST2ER beta)...
  15. Bordeaux J, Cheng H, Welsh A, Haffty B, Lannin D, Wu X, et al. Quantitative in situ measurement of estrogen receptor mRNA predicts response to tamoxifen. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36559 pubmed publisher
    ..use of the AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) for measuring mRNA in situ using ESR1 (the estrogen receptor alpha gene) in breast cancer to determine its predictive value compared to Estrogen Receptor ? (ER) protein...
  16. Webb P, Nguyen P, Kushner P. Differential SERM effects on corepressor binding dictate ERalpha activity in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6912-20 pubmed
    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) show differential effects upon ERalpha activation function 1 (AF-1). Tamoxifen allows strong ERalpha AF-1 activity, whereas raloxifene allows less and ICI 182,780 (ICI) allows none...
  17. Li X, Huang J, Yi P, Bambara R, Hilf R, Muyan M. Single-chain estrogen receptors (ERs) reveal that the ERalpha/beta heterodimer emulates functions of the ERalpha dimer in genomic estrogen signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7681-94 pubmed
    The effects of estrogens, particularly 17beta-estradiol (E2), are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. Upon binding to E2, ERs homo- and heterodimerize when coexpressed...
  18. Zhang H, Sun L, Liang J, Yu W, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. The catalytic subunit of the proteasome is engaged in the entire process of estrogen receptor-regulated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:4223-33 pubmed
    ..We showed that LMP2 is required for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene transcription and for estrogen-stimulated cell cycle progression...
  19. Dreijerink K, Mulder K, Winkler G, Höppener J, Lips C, Timmers H. Menin links estrogen receptor activation to histone H3K4 trimethylation. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4929-35 pubmed
    ..In addition, menin can directly interact with the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in a hormone-dependent manner...
  20. Lian K, Lui L, Zmuda J, Nevitt M, Hochberg M, Lee J, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha genotype is associated with a reduced prevalence of radiographic hip osteoarthritis in elderly Caucasian women. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:972-8 pubmed
    This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene (ESR1) and prevalent and incident radiographic hip osteoarthritis (RHOA) in a large, well-defined prospective cohort of elderly Caucasian ..
  21. Heldring N, Nilsson M, Buehrer B, Treuter E, Gustafsson J. Identification of tamoxifen-induced coregulator interaction surfaces within the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptors. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3445-59 pubmed
    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator that is clinically used as an antagonist to treat estrogen-dependent breast cancers but displays unwanted agonistic effects in other tissues...
  22. Bukovsky A, Cekanova M, Caudle M, Wimalasena J, Foster J, Henley D, et al. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:13 pubmed
    ..Although term placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens, cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) in trophoblast remains unclear...
  23. Kindle K, Troke P, Collins H, Matsuda S, Bossi D, Bellodi C, et al. MOZ-TIF2 inhibits transcription by nuclear receptors and p53 by impairment of CBP function. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:988-1002 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results indicate that disruption of the normal function of CBP and CBP-dependent activators is an important feature of MOZ-TIF2 action in AML. ..
  24. DeNardo D, Cuba V, Kim H, Wu K, Lee A, Brown P. Estrogen receptor DNA binding is not required for estrogen-induced breast cell growth. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;277:13-25 pubmed
    In this study, we determined whether ER DNA binding is necessary for estrogen to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells...
  25. Kos M, Reid G, Denger S, Gannon F. Minireview: genomic organization of the human ERalpha gene promoter region. Mol Endocrinol. 2001;15:2057-63 pubmed
    ..The possible role of multiple promoters in the differential expression of ERalpha in tissues and during development is also discussed. ..
  26. Kasashima K, Ohta E, Kagawa Y, Endo H. Mitochondrial functions and estrogen receptor-dependent nuclear translocation of pleiotropic human prohibitin 2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36401-10 pubmed
    ..is predominantly expressed in the mitochondria of HeLa cells, it translocates to nucleus in the presence of estrogen receptor alpha and estradiol...
  27. Berry N, Fan M, Nephew K. Estrogen receptor-alpha hinge-region lysines 302 and 303 regulate receptor degradation by the proteasome. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1535-51 pubmed publisher
    Cellular levels of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) protein are regulated primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  28. Yi J, Kwon H, Cho J, Lee Y. Estrogen and hypoxia regulate estrogen receptor alpha in a synergistic manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:842-6 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia activates and degrades estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in human breast cancer cells, which may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer...
