Gene Symbol: Elk-1
Description: ELK1, ETS transcription factor
Alias: ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1, ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family, ETS-like gene 1, tyrosine kinase (ELK1) oncogene
Species: human
Products:     Elk-1

Top Publications

  1. Yamauchi T, Toko M, Suga M, Hatakeyama T, Isobe M. Structural organization of the human Elk1 gene and its processed pseudogene Elk2. DNA Res. 1999;6:21-7 pubmed
    ..2 --> qter region in addition to Elk2 locus between IGHA1 and IGHGP loci. ..
  2. Mo Y, Vaessen B, Johnston K, Marmorstein R. Structure of the elk-1-DNA complex reveals how DNA-distal residues affect ETS domain recognition of DNA. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:292-7 pubmed
  3. Marais R, Wynne J, Treisman R. The SRF accessory protein Elk-1 contains a growth factor-regulated transcriptional activation domain. Cell. 1993;73:381-93 pubmed
    ..These findings directly link transcriptional activation by the SRE to the growth factor-regulated phosphorylation of an SRE-binding protein. ..
  4. Gille H, Strahl T, Shaw P. Activation of ternary complex factor Elk-1 by stress-activated protein kinases. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1191-200 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of Elk-1 by SAPKs and the ensuing expression of Fos protein thus constitutes an additional mechanism by which cells can upregulate AP-1 activity in response to stress. ..
  5. Yang S, Vickers E, Brehm A, Kouzarides T, Sharrocks A. Temporal recruitment of the mSin3A-histone deacetylase corepressor complex to the ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2802-14 pubmed
    ..Elk-1 therefore undergoes temporal activator-repressor switching and contributes to both the activation and repression of target genes following growth factor stimulation. ..
  6. Sharrocks A. Complexities in ETS-domain transcription factor function and regulation: lessons from the TCF (ternary complex factor) subfamily. The Colworth Medal Lecture. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30:1-9 pubmed
  7. Li Q, Yang S, Maeda Y, Sladek F, Sharrocks A, Martins Green M. MAP kinase phosphorylation-dependent activation of Elk-1 leads to activation of the co-activator p300. EMBO J. 2003;22:281-91 pubmed
    ..The pre-assembly mechanism may greatly accelerate transcription activation, which is important in regulation of expression of immediate-early response genes, in particular those involved in stress responses. ..
  8. Yang S, Sharrocks A. PIASx acts as an Elk-1 coactivator by facilitating derepression. EMBO J. 2005;24:2161-71 pubmed
    ..Our data therefore reveal a novel coactivator function for PIASx(alpha) through reversing SUMO-mediated repression of transcription factor activity. ..
  9. Araud T, Genolet R, Jaquier Gubler P, Curran J. Alternatively spliced isoforms of the human elk-1 mRNA within the 5' UTR: implications for ELK-1 expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4649-63 pubmed

More Information

Publications149 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sharma A, Callahan L, Sul J, Kim T, Barrett L, Kim M, et al. A neurotoxic phosphoform of Elk-1 associates with inclusions from multiple neurodegenerative diseases. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9002 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a molecular link between the presence of inclusions and neuronal loss that is shared across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disease. ..
  2. Morris J, Sul J, Kim M, Klein Szanto A, Schochet T, Rustgi A, et al. Elk-1 phosphorylated at threonine-417 is present in diverse cancers and correlates with differentiation grade of colonic adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This nuclear localization and correlation with tumor differentiation in adenocarcinoma suggests a potentially important transcriptional and biochemical role of this phosphorylation site in carcinogenesis of this tumor type. ..
  3. Gille H, Kortenjann M, Thomae O, Moomaw C, Slaughter C, Cobb M, et al. ERK phosphorylation potentiates Elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation. EMBO J. 1995;14:951-62 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that phosphorylation regulates ternary complex formation by Elk-1, which is a prerequisite for the manifestation of its transactivation potential at the c-fos SRE. ..
  4. Wasylyk B, Hagman J, Gutierrez Hartmann A. Ets transcription factors: nuclear effectors of the Ras-MAP-kinase signaling pathway. Trends Biochem Sci. 1998;23:213-6 pubmed
    ..To direct signals to specific target genes, Ets proteins interact with (other) transcription factors that promote the binding of Ets proteins to composite Ras-responsive elements. ..
