Gene Symbol: env
Description: gp160; envelope glycoprotein
Alias: gp160, envelope glycoprotein, Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Products:     env

Top Publications

  1. Tran K, Poulsen C, Guenaga J, de Val N, de Val Alda N, Wilson R, et al. Vaccine-elicited primate antibodies use a distinct approach to the HIV-1 primary receptor binding site informing vaccine redesign. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E738-47 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 neutralization requires Ab accessibility to the functional envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike...
  2. Ding S, Pan Q, Liu S, Liang C. HIV-1 mutates to evade IFITM1 restriction. Virology. 2014;454-455:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data demonstrate that HIV-1 can mutate to evade IFITM1 restriction by increasing cell-to-cell transmission. ..
  3. Haim H, Salas I, McGee K, Eichelberger N, Winter E, Pacheco B, et al. Modeling virus- and antibody-specific factors to predict human immunodeficiency virus neutralization efficiency. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Variations in epitope integrity on the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer and Env reactivity to bound antibody influence neutralization susceptibility...
  4. Acharya P, Luongo T, Georgiev I, Matz J, Schmidt S, Louder M, et al. Heavy chain-only IgG2b llama antibody effects near-pan HIV-1 neutralization by recognizing a CD4-induced epitope that includes elements of coreceptor- and CD4-binding sites. J Virol. 2013;87:10173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and pseudovirus neutralization to characterize the gp120-envelope glycoprotein recognition and HIV-1 neutralization of a heavy chain-only llama antibody, named JM4...
  5. Mao Y, Wang L, Gu C, Herschhorn A, Desormeaux A, Finzi A, et al. Molecular architecture of the uncleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12438-43 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer, a membrane-fusing machine, mediates virus entry into host cells and is the sole virus-specific target for neutralizing antibodies...
  6. Gorry P, Francella N, Lewin S, Collman R. HIV-1 envelope-receptor interactions required for macrophage infection and implications for current HIV-1 cure strategies. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;95:71-81 pubmed publisher
  7. Kong L, Lee J, Doores K, Murin C, Julien J, McBride R, et al. Supersite of immune vulnerability on the glycosylated face of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:796-803 pubmed publisher
  8. Chakrabarti B, Feng Y, Sharma S, McKee K, Karlsson Hedestam G, LaBranche C, et al. Robust neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 JRFL envelope glycoprotein trimers in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2013;87:13239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1) gp160 precursor glycoprotein into gp120 and gp41 subunits is required to generate fusion-competent envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes...
  9. Ray K, Mengistu M, Yu L, Lewis G, Lakowicz J, DeVico A. Antigenic properties of the HIV envelope on virions in solution. J Virol. 2014;88:1795-808 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the efficiency of virion-antibody interactions in solution inconsistently predicts neutralizing activity in vitro. ..

More Information


  1. Ping L, Joseph S, Anderson J, Abrahams M, Salazar Gonzalez J, Kincer L, et al. Comparison of viral Env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design. J Virol. 2013;87:7218-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection and subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C ..
  2. Tugizov S, Herrera R, CHIN HONG P, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Michael Berry J, et al. HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelium facilitates paracellular penetration by human papillomavirus. Virology. 2013;446:378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that HIV-associated TJ disruption of mucosal epithelia may potentiate HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-associated neoplasia. ..
  3. Scharf L, Scheid J, Lee J, West A, Chen C, Gao H, et al. Antibody 8ANC195 reveals a site of broad vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope spike. Cell Rep. 2014;7:785-95 pubmed publisher
    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) can prevent infection in animal models. Characterized bNAb targets, although key to vaccine and therapeutic strategies, are currently limited...
  4. Perreira J, Chin C, Feeley E, Brass A. IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:4937-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM's molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. ..
  5. Tan Q, Zhu Y, Li J, Chen Z, Han G, Kufareva I, et al. Structure of the CCR5 chemokine receptor-HIV entry inhibitor maraviroc complex. Science. 2013;341:1387-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These high-resolution insights into CCR5 can enable structure-based drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
  6. Colin P, Benureau Y, Staropoli I, Wang Y, González N, Alcami J, et al. HIV-1 exploits CCR5 conformational heterogeneity to escape inhibition by chemokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemokines exert anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro, both by displacing the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 from binding to CCR5 and by promoting CCR5 endocytosis, suggesting that they play a protective role ..