  29. Bhat Nakshatri P, Wang G, Appaiah H, Luktuke N, Carroll J, Geistlinger T, et al. AKT alters genome-wide estrogen receptor alpha binding and impacts estrogen signaling in breast cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7487-503 pubmed publisher
    Estrogen regulates several biological processes through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. ERalpha-estrogen signaling is additionally controlled by extracellular signal activated kinases such as AKT...
  30. den Heijer T, Schuit S, Pols H, van Meurs J, Hofman A, Koudstaal P, et al. Variations in estrogen receptor alpha gene and risk of dementia, and brain volumes on MRI. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:1129-35 pubmed
    ..We investigated the association between well-recognized, and potentially functional, polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene and the risk of AD in a prospective study of 6056 Caucasian older men and women aged 55 ..
  31. Styrkarsdottir U, Halldorsson B, Gretarsdottir S, Gudbjartsson D, Walters G, Ingvarsson T, et al. New sequence variants associated with bone mineral density. Nat Genet. 2009;41:15-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, nonsynonymous SNPs in the C17orf53, LRP4, ADAM19 and IBSP genes were suggestively associated with bone density. ..
  32. Cardamone M, Bardella C, Gutierrez A, Di Croce L, Rosenfeld M, Di Renzo M, et al. ERalpha as ligand-independent activator of CDH-1 regulates determination and maintenance of epithelial morphology in breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7420-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and E-cadherin are primary markers of luminal epithelial breast cancer cells with E-cadherin being a main caretaker of the epithelial phenotype...
  33. Safarinejad M, Safarinejad S, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. Estrogen receptors alpha (rs2234693 and rs9340799), and beta (rs4986938 and rs1256049) genes polymorphism in prostate cancer: evidence for association with risk and histopathological tumor characteristics in Iranian men. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51 Suppl 1:E104-17 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER-? genes polymorphisms on development of prostate cancer (PCa) and its correlation with serum reproductive hormones and with clinicopathological characteristics in a sample of ..
  34. Powell E, Shanle E, Brinkman A, Li J, Keles S, Wisinski K, et al. Identification of estrogen receptor dimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells that co-express ER? and ER?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30993 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ER? is proliferative while ER? is anti-..
  35. Valdes A, Van Oene M, Hart D, Surdulescu G, Loughlin J, Doherty M, et al. Reproducible genetic associations between candidate genes and clinical knee osteoarthritis in men and women. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:533-9 pubmed
    ..These genetic associations may identify individuals at a particularly high risk of developing knee OA. ..
  36. Dincel E, Sepici Dincel A, Sepici V, Ozsoy H, Sepici B. Hip fracture risk and different gene polymorphisms in the Turkish population. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63:645-50 pubmed
    ..Bone mineral density measurements were performed with a Lunar DXA. The COL1A1, ESR, VDR, IL-6, and OPG genes were amplified, and labeling of specific gene sequences was performed in a multiplex ..
  37. Zheng W, Long J, Gao Y, Li C, Zheng Y, Xiang Y, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a new breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1. Nat Genet. 2009;41:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1, located upstream of the gene encoding estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), showed strong and consistent association with breast cancer across all three stages...
  38. Westberg L, Melke J, Landen M, Nilsson S, Baghaei F, Rosmond R, et al. Association between a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor alpha gene and personality traits in women. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:118-22 pubmed
    ..In order to study the potential contribution of genetic variation in the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha to specific personality traits, we investigated a repeat polymorphism in the ER alpha gene in 172 ..
  39. Gold B, Kalush F, Bergeron J, Scott K, Mitra N, Wilson K, et al. Estrogen receptor genotypes and haplotypes associated with breast cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2004;64:8891-900 pubmed
    ..We analyzed 13 SNPs in the progesterone receptor gene (PGR), 17 SNPs in estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1), and 8 SNPs in the estrogen receptor 2 gene (ESR2)...