  5. Yates P, Atherton G, Deed R, Norton J, Sharrocks A. Id helix-loop-helix proteins inhibit nucleoprotein complex formation by the TCF ETS-domain transcription factors. EMBO J. 1999;18:968-76 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in the coordination of mitogenic signalling and cell cycle entry. ..
  6. Vanhoutte P, Nissen J, Brugg B, Gaspera B, Besson M, Hipskind R, et al. Opposing roles of Elk-1 and its brain-specific isoform, short Elk-1, in nerve growth factor-induced PC12 differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5189-96 pubmed
    ..This is blocked by mutating a normally cryptic nuclear export signal in Elk-1. These data provide new insights into molecular events underlying neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells mediated by the NGF-ERK signaling cascade. ..
  7. Chai Y, Chipitsyna G, Cui J, Liao B, Liu S, Aysola K, et al. c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1 interacts with BRCA1 splice variants BRCA1a/1b and enhances BRCA1a/1b-mediated growth suppression in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001;20:1357-67 pubmed
    ..All these results taken together suggest that one of the mechanisms by which BRCA1a/1b proteins function as growth/tumor suppressors is through inhibition of the expression of Elk-1 target genes like c-Fos. ..
  8. Yang S, Bumpass D, Perkins N, Sharrocks A. The ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1 contains a novel class of repression domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5036-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Elk-1 R motif and the p300 CRD1 motif represent a new class of repression domains that are regulated in a context-dependent manner. ..
  9. Yang S, Sharrocks A. SUMO promotes HDAC-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell. 2004;13:611-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data demonstrate an important integration point for two protein-modifying pathways in the cell, the SUMO and deacetylation pathways, that combine to promote transcriptional repression. ..
  10. Salinas S, Briançon Marjollet A, Bossis G, Lopez M, Piechaczyk M, Jariel Encontre I, et al. SUMOylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Elk-1. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:767-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, SUMO conjugation is a novel regulator of Elk-1 function through the control of its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. ..
  11. Odrowaz Z, Sharrocks A. ELK1 uses different DNA binding modes to regulate functionally distinct classes of target genes. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002694 pubmed publisher
    ..We have therefore uncovered an unexpected link between the type of binding mode employed by a transcription factor, the subsequent gene regulatory mechanisms used, and the functional categories of target genes controlled. ..
  12. Patki M, Chari V, Sivakumaran S, Gonit M, Trumbly R, Ratnam M. The ETS domain transcription factor ELK1 directs a critical component of growth signaling by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11047-65 pubmed publisher
    ..ELK1 thus directs selective and sustained gene induction that is a substantial and critical component of growth signaling by AR in PC cells. The ELK1-AR interaction offers a functionally tumor-selective drug target. ..
  13. Rao V, Huebner K, Isobe M, ar Rushdi A, Croce C, Reddy E. elk, tissue-specific ets-related genes on chromosomes X and 14 near translocation breakpoints. Science. 1989;244:66-70 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility that rearrangements of elk loci may be involved in pathogenesis of certain tumors. ..
  14. Price M, Rogers A, Treisman R. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). EMBO J. 1995;14:2589-601 pubmed
    ..Each TCF activation domain can be phosphorylated in vitro by partially purified ERK2, and ERK activation in vivo is sufficient to potentiate transcriptional activation. ..
  15. Rao V, Reddy E. elk-1 proteins interact with MAP kinases. Oncogene. 1994;9:1855-60 pubmed
  16. Xiao D, Qu X, Weber H. GRP receptor-mediated immediate early gene expression and transcription factor Elk-1 activation in prostate cancer cells. Regul Pept. 2002;109:141-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that BN acts as a mitogen in prostate cancer and this might be associated with the activation of the transcription factor Elk-1 and the immediate early gene c-fos. ..
  17. Yang S, Jaffray E, Hay R, Sharrocks A. Dynamic interplay of the SUMO and ERK pathways in regulating Elk-1 transcriptional activity. Mol Cell. 2003;12:63-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, the reciprocal regulation of the activation and repressive activities are coupled by MAP kinase modification of Elk-1. ..
