Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: ELOB
Description: elongin B
Alias: SIII, TCEB2, elongin-B, RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII p18 subunit, RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit B, SIII p18, elongin 18 kDa subunit, elongin, 18-kD subunit, transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B), transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 2, transcription elongation factor B subunit 2
- Reingewertz T, Shalev D, Friedler A. Structural disorder in the HIV-1 Vif protein and interaction-dependent gain of structure. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:988-98 pubmed..This ambiguity is likely to be the tenet of structurally unfolded proteins, which have the propensity to adopt a multitude of biologically relevant and active conformations. ..
- Costessi A, Mahrour N, Tijchon E, Stunnenberg R, Stoel M, Jansen P, et al. The tumour antigen PRAME is a subunit of a Cul2 ubiquitin ligase and associates with active NFY promoters. EMBO J. 2011;30:3786-98 pubmed publisher..Our results are consistent with a role for the PRAME ubiquitin ligase complex in NFY-mediated transcriptional regulation. ..
- Hon W, Wilson M, Harlos K, Claridge T, Schofield C, Pugh C, et al. Structural basis for the recognition of hydroxyproline in HIF-1 alpha by pVHL. Nature. 2002;417:975-8 pubmed..This mechanism provides a new focus for development of therapeutic agents to modulate cellular responses to hypoxia. ..
- Min J, Yang H, Ivan M, Gertler F, Kaelin W, Pavletich N. Structure of an HIF-1alpha -pVHL complex: hydroxyproline recognition in signaling. Science. 2002;296:1886-9 pubmed..Although the beta sheet-like interactions contribute to the stability of the complex, the hydroxyproline contacts are central to the strict specificity characteristic of signaling. ..
- Ohh M, Takagi Y, Aso T, Stebbins C, Pavletich N, Zbar B, et al. Synthetic peptides define critical contacts between elongin C, elongin B, and the von Hippel-Lindau protein. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:1583-91 pubmed..This activity has been linked to its ability to form multimeric complexes that contain elongin C, elongin B, and Cul2...
- Pause A, Peterson B, Schaffar G, Stearman R, Klausner R. Studying interactions of four proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system: structural resemblance of the pVHL/elongin BC/hCUL-2 complex with the ubiquitin ligase complex SKP1/cullin/F-box protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9533-8 pubmed..Thus, it seems possible that pVHL/elongin BC/hCUL-2 complex will possess ubiquitin ligase activity targeting specific proteins for degradation by the proteasome. ..
- Wang X, Wang X, Zhang H, Lv M, Zuo T, Wu H, et al. Interactions between HIV-1 Vif and human ElonginB-ElonginC are important for CBF-? binding to Vif. Retrovirology. 2013;10:94 pubmed publisher..phenotype by tethering them (APOBEC3DE/3F/3G) to the Vif-CBF-?-ElonginB-ElonginC-Cullin5-Rbx (Vif-CBF-?-EloB-EloC-Cul5-Rbx) E3 complex to induce their proteasomal degradation...
- Luo K, Ehrlich E, Xiao Z, Zhang W, Ketner G, Yu X. Adenovirus E4orf6 assembles with Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase through an HIV/SIV Vif-like BC-box to regulate p53. FASEB J. 2007;21:1742-50 pubmed..Therefore, adenovirus E4orf6 molecules represent a novel family of viral BC-box proteins the cellular ancestor of which is as yet unknown. ..
- Lv W, Liu Z, Jin H, Yu X, Zhang L, Zhang L. Three-dimensional structure of HIV-1 VIF constructed by comparative modeling and the function characterization analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation. Org Biomol Chem. 2007;5:617-26 pubmed..These novel models of VIF and its complex has therefore provided structural information for investigating the function of VIF at the molecular level. ..