  40. Demissie S, Cupples L, Shearman A, Gruenthal K, Peter I, Schmid C, et al. Estrogen receptor-alpha variants are associated with lipoprotein size distribution and particle levels in women: the Framingham Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2006;185:210-8 pubmed
    ..HRT are mediated by estrogen receptors, we sought to investigate the relationships between polymorphisms in estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations...
  41. Chan K, Wei N, Liu S, Xiao Yun L, Cheung A, Ngan H. Estrogen receptor subtypes in ovarian cancer: a clinical correlation. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:144-51 pubmed publisher
    To study the distribution of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in ovarian tumors and to correlate the levels of expression with clinical factors...
  42. Ashton K, Proietto A, Otton G, Symonds I, McEvoy M, Attia J, et al. Polymorphisms in genes of the steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism pathways and endometrial cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:328-37 pubmed publisher
  43. Kim S, Kang H, Na H, Lee M. Trichostatin A enhances acetylation as well as protein stability of ERalpha through induction of p300 protein. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although several previous studies have demonstrated the role of TSA in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), the precise mechanism by which TSA affects ERalpha activity remains unclear...
  44. Colson N, Lea R, Quinlan S, MacMillan J, Griffiths L. The estrogen receptor 1 G594A polymorphism is associated with migraine susceptibility in two independent case/control groups. Neurogenetics. 2004;5:129-33 pubmed
    ..Hence it is possible that genetic variation in the estrogen receptor gene may play a role in migraine susceptibility...
  45. Rajbhandari P, Finn G, Solodin N, Singarapu K, Sahu S, Markley J, et al. Regulation of estrogen receptor ? N-terminus conformation and function by peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:445-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), a key driver of growth in the majority of breast cancers, contains an unstructured transactivation domain (AF1) in its N terminus that is a convergence point for growth factor and hormonal activation...
  46. Deng H, Zhang X, Wang M, Zheng H, Liu L, Wang Z. ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling positively regulates ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88034 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we identified and cloned a variant of estrogen receptor ?, ER-?36, with a molecular weight of 36 kDa...
  47. Montano M, Ekena K, Delage Mourroux R, Chang W, Martini P, Katzenellenbogen B. An estrogen receptor-selective coregulator that potentiates the effectiveness of antiestrogens and represses the activity of estrogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6947-52 pubmed
    ..The estrogen receptor (ER), a member of this superfamily, is a hormone-activated transcription factor that mediates the ..
  48. Berger C, Qian Y, Liu G, Chen H, Chen X. p53, a target of estrogen receptor (ER) ?, modulates DNA damage-induced growth suppression in ER-positive breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..70% of all breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and express ER?...
  49. Koslowski M, Tureci O, Biesterfeld S, Seitz G, Huber C, Sahin U. Selective activation of trophoblast-specific PLAC1 in breast cancer by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) isoform 2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) signaling further augmented transcription and translation of PLAC1 and most likely accounts ..
  50. Chen D, Washbrook E, Sarwar N, Bates G, Pace P, Thirunuvakkarasu V, et al. Phosphorylation of human estrogen receptor alpha at serine 118 by two distinct signal transduction pathways revealed by phosphorylation-specific antisera. Oncogene. 2002;21:4921-31 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner...
  51. Yamashita H, Nishio M, Kobayashi S, Ando Y, Sugiura H, Zhang Z, et al. Phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha serine 167 is predictive of response to endocrine therapy and increases postrelapse survival in metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R753-64 pubmed
    ..The potential mechanisms for endocrine resistance involve estrogen receptor (ER)-coregulatory proteins and crosstalk between ER and other growth factor signaling networks...
  52. Rokach A, Pollak A, Rosen L, Friedlander Y, Blumenfeld A, Reznik L, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms are associated with the angiographic extent of coronary artery disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6556-60 pubmed
    Sequence variants in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) may alter the atheroprotective effects of estrogens, and be associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  53. Xiong J, Yu D, Wei N, Fu H, Cai T, Huang Y, et al. An estrogen receptor alpha suppressor, microRNA-22, is downregulated in estrogen receptor alpha-positive human breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. FEBS J. 2010;277:1684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..7 kb 3'-UTR of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA cotransfected with a synthetic miRNA expression library to identify potential ERalpha-..