  18. Boros J, Donaldson I, O Donnell A, Odrowaz Z, Zeef L, Lupien M, et al. Elucidation of the ELK1 target gene network reveals a role in the coordinate regulation of core components of the gene regulation machinery. Genome Res. 2009;19:1963-73 pubmed publisher
  19. Shan J, Donelan W, Hayner J, Zhang F, Dudenhausen E, Kilberg M. MAPK signaling triggers transcriptional induction of cFOS during amino acid limitation of HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This research identified cFOS as a target of the AAR and further highlights the importance of AA-responsive MAPK signaling in HepG2 cells. ..
  20. Liu L, Zhu Q, Wang J, Xi Q, Zhu H, Gu M. Gene expression changes in human mesenchymal stem cells from patients with osteoporosis. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:981-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The DEGs with high degree in the PPI and transcriptional regulatory networks may be candidate target molecules, which may be used to monitor, diagnose and treat osteoporosis. ..
  21. Shi L, Middleton J, Jeon Y, Magee P, Veneziano D, Laganà A, et al. KRAS induces lung tumorigenesis through microRNAs modulation. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:219 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study defines that miR-30c and miR-21 may be valid biomarkers for early NSCLC detection and their silencing could be beneficial for therapeutic applications. ..
  22. Carazo Fernández A, Smutny T, Hyrsová L, Berka K, Pavek P. Chrysin, baicalein and galangin are indirect activators of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Toxicol Lett. 2015;233:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that flavonoids chrysin, galangin and baicalein are indirect human CAR activators. This study also demonstrates new approach how to test the direct CAR interaction with its ligands. ..
  23. Hagemeister A, Kittilson J, Bergan H, Sheridan M. Rainbow trout somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR1A, SSTR1B, and SSTR2 differentially activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways in transfected cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;45:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish important receptor-effector pathway linkages for fish SSTRs and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which SSs may elicit diverse physiological effects in target cells. ..
  24. Weaver Z, Difilippantonio S, Carretero J, Martin P, El Meskini R, Iacovelli A, et al. Temporal molecular and biological assessment of an erlotinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma model reveals markers of tumor progression and treatment response. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5921-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the importance of kinetic therapeutic studies in preclinical assessment and provide in vivo evidence that TKI-mediated antiproliferative effects also manifest in specific metabolic regulation. ..
  25. Li X, Zhao D, Guo Z, Li T, Qili M, Xu B, et al. Overexpression of SerpinE2/protease nexin-1 Contribute to Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis via increasing Collagen Deposition. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37635 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, stress-induced the ERK1/2 signaling pathway activation up-regulated serpinE2 expression, consequently led accumulation of collagen protein, and contributed to cardiac fibrosis. ..
  26. Schaukowitch K, Reese A, Kim S, Kilaru G, Joo J, Kavalali E, et al. An Intrinsic Transcriptional Program Underlying Synaptic Scaling during Activity Suppression. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1512-1526 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results uncover a transcriptional program that specifically operates when neuronal activity is suppressed to globally coordinate the increase in synaptic strength. ..
  27. Vivacqua A, De Marco P, Santolla M, Cirillo F, Pellegrino M, Panno M, et al. Estrogenic gper signaling regulates mir144 expression in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (cafs). Oncotarget. 2015;6:16573-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present data provide new insights regarding the ability of estrogens to trigger the GPER/miR144/Runx1 transduction pathway toward the stimulation of cancer progression. ..
  28. Zhang P, Kong F, Deng X, Yu Y, Hou C, Liang T, et al. MicroRNA-326 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells by targeting ELK1. Oncol Lett. 2017;13:2949-2956 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that miR-326, a potential tumor suppressor, may be used in the treatment of cervical cancer. ..
  29. Bruning J, Gillette J, Zhao Y, Bjorbaeck C, Kotzka J, Knebel B, et al. Ribosomal subunit kinase-2 is required for growth factor-stimulated transcription of the c-Fos gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2462-7 pubmed
  30. Sobrier M, Tsai Y, Pérez C, LeHeup B, Bouceba T, Duquesnoy P, et al. Functional characterization of a human POU1F1 mutation associated with isolated growth hormone deficiency: a novel etiology for IGHD. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:472-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data further highlight difficulties in modeling human genetic disorders in the mouse despite apparent conservation of gene expression pathways and physiologic functions. ..