  7. Julien J, Sok D, Khayat R, Lee J, Doores K, Walker L, et al. Broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121 allosterically modulates CD4 binding via recognition of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 base and multiple surrounding glycans. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003342 pubmed publisher
    ..neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies have recently been described that are largely dependent on the gp120 N332 glycan for Env recognition...
  8. Madsen J, Gaiha G, Palaniyar N, Dong T, Mitchell D, Clark H. Surfactant Protein D modulates HIV infection of both T-cells and dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59047 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SP-D can bind to and inhibit direct infection of T-cells by HIV but also enhance the transfer of infectious HIV particles from DCs to T-cells in vivo. ..
  9. Jelicic K, Cimbro R, Nawaz F, Huang D, Zheng X, Yang J, et al. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 impairs B cell proliferation by inducing TGF-β1 production and FcRL4 expression. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify a mechanism whereby the virus may subvert the early HIV-1-specific humoral immune response. ..
  10. Julien J, Lee J, Cupo A, Murin C, Derking R, Hoffenberg S, et al. Asymmetric recognition of the HIV-1 trimer by broadly neutralizing antibody PG9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of an expanding family of glycan-dependent human antibodies that preferentially bind the HIV (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein (gp) trimer and broadly neutralize the virus. Here, we show that a soluble SOSIP...
  11. Flegler A, Cianci G, Hope T. CCR5 conformations are dynamic and modulated by localization, trafficking and G protein association. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89056 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterizing the link between the function and dynamics of CCR5 populations has implications for understanding their selective targeting by HIV-1 and for the development of inhibitors that will block CCR5 utilization by the virus. ..
  12. Rao M, Peachman K, Kim J, Gao G, Alving C, Michael N, et al. HIV-1 variable loop 2 and its importance in HIV-1 infection and vaccine development. Curr HIV Res. 2013;11:427-38 pubmed
    ..Immunogens that can induce these antibodies should therefore be taken into consideration when designing HIV-1 vaccine formulations. ..
  13. Medjahed H, Pacheco B, Desormeaux A, Sodroski J, Finzi A. The HIV-1 gp120 major variable regions modulate cold inactivation. J Virol. 2013;87:4103-11 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 entry involves the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env gps) and receptors on the target cell. Receptor binding channels the intrinsic high potential energy of Env into the force required to fuse the membranes of virus and target cell...
  14. Acharya P, Luongo T, Louder M, McKee K, Yang Y, Kwon Y, et al. Structural basis for highly effective HIV-1 neutralization by CD4-mimetic miniproteins revealed by 1.5 Ã… cocrystal structure of gp120 and M48U1. Structure. 2013;21:1018-29 pubmed publisher
    The interface between the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and the CD4 receptor contains an unusual interfacial cavity, the "Phe43 cavity", which CD4-mimetic miniproteins with nonnatural extensions can potentially utilize to enhance ..
  15. Ashkenazi A, Faingold O, Kaushansky N, Ben Nun A, Shai Y. A highly conserved sequence associated with the HIV gp41 loop region is an immunomodulator of antigen-specific T cells in mice. Blood. 2013;121:2244-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that T-cell inactivation by HIV during membrane fusion may lie in part in this conserved sequence associated with the gp41 loop region. ..
  16. Checkley M, Luttge B, Mercredi P, KYERE S, Donlan J, Murakami T, et al. Reevaluation of the requirement for TIP47 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation. J Virol. 2013;87:3561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of Gag and the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 play an important role in coordinating Env incorporation; however, the molecular mechanism and possible role of host factors in this process remain to be ..
  17. Tamamis P, Floudas C. Molecular recognition of CXCR4 by a dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop. Biophys J. 2013;105:1502-14 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 cell entry is initiated by the interaction of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4, and chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5...
  18. Munro J, Gorman J, Ma X, Zhou Z, Arthos J, Burton D, et al. Conformational dynamics of single HIV-1 envelope trimers on the surface of native virions. Science. 2014;346:759-63 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells...