  54. Eeckhoute J, Keeton E, Lupien M, Krum S, Carroll J, Brown M. Positive cross-regulatory loop ties GATA-3 to estrogen receptor alpha expression in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6477-83 pubmed
    ..factor GATA-3 is required for normal mammary gland development, and its expression is highly correlated with estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) in human breast tumors...
  55. Zhao H, Herrera R, Coronado Heinsohn E, Yang M, Ludes Meyers J, Seybold Tilson K, et al. Forkhead homologue in rhabdomyosarcoma functions as a bifunctional nuclear receptor-interacting protein with both coactivator and corepressor functions. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27907-12 pubmed
    In a search for novel transcriptional intermediary factors for the estrogen receptor (ER), we used the ligand-binding domain and hinge region of ER as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from tamoxifen-resistant ..
  56. Albagha O, Pettersson U, Stewart A, McGuigan F, Macdonald H, Reid D, et al. Association of oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with postmenopausal bone loss, bone mass, and quantitative ultrasound properties of bone. J Med Genet. 2005;42:240-6 pubmed
    The gene encoding oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) appears to regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of osteoporotic fracture risk...
  57. Smalcelj A, Sertic J, Golubić K, Jurcić L, Banfic L, Brida M. Interactions of MinK and e-NOS gene polymorphisms appear to be inconsistent predictors of atrial fibrillation propensity, but long alleles of ESR1 promoter TA repeat may be a promising marker. Coll Antropol. 2009;33:933-7 pubmed
    ..786 T/C polymorphism in the 5' flanking region of e-NOS gene and TA polymorphism in the regulatory region of estrogen receptor ESR1 gene with long (> or = 19 TA repeats) and short alleles were examined...
  58. Haczynski J, Tarkowski R, Jarzabek K, Slomczynska M, Wolczynski S, Magoffin D, et al. Human cultured skin fibroblasts express estrogen receptor alpha and beta. Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:149-53 pubmed
    ..The aim of present study was to confirm the presence of both isoforms of estrogen receptors (ER) in these cells. Experiments were carried out in primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts...
  59. Sun J, Nawaz Z, Slingerland J. Long-range activation of GREB1 by estrogen receptor via three distal consensus estrogen-responsive elements in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2651-62 pubmed
    The estrogen receptor (ER) binds to estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) to activate gene transcription...
  60. Townson S, Dobrzycka K, Lee A, Air M, Deng W, Kang K, et al. SAFB2, a new scaffold attachment factor homolog and estrogen receptor corepressor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20059-68 pubmed
    We have characterized previously the nuclear matrix protein/scaffold attachment factor (SAFB) as an estrogen receptor corepressor and as a potential tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer...
  61. Kong S, Li G, Loh S, Sung W, Liu E. Cellular reprogramming by the conjoint action of ER?, FOXA1, and GATA3 to a ligand-inducible growth state. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:526 pubmed publisher
    Despite the role of the estrogen receptor ? (ER?) pathway as a key growth driver for breast cells, the phenotypic consequence of exogenous introduction of ER? into ER?-negative cells paradoxically has been growth inhibition...
  62. Ma Y, Fan S, Hu C, Meng Q, Fuqua S, Pestell R, et al. BRCA1 regulates acetylation and ubiquitination of estrogen receptor-alpha. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:76-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The (300)RXKK and (266)KXK motifs have been identified previously as sites for acetylation of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), and (302)K was also found to be a site for BRCA1-mediated mono-ubiquitination of ER-alpha ..
  63. Atmaca A, Al Batran S, Wirtz R, Werner D, Zirlik S, Wiest G, et al. The validation of estrogen receptor 1 mRNA expression as a predictor of outcome in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:2314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from patients with early stage non-small lung cancer patients indicate a prognostic role of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) mRNA expression in these patients...
  64. Pierdominici M, Maselli A, Colasanti T, Giammarioli A, Delunardo F, Vacirca D, et al. Estrogen receptor profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Immunol Lett. 2010;132:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of their effects are mediated by two receptors: estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta...
  65. Nilsson M, Dahlman I, Ryden M, Nordström E, Gustafsson J, Arner P, et al. Oestrogen receptor alpha gene expression levels are reduced in obese compared to normal weight females. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:900-7 pubmed
    To determine whether oestrogen receptor (ER)alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) levels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with obesity in Swedish women...