- Bullock A, Debreczeni J, Edwards A, Sundstrom M, Knapp S. Crystal structure of the SOCS2-elongin C-elongin B complex defines a prototypical SOCS box ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7637-42 pubmed..9-A crystal structure of the ternary complex of SOCS2 with elongin C and elongin B. The structure defines a prototypical SOCS box ubiquitin ligase with a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain as a ..
- Babon J, Sabo J, Zhang J, Nicola N, Norton R. The SOCS box encodes a hierarchy of affinities for Cullin5: implications for ubiquitin ligase formation and cytokine signalling suppression. J Mol Biol. 2009;387:162-74 pubmed
- Mahrour N, Redwine W, Florens L, Swanson S, Martin Brown S, Bradford W, et al. Characterization of Cullin-box sequences that direct recruitment of Cul2-Rbx1 and Cul5-Rbx2 modules to Elongin BC-based ubiquitin ligases. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8005-13 pubmed publisher..are substrate recognition subunits of structurally related classes of E3 ubiquitin ligases composed of Elongin C-Elongin B-Cullin 2-Rbx1 (Cul2 ubiquitin ligases) or of Elongin C-Elongin B-Cullin 5-Rbx2 (Cul5 ubiquitin ligases)...
- Kobayashi M, Takaori Kondo A, Miyauchi Y, Iwai K, Uchiyama T. Ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by an HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-Elongin B-Elongin C complex is essential for Vif function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18573-8 pubmed..and proteasomal degradation by forming an SCF-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex composed of Cullin5, Elongin B, and Elongin C (Vif-BC-Cul5) through a novel SOCS-box motif...
- Marcsisin S, Engen J. Molecular insight into the conformational dynamics of the Elongin BC complex and its interaction with HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:892-904 pubmed publisher..Elongin C was found to be highly dynamic in the Elongin BC complex while Elongin B was much more stable...
- Hwang J, Saffert R, Kalejta R. Elongin B-mediated epigenetic alteration of viral chromatin correlates with efficient human cytomegalovirus gene expression and replication. MBio. 2011;2:e00023-11 pubmed publisher..Here we show that, in addition to its role in facilitating transcription of the cellular genome, elongin B also enhances gene expression from the double-stranded DNA genome of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a pathogenic ..
- Vesterlund M, Zadjali F, Persson T, Nielsen M, Kessler B, Norstedt G, et al. The SOCS2 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates growth hormone receptor levels. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25358 pubmed publisher..Mutational analysis shows that the interaction with Elongin B/C controls SOCS2 protein turnover and affects its molecular activity...
- Wang J, Muntean A, Hess J. ECSASB2 mediates MLL degradation during hematopoietic differentiation. Blood. 2012;119:1151-61 pubmed publisher..Moreover, deletion of the PHD/Bromo region renders MLL fusion proteins resistant to ASB2-mediated degradation and may contribute to leukemogenesis. ..
- Lu Z, Bergeron J, Atkinson R, Schaller T, Veselkov D, Oregioni A, et al. Insight into the HIV-1 Vif SOCS-box-ElonginBC interaction. Open Biol. 2013;3:130100 pubmed publisher..infectivity factor (Vif) neutralizes cell-encoded antiviral APOBEC3 proteins by recruiting a cellular ElonginB (EloB)/ElonginC (EloC)/Cullin5-containing ubiquitin ligase complex, resulting in APOBEC3 ubiquitination and proteolysis...
- Zhou X, Han X, Zhao K, Du J, Evans S, Wang H, et al. Dispersed and conserved hydrophobic residues of HIV-1 Vif are essential for CBF? recruitment and A3G suppression. J Virol. 2014;88:2555-63 pubmed publisher..Therefore, information from this study will help people to further understand how Vif acts against host antiviral mechanism, which is important for novel anti-HIV-1 drug development. ..