  19. Doria Rose N, Schramm C, Gorman J, Moore P, Bhiman J, DeKosky B, et al. Developmental pathway for potent V1V2-directed HIV-neutralizing antibodies. Nature. 2014;509:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide important insights relevant to HIV-1 vaccine development. ..
  20. Cashin K, Jakobsen M, Sterjovski J, Roche M, Ellett A, Flynn J, et al. Linkages between HIV-1 specificity for CCR5 or CXCR4 and in vitro usage of alternative coreceptors during progressive HIV-1 subtype C infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:98 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to CCR5 and CXCR4, the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) may engage a variety of alternative coreceptors for entry into transfected cells...
  21. Yasmeen A, Ringe R, Derking R, Cupo A, Julien J, Burton D, et al. Differential binding of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to native-like soluble HIV-1 Env trimers, uncleaved Env proteins, and monomeric subunits. Retrovirology. 2014;11:41 pubmed publisher
    The trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env) on the surface of HIV-1 virions are the targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). No candidate HIV-1 immunogen has yet induced potent, broadly active NAbs (bNAbs)...
  22. Cashin K, Gray L, Jakobsen M, Sterjovski J, Churchill M, Gorry P. CoRSeqV3-C: a novel HIV-1 subtype C specific V3 sequence based coreceptor usage prediction algorithm. Retrovirology. 2013;10:24 pubmed publisher
    ..CoRSeqV3-C may be potentially useful for assisting clinicians to decide the best treatment options for patients with C-HIV infection, and will be helpful for basic studies of C-HIV pathogenesis. ..
  23. Swartz T, Esposito A, Durham N, Hartmann B, Chen B. P2X-selective purinergic antagonists are strong inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion during both cell-to-cell and cell-free infection. J Virol. 2014;88:11504-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical studies on these drugs for other inflammatory indications suggest that they are safe, and thus, if developed for use as anti-HIV agents, they could reduce both HIV replication and HIV-related inflammation. ..
  24. Xiang S, Pacheco B, Bowder D, Yuan W, Sodroski J. Characterization of a dual-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strain derived from the prototypical X4 isolate HXBc2. Virology. 2013;438:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage and tropism can be modulated by the V3 loop sequence of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. For coreceptors, R5 viruses use CCR5, X4 viruses use CXCR4, and dual-tropic (R5X4) viruses use either ..
  25. Tedbury P, Ablan S, Freed E. Global rescue of defects in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation: implications for matrix structure. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003739 pubmed publisher
    The matrix (MA) domain of HIV-1 Gag plays key roles in membrane targeting of Gag, and envelope (Env) glycoprotein incorporation into virions...
  26. Veillette M, Desormeaux A, Medjahed H, Gharsallah N, Coutu M, Baalwa J, et al. Interaction with cellular CD4 exposes HIV-1 envelope epitopes targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Virol. 2014;88:2633-44 pubmed publisher
    Anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) antibodies without broadly neutralizing activity correlated with protection in the RV144 clinical trial, stimulating interest in other protective mechanisms involving antibodies, such as antibody-..
  27. Sanders R, Derking R, Cupo A, Julien J, Yasmeen A, de Val N, et al. A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003618 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing ..
  28. Malbec M, Porrot F, Rua R, HORWITZ J, Klein F, Halper Stromberg A, et al. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit HIV-1 cell to cell transmission. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, only a subset of bNAbs can efficiently prevent HIV-1 cell to cell transmission, and this property should be considered an important characteristic defining antibody potency for therapeutic or prophylactic antiviral strategies. ..
  29. Morellato Castillo L, Acharya P, Combes O, Michiels J, Descours A, Ramos O, et al. Interfacial cavity filling to optimize CD4-mimetic miniprotein interactions with HIV-1 surface glycoprotein. J Med Chem. 2013;56:5033-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results provide a framework for filling the interfacial Phe43 cavity to enhance miniCD4 affinity. ..
  30. McGee K, Haim H, Korioth Schmitz B, Espy N, Javanbakht H, Letvin N, et al. The selection of low envelope glycoprotein reactivity to soluble CD4 and cold during simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection of rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2014;88:21-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Envelope glycoprotein (Env) reactivity (ER) describes the propensity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env to change conformation from the metastable unliganded state in response to the binding of ligands (antibodies and ..
