endothelin 1


Gene Symbol: endothelin 1
Description: endothelin 1
Alias: ARCND3, ET1, HDLCQ7, PPET1, QME, endothelin-1, preproendothelin-1
Species: human
Products:     endothelin 1

Top Publications

  1. Horstmeyer A, Licht C, Scherr G, Eckes B, Krieg T. Signalling and regulation of collagen I synthesis by ET-1 and TGF-beta1. FEBS J. 2005;272:6297-309 pubmed
    ..Thereby, long-time stimulation by ET-1 resulted in a changed ET-receptor subtype ratio and in a biphasic CTGF induction. ..
  2. Khan S, Dhillon O, Struck J, Quinn P, Morgenthaler N, Squire I, et al. C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 offers additional prognostic information in patients after acute myocardial infarction: Leicester Acute Myocardial Infarction Peptide (LAMP) Study. Am Heart J. 2007;154:736-42 pubmed
    ..The endothelin system is known to be activated post AMI. C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome, along with NTproBNP. CT-proET-1 may represent a clinically useful marker of prognosis after AMI. ..
  3. Popov A, Schulz E, Hinz J, Schmitto J, Seipelt R, Koziolek M, et al. Impact of endothelin-1 Lys198Asn polymorphism on coronary artery disease and endorgan damage in hypertensives. Coron Artery Dis. 2008;19:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the polymorphism at position 198 could serve as a possibility to differentiate high-risk subgroups in the heterogeneous population of hypertensive patients. ..
  4. Lee J, Cheong S, Kim J. Association of endothelin-1 gene polymorphisms with variant angina in Korean patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1575-80 pubmed publisher
    ..33) and 3A/G8002/Lys198 haplotype was protective against the disease (p=0.0043, OR=0.54). The ET-1 gene polymorphisms, such as +138delA, G8002A and Lys198Asn polymorphisms, seem to be associated with variant angina in Korean patients. ..
  5. Manacu C, Martel Pelletier J, Roy Beaudry M, Pelletier J, Fernandes J, Shipkolye F, et al. Endothelin-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes triggers nitric oxide production and upregulates collagenase production. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R324-32 pubmed
    ..ET-1 also induces NO release via iNOS induction. ET-1 and NO should thus become important target molecules for future therapies aimed at stopping cartilage destruction. ..
  6. Deacon K, Knox A. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases the expression of remodeling genes in vascular smooth muscle through linked calcium and cAMP pathways: role of a phospholipase A(2)(cPLA(2))/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostacyclin receptor-dependent autocrine loop. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25913-27 pubmed publisher
  7. Wort S, Ito M, Chou P, Mc Master S, Badiger R, Jazrawi E, et al. Synergistic induction of endothelin-1 by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma is due to enhanced NF-kappaB binding and histone acetylation at specific kappaB sites. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding such mechanisms is crucial in determining the key control points in ET-1 release. This has particular relevance to developing novel treatments targeted at the inflammatory component of pulmonary vascular remodeling. ..
  8. Panoulas V, Douglas K, Smith J, Taffe P, Stavropoulos Kalinoglou A, Toms T, et al. Polymorphisms of the endothelin-1 gene associate with hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Endothelium. 2008;15:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, if replicated in future studies, could be used as a screening tool for RA patients at increased hypertension, and thus cardiovascular, risk. ..
  9. Talati M, West J, Blackwell T, Loyd J, Meyrick B. BMPR2 mutation alters the lung macrophage endothelin-1 cascade in a mouse model and patients with heritable pulmonary artery hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first description of protein expression that distinguishes HPAH from IPAH in patients. ..

More Information


  1. Coral Alvarado P, Quintana G, Garces M, Cepeda L, Caminos J, Rondon F, et al. Potential biomarkers for detecting pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients with systemic sclerosis. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:1017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..68 and P = 0.0019). In conclusions, the elevation of the serum levels of Eng and ET-1 could represent a useful tool as PAH biomarkers. Nevertheless, the diagnostic value of these markers needs to be determined by prospective studies. ..