- Kershaw N, Laktyushin A, Nicola N, Babon J. Reconstruction of an active SOCS3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in vitro: identification of the active components and JAK2 and gp130 as substrates. Growth Factors. 2014;32:1-10 pubmed publisher..SOCS3-induced polyubiquitination was rapid and could proceed through a number of different ubiquitin lysines. SOCS3 catalyzed the ubiquitination of both the IL-6 receptor common chain (gp130) and JAK2. ..
- Bergeron J, Huthoff H, Veselkov D, Beavil R, Simpson P, Matthews S, et al. The SOCS-box of HIV-1 Vif interacts with ElonginBC by induced-folding to recruit its Cul5-containing ubiquitin ligase complex. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000925 pubmed publisher..viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein recruits an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, comprising the cellular proteins elongin B and C (EloBC), cullin 5 (Cul5) and RING-box 2 (Rbx2), to the anti-viral proteins APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (..
- Wolfe L, Stanley B, Liu C, Eliason W, Xiong Y. Dissection of the HIV Vif interaction with human E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Virol. 2010;84:7135-9 pubmed publisher..virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vif recruits the host E3 ubiquitin ligase, composed of cullin 5 (Cul5), Rbx2, Elongin B, and Elongin C (EloBC), to polyubiquitinate the antiviral protein APOBEC3G...
- Zhang W, Du J, Evans S, Yu Y, Yu X. T-cell differentiation factor CBF-? regulates HIV-1 Vif-mediated evasion of host restriction. Nature. 2011;481:376-9 pubmed publisher..HIV-1 Vif forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with cullin 5 (CUL5), elongin B and elongin C , which promotes the polyubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3 substrates...
- Stanley B, Ehrlich E, Short L, Yu Y, Xiao Z, Yu X, et al. Structural insight into the human immunodeficiency virus Vif SOCS box and its role in human E3 ubiquitin ligase assembly. J Virol. 2008;82:8656-63 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, our homology modeling reveals that the Vif Cullin box and zinc finger motif may be positioned adjacent to the N terminus of Cullin5 for interaction with loop regions in the first cullin repeat of Cullin5. ..
- Xiao Z, Xiong Y, Zhang W, Tan L, Ehrlich E, Guo D, et al. Characterization of a novel Cullin5 binding domain in HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:541-50 pubmed..This novel motif may represent a potential new target for anti-viral drug development. ..
- Duan D, Pause A, Burgess W, Aso T, Chen D, Garrett K, et al. Inhibition of transcription elongation by the VHL tumor suppressor protein. Science. 1995;269:1402-6 pubmed..The VHL protein was shown to bind tightly and specifically to the Elongin B and C subunits and to inhibit Elongin (SIII) transcriptional activity in vitro...
- Ferguson J, Wu Y, Smith K, Charles P, Powers K, Wang H, et al. ASB4 is a hydroxylation substrate of FIH and promotes vascular differentiation via an oxygen-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6407-19 pubmed..Like other SOCS box-containing proteins, ASB4 is the substrate recognition molecule of an elongin B/elongin C/cullin/Roc ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of substrate ..
- Aso T, Lane W, Conaway J, Conaway R. Elongin (SIII): a multisubunit regulator of elongation by RNA polymerase II. Science. 1995;269:1439-43 pubmed..Elongin A is shown to function as the transcriptionally active component of Elongin (SIII) and Elongin B and C as regulatory subunits...
- Xiao Z, Ehrlich E, Yu Y, Luo K, Wang T, Tian C, et al. Assembly of HIV-1 Vif-Cul5 E3 ubiquitin ligase through a novel zinc-binding domain-stabilized hydrophobic interface in Vif. Virology. 2006;349:290-9 pubmed..This is the first example of a zinc-binding substrate receptor responsible for the assembly of a Cullin-RING ligase, representing a new target for antiviral development. ..
- Kamura T, Sato S, Iwai K, Czyzyk Krzeska M, Conaway R, Conaway J. Activation of HIF1alpha ubiquitination by a reconstituted von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10430-5 pubmed..Our findings provide new insight into the function of the VHL tumor suppressor protein, and they provide a foundation for future investigations of the mechanisms underlying VHL regulation of oxygen-dependent gene expression. ..