  31. Gupta S, Barrett T, Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Sluss H, Derijard B, et al. Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. EMBO J. 1996;15:2760-70 pubmed
    ..Individual members of the JNK group may therefore selectively target specific transcription factors in vivo. ..
  32. Chao T, Wang C, Chen Y, Lai C, Chang F, Tsai Y, et al. Afatinib induces apoptosis in NSCLC without EGFR mutation through Elk-1-mediated suppression of CIP2A. Oncotarget. 2015;6:2164-79 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, afatinib induces apoptosis in NSCLC without EGFR mutations through Elk-1/CIP2A/PP2A/AKT pathway. ..
  33. Dalgleish P, Sharrocks A. The mechanism of complex formation between Fli-1 and SRF transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:560-9 pubmed
    ..Collectively our data provide a model of how Fli-1 interacts with SRF that differs significantly from the mechanism used by a different ETS-domain protein, Elk-1. ..
  34. Bettelli E, Dastrange M, Oukka M. Foxp3 interacts with nuclear factor of activated T cells and NF-kappa B to repress cytokine gene expression and effector functions of T helper cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5138-43 pubmed
  35. Choi B, Kim C, Bae Y, Lim Y, Lee Y, Shin S. p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression by curcumin in U-87MG human glioma cells: role of early growth response-1 expression. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ERK and JNK MAPK/Elk-1/Egr-1 signal cascade is required for p53-independent transcriptional activation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in response to curcumin in U-87MG human glioblastoma cells. ..
  36. Zeng X, Xiao X, Wu Y, Huang H. Downregulated protein expression of transcriptional activator ELK-1 in atrial myocardium of chronic AF patients. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:11909-14 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the downregulated expression of transcriptional activator ELK-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF. ..
  37. Chen C, Lee W, Safe S. Egr-1 is activated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ELK-1. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:1063-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, Egr-1, like c-fos, is activated through non-genomic (extranuclear) pathways of estrogen action in breast cancer cells. ..
  38. Bourguignon L, Gilad E, Rothman K, Peyrollier K. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with IQGAP1 promotes Cdc42 and ERK signaling, leading to actin binding, Elk-1/estrogen receptor transcriptional activation, and ovarian cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11961-72 pubmed
  39. Aguilar Martinez E, Morrisroe C, Sharrocks A. The ubiquitin ligase UBE3A dampens ERK pathway signalling in HPV E6 transformed HeLa cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119366 pubmed publisher
  40. Maurice D, Costello P, Sargent M, Treisman R. ERK Signaling Controls Innate-like CD8+ T Cell Differentiation via the ELK4 (SAP-1) and ELK1 Transcription Factors. J Immunol. 2018;201:1681-1691 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish that low-level ERK signaling through ELK4 (and ELK1) promotes innate-like ?? CD8+ T cell differentiation, tuning conventional versus innate-like development. ..
  41. Giovane A, Sobieszczuk P, Mignon C, Mattei M, Wasylyk B. Locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (ELK3, ELK1, and ELK4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomes. Genomics. 1995;29:769-72 pubmed
    ..Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are conserved and map to homologous regions of the mouse and human chromosomes. ..
  42. Kendrick T, Lipscombe R, Rausch O, Nicholson S, Layton J, Goldie Cregan L, et al. Contribution of the membrane-distal tyrosine in intracellular signaling by the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:326-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that direct binding of Shc by the GCSF-R is not essential for JNK activation. ..
  43. Yoshida T, Gan Q, Owens G. Kruppel-like factor 4, Elk-1, and histone deacetylases cooperatively suppress smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in response to oxidized phospholipids. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that Klf4 interacted with HDAC5. Results provide evidence that Klf4, Elk-1, and HDACs coordinately mediate POVPC-induced suppression of SMC differentiation marker genes. ..
  44. Al Sadi R, Guo S, Ye D, Ma T. TNF-? modulation of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier is regulated by ERK1/2 activation of Elk-1. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:1871-1884 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide novel insight into the cellular and molecular processes that regulate the TNF-?-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability. ..
  45. Ohta S, Takeuchi M, Deguchi M, Tsuji T, Gahara Y, Nagata K. A novel transcriptional factor with Ser/Thr kinase activity involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling pathway. Biochem J. 2000;350 Pt 2:395-404 pubmed
    ..Thus, TSF1 is an unique factor with two biological functions, transcriptional regulation and protein phosphorylation, that may be involved in TGF-beta signals. ..