  2. Manea S, Manea A, Heltianu C. Inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway prevents high-glucose-induced increase in endothelin-1 synthesis in human endothelial cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:71-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Comellas A, Briva A. Role of endothelin-1 in acute lung injury. Transl Res. 2009;153:263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this review highlights the therapeutic role of drugs such as beta-adrenergic agonists and, in particular, of endothelin receptor antagonists in patients with ALI. ..
  4. Yu W, Lin Z, Hegarty J, John G, Chen X, Faber P, et al. Genes regulated by Nkx2-3 in siRNA-mediated knockdown B cells: implication of endothelin-1 in inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;100:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our present results demonstrate that a decrease in Nkx2-3 gene expression level can profoundly alter the expression of genes and cellular functions relevant to the pathogenesis and progression of IBD, such as EDN1. ..
  5. Zhao Y, Liao Q, Zhu Y, Long H. Endothelin-1 promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion and survival against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:3190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ET-1/ET(A) pathway may represent an important target for treating OS, because blocking the ET(A) receptor with a selective antagonist can inhibit OS cell invasion and potentiate a chemotherapeutic agent's effect on OS. ..
  6. Rosanò L, Spinella F, Bagnato A. Endothelin 1 in cancer: biological implications and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2013;13:637-51 pubmed publisher
    Activation of autocrine and paracrine signalling by endothelin 1 (ET1) binding to its receptors elicits pleiotropic effects on tumour cells and on the host microenvironment...
  7. Manea S, Robciuc A, Guja C, Heltianu C. Identification of gene variants in NOS3, ET-1 and RAS that confer risk and protection against microangiopathy in type 2 diabetic obese subjects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:486-90 pubmed publisher
    ..microangiopathy-negative subjects. The study indicates association of RAS variants with obesity and nephropathy, and an opposite effect of NOS3 VNTR and NOS3 G894T on the occurrence of combined microangiopathy. ..
  8. Li H, Louey J, Choy K, Liu D, Chan W, Chan Y, et al. EDN1 Lys198Asn is associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1698-704 pubmed
    ..The Asn/Asn genotype of EDN1 was associated with a reduced risk of DR and with delayed onset of type 2 diabetes. ..
  9. Meoli D, White R. Endothelin-1 induces pulmonary but not aortic smooth muscle cell migration by activating ERK1/2 MAP kinase. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:830-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endogenous peptide that promotes vasoconstriction, endothelial and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and fibrosis...
  10. Rankinen T, Church T, Rice T, Markward N, Leon A, Rao D, et al. Effect of endothelin 1 genotype on blood pressure is dependent on physical activity or fitness levels. Hypertension. 2007;50:1120-5 pubmed
    Contributions of the DNA sequence variation at the endothelin 1 locus to the risk of hypertension and to endurance training-induced changes in blood pressure were investigated in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study and the Health, Risk ..
  11. Daher Z, Noël J, Claing A. Endothelin-1 promotes migration of endothelial cells through the activation of ARF6 and the regulation of FAK activity. Cell Signal. 2008;20:2256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that ARF6 is central in regulating focal adhesion turnover in endothelial cells. Our study provides a molecular mechanism by which, this small GTPase regulates cell motility, and ultimately angiogenesis. ..
  12. Wülfing P, Kersting C, Tio J, Fischer R, Wulfing C, Poremba C, et al. Endothelin-1-, endothelin-A-, and endothelin-B-receptor expression is correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2393-400 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide evidence that the expression pattern of the ET-axis and in particular of ET(A)R may have clinical relevance in future antiangiogenic targeted therapies for breast cancer. ..