  31. Jardine J, Julien J, Menis S, Ota T, Kalyuzhniy O, McGuire A, et al. Rational HIV immunogen design to target specific germline B cell receptors. Science. 2013;340:711-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, eOD-GT6 nanoparticles have promise as a vaccine prime. In principle, germline-targeting strategies could be applied to other epitopes and pathogens...
  32. Leaman D, Zwick M. Increased functional stability and homogeneity of viral envelope spikes through directed evolution. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003184 pubmed publisher
    The functional HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer, the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (Abs), is innately labile and coexists with non-native forms of Env...
  33. Kalinina O, Pfeifer N, Lengauer T. Modelling binding between CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors and their ligands suggests the surface electrostatic potential of the co-receptor to be a key player in the HIV-1 tropism. Retrovirology. 2013;10:130 pubmed publisher
  34. Nazli A, Kafka J, Ferreira V, Anipindi V, Mueller K, Osborne B, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces TLR2- and TLR4-mediated innate immune activation in human female genital epithelium. J Immunol. 2013;191:4246-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 was being recognized by a membrane receptor on genital epithelial cells, leading to innate immune ..
  35. Wibmer C, Bhiman J, Gray E, Tumba N, Abdool Karim S, Williamson C, et al. Viral escape from HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies drives increased plasma neutralization breadth through sequential recognition of multiple epitopes and immunotypes. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003738 pubmed publisher
  36. Shingai M, Nishimura Y, Klein F, Mouquet H, Donau O, Plishka R, et al. Antibody-mediated immunotherapy of macaques chronically infected with SHIV suppresses viraemia. Nature. 2013;503:277-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These neutralizing antibodies target different regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein including the CD4-binding site, glycans located in the V1/V2, V3 and V4 regions, and the membrane proximal ..
  37. Lyumkis D, Julien J, de Val N, Cupo A, Potter C, Klasse P, et al. Cryo-EM structure of a fully glycosylated soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer. Science. 2013;342:1484-90 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer contains the receptor binding sites and membrane fusion machinery that introduce the viral genome into the host cell...
  38. Julien J, Cupo A, Sok D, Stanfield R, Lyumkis D, Deller M, et al. Crystal structure of a soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer. Science. 2013;342:1477-83 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) target cells is mediated by cleaved envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers that have been challenging to characterize structurally. Here, we describe the crystal structure at 4...
  39. Narayan K, Agrawal N, Du S, Muranaka J, Bauer K, Leaman D, et al. Prime-boost immunization of rabbits with HIV-1 gp120 elicits potent neutralization activity against a primary viral isolate. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52732 pubmed publisher
    ..Rabbits were immunized with the gp120 subunit of HIV-1 JR-CSF envelope (Env) using a DNA-prime protein-boost regimen...
  40. Cimbro R, Gallant T, Dolan M, Guzzo C, Zhang P, Lin Y, et al. Tyrosine sulfation in the second variable loop (V2) of HIV-1 gp120 stabilizes V2-V3 interaction and modulates neutralization sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:3152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although high-definition structures of the monomeric core of the envelope glycoprotein subunit gp120 and, more recently, of a stabilized soluble gp140 trimer have been solved, fundamental ..
  41. Hoorelbeke B, van Montfort T, Xue J, LiWang P, Tanaka H, Igarashi Y, et al. HIV-1 envelope trimer has similar binding characteristics for carbohydrate-binding agents as monomeric gp120. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:860-6 pubmed publisher
    The native HIV-1 Env complex consists of a gp120/gp41 trimer, but surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-directed binding studies for gp120-binding agents were almost exclusively performed on monomeric gp120...
  42. Barouch D, Whitney J, Moldt B, Klein F, Oliveira T, Liu J, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Nature. 2013;503:224-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 in humans. ..
  43. Ringe R, Sanders R, Yasmeen A, Kim H, Lee J, Cupo A, et al. Cleavage strongly influences whether soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers adopt a native-like conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18256-61 pubmed publisher
    We compare the antigenicity and conformation of soluble, cleaved vs. uncleaved envelope glycoprotein (Env gp)140 trimers from the subtype A HIV type 1 (HIV-1) strain BG505...