  46. Zhang Q, Adiseshaiah P, Kalvakolanu D, Reddy S. A Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-regulated Akt-independent signaling promotes cigarette smoke-induced FRA-1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10174-81 pubmed
  47. Sun N, Huang S, Chang T, Chao C. Sorafenib induces endometrial carcinoma apoptosis by inhibiting Elk-1-dependent Mcl-1 transcription and inducing Akt/GSK3?-dependent protein degradation. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1819-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus support the notion that sorafenib may be used in endometrial cancer therapy. ..
  48. Kent O, Sandí M, Burston H, Brown K, Rottapel R. An oncogenic KRAS transcription program activates the RHOGEF ARHGEF2 to mediate transformed phenotypes in pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:4484-4500 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify a transcription factor program required for RAS transformation and provide mechanistic insight into the highly metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer. ..
  49. Underwood R, Deng Y, Greenwald I. Integration of EGFR and LIN-12/Notch Signaling by LIN-1/Elk1, the Cdk8 Kinase Module, and SUR-2/Med23 in Vulval Precursor Cell Fate Patterning in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2017;207:1473-1488 pubmed publisher
  50. Watson D, Robinson L, Hodge D, Kola I, Papas T, Seth A. FLI1 and EWS-FLI1 function as ternary complex factors and ELK1 and SAP1a function as ternary and quaternary complex factors on the Egr1 promoter serum response elements. Oncogene. 1997;14:213-21 pubmed
    ..This R-domain may modulate the interaction with SRF, providing a mechanism that would be unique to FLI1 and EWS-FLI1, thus implicating a novel function for these ETS transcription factors in the regulation of the Egr1 gene. ..
  51. Pastorcic M, Das H. Ets transcription factors ER81 and Elk1 regulate the transcription of the human presenilin 1 gene promoter. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;113:57-66 pubmed
    ..However, GABPbeta alone activated PS1 transcription by two- to threefold. In contrast, the more distantly related Ets factor Elk1 repressed PS1 transcription very effectively. ..
  52. Odrowaz Z, Sharrocks A. The ETS transcription factors ELK1 and GABPA regulate different gene networks to control MCF10A breast epithelial cell migration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49892 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although ELK1 and GABPA ultimately control the same biological process, they do so by regulating different cohorts of target genes associated with cytoskeletal functions and cell migration control. ..
  53. Donyo M, Hollander D, Abramovitch Z, Naftelberg S, Ast G. Phosphatidylserine enhances IKBKAP transcription by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:1307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, compounds that activate the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway could constitute potential treatments for FD. ..
  54. McCarthy M, Wei H, Landgraf D, Le Roux M, Welsh D. Disinhibition of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase restores the amplification of circadian rhythms by lithium in cells from bipolar disorder patients. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26:1310-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the inability of lithium to regulate circadian rhythms in BD may reflect reduced ERK activity, and signaling through ELK-1. ..
  55. Apazoglou K, Farley S, Gorgievski V, Belzeaux R, Lopez J, Grenier J, et al. Antidepressive effects of targeting ELK-1 signal transduction. Nat Med. 2018;24:591-597 pubmed publisher
  56. D Amato L, Dell aversana C, Conte M, Ciotta A, Scisciola L, Carissimo A, et al. ARHGEF3 controls HDACi-induced differentiation via RhoA-dependent pathways in acute myeloid leukemias. Epigenetics. 2015;10:6-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that GEF protein modulation by HDAC inhibition impacts on cell differentiation may be important for understanding the antitumor mechanism(s) by which HDACi treatment stimulates differentiation in cancer. ..
  57. Khan F, Pandian V, Ramraj S, Aravindan S, Herman T, Aravindan N. Reorganization of metastamiRs in the evolution of metastatic aggressive neuroblastoma cells. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:501 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified set of distinctive neuroblastoma metastamiRs could serve as potential candidates for diagnostic markers for the switch from favorable to high-risk metastatic disease. ..