  13. Amiri F, Virdis A, Neves M, Iglarz M, Seidah N, Touyz R, et al. Endothelium-restricted overexpression of human endothelin-1 causes vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation. 2004;110:2233-40 pubmed
  14. Wülfing P, Diallo R, Kersting C, Wulfing C, Poremba C, Rody A, et al. Expression of endothelin-1, endothelin-A, and endothelin-B receptor in human breast cancer and correlation with long-term follow-up. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4125-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, analysis of ET(A)R expression may improve the prediction of relapse and death and facilitate an individually based risk-directed adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. ..
  15. Hollá L, Vasku A, Lzakovic V, Znojil V. Variants of endothelin-1 gene in atopic diseases. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2001;11:193-8 pubmed
    ..76 (95% CI: 1.52-9.34), p = 0.003, Pc = 0.0061). These findings suggest that ET-1 may participate in the pathogenesis of high total serum IgE level in clinically manifested atopic diseases in our population. ..
  16. Barden A, Herbison C, Beilin L, Michael C, Walters B, van Bockxmeer F. Association between the endothelin-1 gene Lys198Asn polymorphism blood pressure and plasma endothelin-1 levels in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. J Hypertens. 2001;19:1775-82 pubmed
  17. Tanaka C, Kamide K, Takiuchi S, Kawano Y, Miyata T. Evaluation of the Lys198Asn and -134delA genetic polymorphisms of the endothelin-1 gene. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:367-71 pubmed
  18. Woods M, Mitchell J, Wood E, Barker S, Walcot N, Rees G, et al. Endothelin-1 is induced by cytokines in human vascular smooth muscle cells: evidence for intracellular endothelin-converting enzyme. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;55:902-9 pubmed
  19. Rosanò L, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Nicotra M, Dedhar S, De Herreros A, et al. Endothelin-1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11649-57 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings provide evidence of a critical role for the ET-1/ET(A)R axis during distinct steps of ovarian carcinoma progression and identify novel targets of therapeutic intervention. ..
  20. Rodriguez Pascual F, Reimunde F, Redondo Horcajo M, Lamas S. Transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression through activation of the Smad signaling pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;44 Suppl 1:S39-42 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression by a functional cooperation between Smads and activator protein-1 through activation of the Smad signaling pathway. ..
  21. Wallace B, Janes R, Bassolino D, Krystek S. A comparison of X-ray and NMR structures for human endothelin-1. Protein Sci. 1995;4:75-83 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between the X-ray structure and the NMR NOE constraints highlight the regions of flexibility and environment-induced diversity in the endothelin structures. ..
  22. Jin J, Nakura J, Wu Z, Yamamoto M, Abe M, Tabara Y, et al. Association of endothelin-1 gene variant with hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;41:163-7 pubmed
    ..Considering the combined impact of obesity and hypertension on the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, T allele carriers might represent elective targets for therapy to lower their body weight. ..
  23. Reesink H, Meijer R, Lutter R, Boomsma F, Jansen H, Kloek J, et al. Hemodynamic and clinical correlates of endothelin-1 in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Circ J. 2006;70:1058-63 pubmed
    ..Preoperative ET-1 levels may be useful for better identification of patients at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension after PEA. ..
  24. Kankova K, Muzik J, Karaskova J, Beranek M, Hajek D, Znojil V, et al. Duration of non-Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the TNF-beta NcoI genotype as predictive factors in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:294-8 pubmed
    The object of the study was to investigate the share of the polymorphisms I/D ACE, endothelin 1 4127G/A and TNF-beta NcoI in the susceptibility to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)...
  25. Nicolaidou P, Georgouli H, Getsi V, Tsapra H, Psychou F, Matsinos Y, et al. Urinary excretion of endothelin-1 in children with absorptive idiopathic hypercalciuria. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:1157-60 pubmed
    ..0001). In conclusion, patients with AIH had increased urinary ET-1 excretion and decreased plasma ET-1 levels. This is most likely due to the decreased reabsorption of ET-1 in the renal tubule and increased renal production. ..