- Kamura T, Burian D, Yan Q, Schmidt S, Lane W, Querido E, et al. Muf1, a novel Elongin BC-interacting leucine-rich repeat protein that can assemble with Cul5 and Rbx1 to reconstitute a ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29748-53 pubmed..Taken together, our findings identify MUF1 as a new member of the BC-box family of proteins, and they predict the existence of a larger family of Elongin BC-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. ..
- Li Z, Na X, Wang D, Schoen S, Messing E, Wu G. Ubiquitination of a novel deubiquitinating enzyme requires direct binding to von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4656-62 pubmed..Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrates that VDU1 can be recruited into the pVHL-elongin C-elongin B complex...
- Yu Y, Xiao Z, Ehrlich E, Yu X, Yu X. Selective assembly of HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase complex through a novel SOCS box and upstream cysteines. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2867-72 pubmed..Therefore, selective assembly with Cul5 versus Cul2 E3 may require protein interfaces besides the SOCS-box-ElonginC interaction. ..
- Malim M, Emerman M. HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:388-98 pubmed publisher..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission. ..
- Zhang J, Farley A, Nicholson S, Willson T, Zugaro L, Simpson R, et al. The conserved SOCS box motif in suppressors of cytokine signaling binds to elongins B and C and may couple bound proteins to proteasomal degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2071-6 pubmed..Analogous to the family of F-box-containing proteins, it appears that the SOCS proteins may act as adaptor molecules that target activated cell signaling proteins to the protein degradation pathway. ..
- Salter J, Lippa G, Belashov I, Wedekind J. Core-binding factor ? increases the affinity between human Cullin 5 and HIV-1 Vif within an E3 ligase complex. Biochemistry. 2012;51:8702-4 pubmed publisherHIV-1 Vif masquerades as a receptor for a cellular E3 ligase harboring Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin 5 (EloB/C/Cul5) proteins that facilitate degradation of the antiretroviral factor APOBEC3G (A3G)...
- Brower C, Sato S, Tomomori Sato C, Kamura T, Pause A, Stearman R, et al. Mammalian mediator subunit mMED8 is an Elongin BC-interacting protein that can assemble with Cul2 and Rbx1 to reconstitute a ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10353-8 pubmed..Taken together, our findings are consistent with the model that MED8 could function to recruit ubiquitin ligase activity directly to the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery. ..
- Zadjali F, Pike A, Vesterlund M, Sun J, Wu C, Li S, et al. Structural basis for c-KIT inhibition by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:480-90 pubmed publisher..Our data support a role of SOCS6 as a feedback inhibitor of SCF-dependent signaling and provides molecular data to account for target specificity within the SOCS family of ubiquitin ligases. ..
- Kario E, Marmor M, Adamsky K, Citri A, Amit I, Amariglio N, et al. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 4 and 5 regulate epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7038-48 pubmed..Thus, we have characterized a novel function for SOCS5 in regulating EGFR and discuss its potential role in controlling EGFR homeostasis. ..
- Kwon S, Kim D, Rhee J, Park J, Kim D, Kim D, et al. ASB9 interacts with ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase and inhibits mitochondrial function. BMC Biol. 2010;8:23 pubmed publisher..ASB9 interacts with the creatine kinase system and negatively regulates cell growth. The differential expression and function of ASB9 and ASB9DeltaSOCS may be a key factor in the growth of human cell lines and primary cells. ..
- Reingewertz T, Benyamini H, Lebendiker M, Shalev D, Friedler A. The C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 Vif protein is natively unfolded in its unbound state. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2009;22:281-7 pubmed publisher..Our results provide direct evidence for the unfolded structure of the free Vif CTD and indicate that it may gain structure upon binding its natural ligands. ..