  66. Burns K, Li Y, Arao Y, Petrovich R, Korach K. Selective mutations in estrogen receptor alpha D-domain alters nuclear translocation and non-estrogen response element gene regulatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12640-9 pubmed publisher
    The three main mechanisms of ER? action are: 1) nuclear, genomic, direct DNA binding, 2) nuclear, genomic, "tethered"-mediated, protein-protein interactions, and 3) non-nuclear, non-genomic, rapid action responses...
  67. Heilberg I, Hernandez E, Alonzo E, Valera R, Ferreira L, Gomes S, et al. Estrogen receptor (ER) gene polymorphism may predict the bone mineral density response to raloxifene in postmenopausal women on chronic hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2005;27:155-61 pubmed
    The estrogen receptor (ER) gene has been considered as a candidate genetic marker for osteoporosis, and PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms of the ERalpha gene have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD)...
  68. Peter I, Shearman A, Zucker D, Schmid C, Demissie S, Cupples L, et al. Variation in estrogen-related genes and cross-sectional and longitudinal blood pressure in the Framingham Heart Study. J Hypertens. 2005;23:2193-200 pubmed
    ..the relation between untreated cross-sectional and longitudinal blood pressure and polymorphisms at the estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), estrogen receptor-beta (ESR2), aromatase (CYP19A1), and nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) ..
  69. Valley C, Métivier R, Solodin N, Fowler A, Mashek M, Hill L, et al. Differential regulation of estrogen-inducible proteolysis and transcription by the estrogen receptor alpha N terminus. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5417-28 pubmed
    ..While estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is also subjected to rapid ubiquitin-proteasome degradation, the relationship between ..
  70. Yamashita H, Nishio M, Toyama T, Sugiura H, Kondo N, Kobayashi S, et al. Low phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) serine 118 and high phosphorylation of ERalpha serine 167 improve survival in ER-positive breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2008;15:755-63 pubmed publisher
    Endocrine therapy has become the most important treatment option for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer...
  71. Herrington D, Howard T, Hawkins G, Reboussin D, Xu J, Zheng S, et al. Estrogen-receptor polymorphisms and effects of estrogen replacement on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:967-74 pubmed
    Sequence variants in the gene encoding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) may modify the effects of hormone-replacement therapy on levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and other outcomes related to estrogen treatment in ..
  72. Adams B, Furneaux H, White B. The micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) miR-206 targets the human estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and represses ERalpha messenger RNA and protein expression in breast cancer cell lines. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1132-47 pubmed
    ..This study examined whether miR-206, previously shown to be elevated in estrogen receptor (ER)alpha-negative breast cancer, regulates the expression of ERalpha...
  73. Bergink A, van Meurs J, Loughlin J, Arp P, Fang Y, Hofman A, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype is associated with radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee in elderly men and women. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:1913-22 pubmed
    ..We studied the association between polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene and the prevalence of radiographic OA of the knee...
  74. Rayala S, Talukder A, Balasenthil S, Tharakan R, Barnes C, Wang R, et al. P21-activated kinase 1 regulation of estrogen receptor-alpha activation involves serine 305 activation linked with serine 118 phosphorylation. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1694-701 pubmed
    Here, we investigated the role of P21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) signaling in the function of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) as assessed by serine 305 (S305) activation and transactivation activity of ER...
  75. Ooi A, Inokuchi M, Harada S, Inazawa J, Tajiri R, Kitamura S, et al. Gene amplification of ESR1 in breast cancers--fact or fiction? A fluorescence in situ hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification study. J Pathol. 2012;227:8-16 pubmed publisher
    Oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER?), encoded by the ESR1 gene located on 6q25, is a nuclear transcription factor...
  76. Li G, Zhang J, Jin K, He K, Zheng Y, Xu X, et al. Estrogen receptor-?36 is involved in development of acquired tamoxifen resistance via regulating the growth status switch in breast cancer cells. Mol Oncol. 2013;7:611-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we established a TAM resistant cell sub line (MCF-7/TAM) from estrogen receptor-? (ER-?66) positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells by culturing ER-?66-positive MCF-7 cells in medium plus 1 ?M ..