  26. Rabineau K, Treiber F, Poole J, Ludwig D. Interactive effects of anger expression and ET-1 Lys198Asn polymorphism on vasoconstriction reactivity to behavioral stress. Ann Behav Med. 2005;30:85-9 pubmed
    ..Such individuals may particularly benefit from anger management training. ..
  27. Nelson J, Udan M, Guruli G, Pflug B. Endothelin-1 inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer. Neoplasia. 2005;7:631-7 pubmed
    ..These data support the combination of ET(A) antagonists and apoptosis-inducing therapies for prostate cancer treatment. ..
  28. Yang Z, Krasnici N, Luscher T. Endothelin-1 potentiates human smooth muscle cell growth to PDGF: effects of ETA and ETB receptor blockade. Circulation. 1999;100:5-8 pubmed
    ..This may represent an important function of ET-1 for vascular structural changes in patients and provide new therapeutic opportunities for ET-1 receptor antagonists. ..
  29. Bloch K, Friedrich S, Lee M, Eddy R, Shows T, Quertermous T. Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the gene encoding endothelin. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:10851-7 pubmed
    ..On the basis of DNA isolated from human-mouse somatic hybrid cell lines, the endothelin gene was assigned to human chromosome 6. ..
  30. Giaid A, Gibson S, Ibrahim B, Legon S, Bloom S, Yanagisawa M, et al. Endothelin 1, an endothelium-derived peptide, is expressed in neurons of the human spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:7634-8 pubmed
    The localization of endothelin 1 mRNA and endothelin-like immunoreactivity was investigated in samples of neurologically normal nervous system tissue from 10 adults by using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry...
  31. Medinger M, Adler C, Schmidt Gersbach C, Soltau J, Droll A, Unger C, et al. Angiogenesis and the ET-1/ETA receptor system: immunohistochemical expression analysis in bone metastases from patients with different primary tumors. Angiogenesis. 2003;6:225-31 pubmed
    ..The ET/ET(A) system can be detected in nearly all bone specimens and is upregulated in metastatic bone lesions in contrast to healthy bone tissue. ..
  32. Tiret L, Poirier O, Hallet V, McDonagh T, Morrison C, McMurray J, et al. The Lys198Asn polymorphism in the endothelin-1 gene is associated with blood pressure in overweight people. Hypertension. 1999;33:1169-74 pubmed
    ..However, a G/T polymorphism predicting an Lys/Asn change (ET1/C198) strongly interacted (P<0.001) with body mass index in the determination of blood pressure levels...
  33. Roy Beaudry M, Martel Pelletier J, Pelletier J, M Barek K, Christgau S, Shipkolye F, et al. Endothelin 1 promotes osteoarthritic cartilage degradation via matrix metalloprotease 1 and matrix metalloprotease 13 induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2855-64 pubmed
    ..Recently, it was suggested that endothelin 1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, may be involved in MMP regulation...
  34. Ramzy D, Rao V, Tumiati L, Xu N, Sheshgiri R, Miriuka S, et al. Elevated endothelin-1 levels impair nitric oxide homeostasis through a PKC-dependent pathway. Circulation. 2006;114:I319-26 pubmed
    ..ET-1 antagonism with bosentan stimulates translocation of PKClambda and leads to increased PKC activity and NO production. ET-1 antagonism may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to improve vascular homeostasis. ..
  35. Asai T, Ohkubo T, Katsuya T, Higaki J, Fu Y, Fukuda M, et al. Endothelin-1 gene variant associates with blood pressure in obese Japanese subjects: the Ohasama Study. Hypertension. 2001;38:1321-4 pubmed
    ..8 mm Hg (P=0.04) higher than in those with GG genotype. That similar results were obtained from subjects of different races suggests that the Lys198Asn polymorphism of ET-1 is involved in determination of BP levels in obese subjects. ..