  44. García Expósito L, Ziglio S, Barroso González J, de Armas Rillo L, Valera M, Zipeto D, et al. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
    ..of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor interactions and that generates the tension at the plasma membrane necessary to potentiate fusion ..
  45. Tsuchiya K, Ode H, Hayashida T, Kakizawa J, Sato H, Oka S, et al. Arginine insertion and loss of N-linked glycosylation site in HIV-1 envelope V3 region confer CXCR4-tropism. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2389 pubmed publisher
    The third variable region (V3) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 plays a key role in determination of viral coreceptor usage (tropism). However, which combinations of mutations in V3 confer a tropism shift is still unclear...
  46. McGuire A, Glenn J, Lippy A, Stamatatos L. Diverse recombinant HIV-1 Envs fail to activate B cells expressing the germline B cell receptors of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies PG9 and 447-52D. J Virol. 2014;88:2645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..during HIV-1-infection but have not yet been elicited by immunization with recombinant forms of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env; the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies)...
  47. Pancera M, Zhou T, Druz A, Georgiev I, Soto C, Gorman J, et al. Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env. Nature. 2014;514:455-61 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) spike, comprising three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, is a conformational machine that facilitates HIV-1 entry by rearranging from a mature unliganded state, through ..
  48. Guttman M, Lee K. A functional interaction between gp41 and gp120 is observed for monomeric but not oligomeric, uncleaved HIV-1 Env gp140. J Virol. 2013;87:11462-75 pubmed publisher
    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole antigenic feature on the surface of HIV and the target for the humoral immune system...
  49. Qi M, Williams J, Chu H, Chen X, Wang J, Ding L, et al. Rab11-FIP1C and Rab14 direct plasma membrane sorting and particle incorporation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003278 pubmed publisher
    The incorporation of the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) onto the developing particle is a crucial step in the HIV-1 lifecycle...
  50. Crespillo S, Casares S, Mateo P, Conejero Lara F. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding of 2F5 (Fab and immunoglobulin G forms) to its gp41 epitope reveals a strong influence of the immunoglobulin Fc region on affinity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:594-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide useful information for developing new therapeutics against HIV-1 and, in a broader scope, contribute to a better understanding of antigen-antibody recognition. ..
  51. Wu Y, Yoder A. Chemokine coreceptor signaling in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000520 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize past and present studies on HIV coreceptor signaling. We also discuss possible roles of coreceptor signaling in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis. ..
  52. Agosto L, Yu J, Liszewski M, Baytop C, Korokhov N, Humeau L, et al. The CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus envelope promotes more-efficient gene delivery to resting CD4+ T cells than the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G envelope. J Virol. 2009;83:8153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..we inoculated resting CD4(+) T cells with lentiviral particles that were pseudotyped with VSV-G or CXCR4-tropic HIV Env and assayed binding, fusion, reverse transcription, and integration...
  53. Fenouillet E, Gluckman J, Bahraoui E. Role of N-linked glycans of envelope glycoproteins in infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1990;64:2841-8 pubmed
    ..removal of N-linked glycans from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 produced in BHK-21 cells did not significantly reduce their ability to bind to CD4, the cellular ..
  54. Kulkarni S, Lapedes A, Tang H, Gnanakaran S, Daniels M, Zhang M, et al. Highly complex neutralization determinants on a monophyletic lineage of newly transmitted subtype C HIV-1 Env clones from India. Virology. 2009;385:505-20 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, a functional Env clone was obtained from each of ten newly acquired, heterosexually transmitted HIV-1 infections in Pune, ..
  55. Chikere K, Chou T, Gorry P, Lee B. Affinofile profiling: how efficiency of CD4/CCR5 usage impacts the biological and pathogenic phenotype of HIV. Virology. 2013;435:81-91 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 envelope (Env) uses CD4 and a coreceptor (CCR5 and/or CXCR4) for viral entry. The efficiency of receptor/coreceptor mediated entry has important implications for HIV pathogenesis and transmission...
  56. Zhang M, Dimitrov D. Novel approaches for identification of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies and improvement of their potency. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:203-12 pubmed
    ..The further characterization of the molecular interactions of the bcnAbs with gp120-gp41 will undoubtedly help in our understanding of the mechanisms of virus neutralization, and in the design of entry inhibitors and vaccines. ..