  77. Robinson D, Wu Y, Vats P, Su F, Lonigro R, Cao X, et al. Activating ESR1 mutations in hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1446-51 pubmed publisher
    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, and over two-thirds of cases express estrogen receptor-? (ER-?, encoded by ESR1)...
  78. Wu J, Qiu Y, Zhang L, Sun Q, Qiu X, He Y. Association of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1131-6 pubmed
    A case-control study is presented. To investigate the association of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) risk...
  79. Boroumand M, Ghaedi M, Mohammadtaghvaei N, Pourgholi L, Anvari M, Davoodi G, et al. Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism with the presence of coronary artery disease documented by coronary angiography. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:835-9 pubmed publisher
    ..65; 95% CI: 0.90-3.03; P=0.10). We did not observe an association between ESR1 PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms with CAD in the risk of CAD in an Iranian population. ..
  80. Sun M, Paciga J, Feldman R, Yuan Z, Coppola D, Lu Y, et al. Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH Kinase (PI3K)/AKT2, activated in breast cancer, regulates and is induced by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) via interaction between ERalpha and PI3K. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5985-91 pubmed
    ..The majority of the cases with the activation are estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) positive, which prompted us to examine whether AKT2 regulates ERalpha activity...
  81. Wedren S, Lovmar L, Humphreys K, Magnusson C, Melhus H, Syvanen A, et al. Oestrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a case control study. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6:R437-49 pubmed
    b>Oestrogen receptor alpha, which mediates the effect of oestrogen in target tissues, is genetically polymorphic...
  82. Tural S, Kara N, Alayli G, Tomak L. Association between osteoporosis and polymorphisms of the bone Gla protein, estrogen receptor 1, collagen 1-A1 and calcitonin receptor genes in Turkish postmenopausal women. Gene. 2013;515:167-72 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we have investigated the association between osteoporosis and osteocalcin (BGLAP) -298 C>T, estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) 397 T>C, collagen type1 alpha 1 (Col1A1) 2046 G>T and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) 1340 T>C ..
  83. Okura T, Koda M, Ando F, Niino N, Ohta S, Shimokata H. Association of polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene with body fat distribution. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1020-7 pubmed
    To examine whether polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene are associated with body fat distribution...
  84. Mo R, Rao S, Zhu Y. Identification of the MLL2 complex as a coactivator for estrogen receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15714-20 pubmed
    A novel estrogen receptor (ER)alpha coactivator complex, the MLL2 complex, which consists of MLL2, ASH2, RBQ3, and WDR5, was identified...
  85. Bianco B, Peluso C, Gava M, Ghirelli Filho M, Lipay M, Lipay M, et al. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men: a case-control study. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..an important role in the human reproductive system and its action is mediated mainly by two specific receptors: ? (ER?) and ? (ER?)...
  86. Fleming F, Hill A, McDermott E, O Higgins N, Young L. Differential recruitment of coregulator proteins steroid receptor coactivator-1 and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors to the estrogen receptor-estrogen response element by beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen in human breast canc. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:375-83 pubmed
    b>Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta function as transcription factors, and both interact with nuclear regulatory proteins to enhance or inhibit transcription...
  87. Wang Y, Cui M, Zheng L. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor-? gene and the risk of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91:911-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Estrogen receptor-? is a key mediator of the estrogen response in endometrial tissue. The most-studied gene variants are the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms, which may be associated with altered sensitivity to estrogen...
  88. Zheng L, Annab L, Afshari C, Lee W, Boyer T. BRCA1 mediates ligand-independent transcriptional repression of the estrogen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9587-92 pubmed
    ..Here we show that BRCA1 mediates ligand-independent transcriptional repression of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), a principal determinant of the growth, differentiation, and normal functional status of ..
  89. Benecke A, Gaudon C, Garnier J, vom Baur E, Chambon P, Losson R. ADA3-containing complexes associate with estrogen receptor alpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2508-14 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cloning of the mouse homolog of ADA3 and its characterization with respect to the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) function...
  90. Pollak A, Rokach A, Blumenfeld A, Rosen L, Resnik L, Dresner Pollak R. Association of oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism with the angiographic extent of coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:240-5 pubmed
    To investigate the association between sequence variants in the promoter region of the oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) gene and the angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD)...