  36. Inoue A, Yanagisawa M, Kimura S, Kasuya Y, Miyauchi T, Goto K, et al. The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2863-7 pubmed
    ..However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities were considerably different among the three isopeptides, suggesting the possible existence of endothelin receptor subtypes. ..
  37. Rufanova V, Alexanian A, Wakatsuki T, Lerner A, Sorokin A. Pyk2 mediates endothelin-1 signaling via p130Cas/BCAR3 cascade and regulates human glomerular mesangial cell adhesion and spreading. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:45-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that ET-1 stimulated the GTPase Rap1 (but neither RhoA nor Ras) by a mechanism involving Pyk2 activation and recruitment of the p130Cas/BCAR3 complex in GMC. ..
  38. Piao J, Sun J, Yang Y, Jin T, Chen L, Lin Z. Target gene screening and evaluation of prognostic values in non-small cell lung cancers by bioinformatics analysis. Gene. 2018;647:306-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a total of 11 DEMs were also identified. Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers for NSCLC. Further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenesis of NSCLC. ..
  39. Sahebkar A, Kotani K, Serban C, Ursoniu S, Mikhailidis D, Jones S, et al. Statin therapy reduces plasma endothelin-1 concentrations: A meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of statins may be influenced by statin lipophilicity. There is a need to establish whether lowering ET-1 levels has a beneficial effect on CV events. ..
  40. Li C, Mpollo M, Gonsalves C, Tahara S, Malik P, Kalra V. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-mediated transcription of miR-199a2 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:36031-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide a potential therapeutic approach whereby fenofibrate-induced miR-199a2 expression can ameliorate PH by reduction of ET-1 levels. ..
  41. Lu J, Zhao F, Peng Z, Zhang M, Lin S, Liang B, et al. EZH2 promotes angiogenesis through inhibition of miR-1/Endothelin-1 axis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2014;5:11319-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify a novel signaling pathway involved in NPC angiogenesis, and also suggest that EZH2-miR-1-ET-1 axis represents multiple potential therapeutic targets for NPC. ..
  42. Absi M, Ward D. Increased endothelin-1 responsiveness in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells exposed to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C666-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show for the first time that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) enhances endothelin responsiveness in HCASMCs and that the effect is mediated through ETRA. ..
  43. Nagase T, Kurihara H, Kurihara Y, Aoki Nagase T, Nagai R, Ouchi Y. Disruption of ET-1 gene enhances pulmonary responses to methacholine via functional mechanism in knockout mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:2020-4 pubmed
    ..The ET-1 knockout mice may provide appropriate models to study diseases related to ET-1 metabolism...
  44. Sharma D, Singh A, Trivedi S, Bhattacharjee J. Role of endothelin and inflammatory cytokines in pre-eclampsia - A pilot North Indian study. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65:428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..001). We conclude that pre-eclampsia is associated with increased levels of both endothelin-1 and circulating inflammatory cytokines, which points toward the role of endothelial and inflammatory components. ..
  45. Cellini M, Strobbe E, Gizzi C, Campos E. ET-1 plasma levels and ocular blood flow in retinitis pigmentosa. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:630-5 pubmed publisher
    ..03) and in the posterior ciliary arteries (p < 0.006). It is thought that an increase of ET-1 and retinal oxygen levels in RP could lead to vasoconstriction and a decrease of the retinal blood flow, worsening the abiotrophic process. ..
  46. Maver A, Medica I, Salobir B, Tercelj M, Peterlin B. Lack of association of immune-response-gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to sarcoidosis in Slovenian patients. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..00, OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.65-1.44) and AA genotypes at Ile105Val polymorphism in GSTP1 (P = 0.53, OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.60-1.27). There was no association of polymorphisms in any of the genes with sarcoidosis. ..