- Kinoshita K, Goryo K, Takada M, Tomokuni Y, Aso T, Okuda H, et al. Ternary complex formation of pVHL, elongin B and elongin C visualized in living cells by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. FEBS J. 2007;274:5567-75 pubmedThe tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene product forms a complex with elongin B and elongin C, and acts as a recognition subunit of a ubiquitin E3 ligase...
- Mehle A, Goncalves J, Santa Marta M, McPike M, Gabuzda D. Phosphorylation of a novel SOCS-box regulates assembly of the HIV-1 Vif-Cul5 complex that promotes APOBEC3G degradation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2861-6 pubmed..APOBEC3G for degradation by forming an SCF-like E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cullin 5 and Elongins B and C (Cul5-EloB-EloC) through a novel SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)-box that binds EloC...
- Heuzé M, Guibal F, Banks C, Conaway J, Conaway R, Cayre Y, et al. ASB2 is an Elongin BC-interacting protein that can assemble with Cullin 5 and Rbx1 to reconstitute an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5468-74 pubmed..Altogether, our results strongly suggest that ASB2 targets specific proteins to destruction by the proteasome in leukemia cells that have been induced to differentiate. ..
- Megumi Y, Miyauchi Y, Sakurai H, Nobeyama H, Lorick K, Nakamura E, et al. Multiple roles of Rbx1 in the VBC-Cul2 ubiquitin ligase complex. Genes Cells. 2005;10:679-91 pubmed..Taken together, these results indicate that various mechanisms regulate both the activities and the stability of cullin-based ligases. ..
- Zhou X, Evans S, Han X, Liu Y, Yu X. Characterization of the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vif protein with its key regulator CBF? and CRL5 E3 ubiquitin ligase components. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33495 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, association of Vif with CBF?, alone or in combination with Elongin B/C (EloB/C), greatly increased the solubility of full-length Vif...
- Albin J, Harris R. Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;12:e4 pubmed publisher..We also summarise, for the first time, current clinical data on the in vivo effects of APOBEC3 proteins, and survey strategies and progress towards developing therapeutics aimed at the APOBEC3-Vif axis. ..
- Stebbins C, Kaelin W, Pavletich N. Structure of the VHL-ElonginC-ElonginB complex: implications for VHL tumor suppressor function. Science. 1999;284:455-61 pubmed..The structure extends the similarities to the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex that targets proteins for degradation, supporting the hypothesis that VHL may function in an analogous pathway. ..
- Kelsall I, Duda D, Olszewski J, Hofmann K, Knebel A, Langevin F, et al. TRIAD1 and HHARI bind to and are activated by distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase complexes. EMBO J. 2013;32:2848-60 pubmed publisher..Cumulatively, our work proposes a conserved mechanism of CRL-induced Ariadne RBR ligase activation and further suggests a reciprocal role of this special class of RBRs as regulators of distinct CRLs. ..
- Kibel A, Iliopoulos O, DeCaprio J, Kaelin W. Binding of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein to Elongin B and C. Science. 1995;269:1444-6 pubmed..Two transcriptional elongation factors, Elongin B and C, were shown to bind in vitro and in vivo to a short, colinear region of the VHL protein (pVHL) that is ..
- Aso T, Yamazaki K, Amimoto K, Kuroiwa A, Higashi H, Matsuda Y, et al. Identification and characterization of Elongin A2, a new member of the Elongin family of transcription elongation factors, specifically expressed in the testis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6546-52 pubmed..Northern blot analysis revealed that Elongin A2 mRNA was specifically expressed in the testis, suggesting that Elongin A2 may regulate the transcription of testis-specific genes. ..
- Schmidt A. Movement pattern recognition in basketball free-throw shooting. Hum Mov Sci. 2012;31:360-82 pubmed publisher..The movement patterns found were clearly individually shaped as well as formed by the skill level. The triangulation confirmed the individual movement organizations. Finally, a high stability of the network methods was documented. ..