  47. Sarzynski M, Rankinen T, Sternfeld B, Grove M, Fornage M, Jacobs D, et al. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 17 candidate genes with baseline symptom-limited exercise test duration and decrease in duration over 20 years: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) fitness study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). In multimarker constructs, alleles at genes related to skeletal muscle Na(+)/K(+) transport, hypoxia, and mitochondrial metabolism are associated with symptom-limited exercise test duration over time in adults. ..
  48. Trinity J, Barrett O Keefe Z, Ives S, Morgan G, Rossman M, Donato A, et al. Endogenous endothelin-1 and femoral artery shear rate: impact of age and implications for atherosclerosis. J Hypertens. 2016;34:266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ET-1, acting through the ETA receptors, exerts a powerful age-specific vasoconstriction. However, removal of this vasoconstrictor stimulus does not augment mean shear rate in the old. ..
  49. Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K. Relationship between plasma endothelin-1 concentration and cardiovascular responses during high-intensity eccentric and concentric exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2008;28:43-8 pubmed
    ..05). These results showed that CON contraction is associated with ET-1 production and a greater increase in blood pressure compared with ECC contraction. ..
  50. Mikulić I, Petrik J, Galesic K, Romic Z, Cepelak I, Zeljko Tomić M. Endothelin-1, big endothelin-1, and nitric oxide in patients with chronic renal disease and hypertension. J Clin Lab Anal. 2009;23:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 88.9%, and NO in serum: 66.7 and 83.3%, respectively). In addition, Big ET-1 may prove useful in the differential diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (78.6% diagnostic sensitivity and 88.9% diagnostic specificity). ..
  51. Zang X, Zhou Y, Huang Z, Zhang C. Endothelin-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73349 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) and the TT homozygotes (0%) (P<0.01). This study provides the first evidence of an association between the ET-1 gene SNPs and the risk of pulmonary metastatic OS. ..
  52. Bellien J, Iacob M, Remy Jouet I, Lucas D, Monteil C, Gutierrez L, et al. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contribute with altered nitric oxide and endothelin-1 pathways to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension. Circulation. 2012;125:1266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..https://www.eudract.ema.europa.eu. Unique identifier: RCB2007-A001-10-53. ..
  53. Kambas K, Chrysanthopoulou A, Kourtzelis I, Skordala M, Mitroulis I, Rafail S, et al. Endothelin-1 signaling promotes fibrosis in vitro in a bronchopulmonary dysplasia model by activating the extrinsic coagulation cascade. J Immunol. 2011;186:6568-75 pubmed publisher
  54. Halili L, Singh M, Fujii N, Alexander L, Kenny G. Endothelin-1 modulates methacholine-induced cutaneous vasodilatation but not sweating in young human skin. J Physiol. 2016;594:3439-52 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We show that ET-1 attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation through a NOS-independent mechanism, possibly through a vascular smooth muscle cell-dependent mechanism, and methacholine-induced sweating is not altered by ET-1. ..
  55. Komar M, Podolec J, Płazak W, Stepniewski J, Sobień B, Tomkiewicz Pajak L, et al. Elevated level of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with atrial septal defect. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2014;12:31 pubmed publisher
    ..3. Elevated level of ET-1 in patients with ASD is associated with right heart enlargement.4. Measurements of ET-1 may be a supplemental diagnostic tool and may be helpful in establishing indications for defect closure. ..
  56. LaMarca B, Alexander B, Gilbert J, Ryan M, Sedeek M, Murphy S, et al. Pathophysiology of hypertension in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy: a central role for endothelin?. Gend Med. 2008;5 Suppl A:S133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This important question will not be answered until well-controlled clinical studies using specific ET A receptor antagonists are conducted for women with preeclampsia. ..
  57. Cottone S, Palermo A, Arsena R, Riccobene R, Guarneri M, Mulè G, et al. Relationship of fetuin-A with glomerular filtration rate and endothelial dysfunction in moderate-severe chronic kidney disease. J Nephrol. 2010;23:62-9 pubmed
    ..These results seem to indicate that in CKD, even when not severe, inflammatory processes are increased and linked to endothelial dysfunction, worsening progressively with the decline of renal function. ..
  58. Yuan W, Zhao M, Yuan F, Che W, Duan P, Liu Y, et al. Association of endothelin-1 expression and cartilaginous endplate degeneration in humans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60062 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct stimulation of CECs by ET-1 did not promote cell apoptosis. The study results suggest that ET-1 played a pivotal role in human CEP degeneration, and may be a new target for development of therapies for this condition. ..
  59. Tavares A, Cox T, Maxson R, Ford H, Clouthier D. Negative regulation of endothelin signaling by SIX1 is required for proper maxillary development. Development. 2017;144:2021-2031 pubmed publisher
    ..regulates dorsal arch development not only by inducing dorsal Jag1 expression but also by inhibiting endothelin 1 (Edn1) expression in the pharyngeal endoderm of the dorsal arch, thus preventing dorsal EDNRA signaling...
  60. Swigris J, Brown K. The role of endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. BioDrugs. 2010;24:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial results from a trial examining the efficacy of a dual endothelin receptor antagonist suggest that this approach may delay disease progression in a subset of patients with IPF. ..
  61. Qi H, Casalena G, Shi S, Yu L, Ebefors K, Sun Y, et al. Glomerular Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Essential and Characteristic of Diabetic Kidney Disease Susceptibility. Diabetes. 2017;66:763-778 pubmed publisher
  62. Milnerowicz S, Milnerowicz H, Nabzdyk S, Jabłonowska M, Grabowski K, Taboła R. Plasma endothelin-1 levels in pancreatic inflammations. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2013;22:361-8 pubmed
    ..An increase in plasma ET-1 level between the 5th and 7th days of treatment may indicate irreversible ischemic lesions in the pancreas and the development of necrotic lesions. ..
  63. Galaviz Hernandez C, Arámbula Meraz E, Medina Bastidas D, Sosa Macias M, Lazalde Ramos B, Ortega Chávez M, et al. The paternal polymorphism rs5370 in the EDN1 gene decreases the risk of preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2016;6:327-332 pubmed publisher
    ..The paternal rs5370 polymorphism decreases the risk for preeclampsia and is not associated with placental expression of the EDN1 gene. ..
  64. De Miguel C, Pollock D, Pollock J. Endothelium-derived ET-1 and the development of renal injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;309:R1071-3 pubmed publisher
  65. Cooke A, Toli E, Gomez Y, Mutter A, Eisenberg M, Mantzoros C, et al. From rest to stressed: endothelin-1 levels in young healthy smokers and non-smokers. Metabolism. 2015;64:1103-11 pubmed publisher
  66. Gao M, Zeng Y, Guan Y, Hu Z, Zhong D, Shen X, et al. Activation of liver X receptor attenuates endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:2299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LXRs may serve as a novel molecular target for modulating ET-1 expression in VECs, and even for the treatment of ET-1-associated inflammatory diseases. ..
  67. Racké K, Juergens L, Schütz I, Kämpfer N, Fuhrmann M, Warnken M. Endothelin-1 enhances ??-adrenoceptor gene transcription in human lung fibroblasts. Life Sci. 2012;91:540-3 pubmed publisher
    ..ET-1 can up-regulate ?-adrenoceptor gene transcription in human lung fibroblasts. ..
  68. Weil B, Westby C, Van Guilder G, Greiner J, Stauffer B, Desouza C. Enhanced endothelin-1 system activity with overweight and obesity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H689-95 pubmed publisher
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    ..Serum big ET- 1 levels can be an indicator of the breast cancer. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the prognostic importance of serum big ET-1 in patients with breast cancer. ..
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    ..Our findings suggest that excessive ET-1 production in the setting of HIV infection impairs pulmonary endothelial function and contributes to the development of PAH. ..