  58. Cea M, Cagnetta A, Adamia S, Acharya C, Tai Y, Fulciniti M, et al. Evidence for a role of the histone deacetylase SIRT6 in DNA damage response of multiple myeloma cells. Blood. 2016;127:1138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore provide insights into the functional interplay between SIRT6 and DNA repair mechanisms, with implications for both tumorigenesis and the treatment of MM. ..
  59. Wu W, Gardner A, Sachse F, Sanguinetti M. Ginsenoside Rg3, a Gating Modifier of EAG Family K+ Channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2016;90:469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanism underlying the action of Rg3 may facilitate the development of more potent and selective EAG family channel activators as therapies for cardiovascular and neural disorders. ..
  60. Adiseshaiah P, Peddakama S, Zhang Q, Kalvakolanu D, Reddy S. Mitogen regulated induction of FRA-1 proto-oncogene is controlled by the transcription factors binding to both serum and TPA response elements. Oncogene. 2005;24:4193-205 pubmed
    ..Thus, a bipartite enhancer formed by an upstream TRE and the downstream SRE and ATF sites and the cognate factors is necessary and sufficient for the regulation of FRA-1 in response to mitogens. ..
  61. Hsieh Y, Kuo H, Chang C, Naik M, Liao P, Ho C, et al. Ubc9 acetylation modulates distinct SUMO target modification and hypoxia response. EMBO J. 2013;32:791-804 pubmed publisher
  62. Hu F, Yang S, Lv S, Peng Y, Meng L, Gou L, et al. Analysis of AC3-33 gene expression in multiple organ cancer and adjacent normal tissue by RNA in situ hybridization. Oncol Lett. 2015;9:2795-2798 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the AC3-33 gene does exhibit positive expression in certain carcinomas, which may indicate that AC3-33 has a significant involvement in the development and progression of these carcinomas. ..
  63. Ma J, Zeng S, Zhang Y, Deng G, Qu Y, Guo C, et al. BMP4 promotes oxaliplatin resistance by an induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via MEK1/ERK/ELK1 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2017;411:117-129 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP4 induces EMT and OXA chemoresistance via MEK/ERK/ELK1 signaling pathway in HCC. BMP4 may be a valuable therapeutic target for HCC patients receiving OXA-based chemotherapy. ..
  64. Harindranath N, Mills F, Mitchell M, Meindl A, Max E. The human elk-1 gene family: the functional gene and two processed pseudogenes embedded in the IgH locus. Gene. 1998;221:215-24 pubmed
    ..Gene/pseudogene sequence comparisons and Southern blots of primate DNAs suggest that both the pseudogene insertion and the locus duplication occurred between about 30 and 60 million years ago. ..
  65. Cho C, Huang J, Shiah S, Chung S, Lay J, Yang Y, et al. Negative feedback regulation of AXL by miR-34a modulates apoptosis in lung cancer cells. RNA. 2016;22:303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that AXL is autoregulated by miR-34a in a feedback loop; this may provide a novel opportunity for developing AXL-targeted anticancer therapies. ..
  66. Suzuki H, Katsura A, Mihira H, Horie M, Saito A, Miyazono K. Regulation of TGF-?-mediated endothelial-mesenchymal transition by microRNA-27. J Biochem. 2017;161:417-420 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-27b was also found to regulate several semaphorin receptors including Neuropilin 2, Plexin A2 and Plexin D1. These results suggest important roles of miR-27 in TGF-?-driven EndMT. ..
  67. Syed J, Pandian G, Sato S, Taniguchi J, Chandran A, Hashiya K, et al. Targeted suppression of EVI1 oncogene expression by sequence-specific pyrrole-imidazole polyamide. Chem Biol. 2014;21:1370-1380 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro assays suggested that this polyamide can also effectively inhibit breast cancer cell migration. Taken together, these results suggest that EVI1-targeted PIP1 is an effective transcriptional regulator in cancer cells. ..
  68. Wu P, Hong S, Yoon S, Park J. Active ERK2 is sufficient to mediate growth arrest and differentiation signaling. FEBS J. 2015;282:1017-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study presents convincing evidence of ERK sufficiency for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. ..
  69. Peng C, Yang Q, Wei B, Liu Y, Li Y, Gu D, et al. Identification of potential target genes and related regulatory transcription factors in spontaneous hairline fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A. Injury. 2017;48:1475-1479 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will provide new insights for the target selection in clinical application to prevent spontaneous fracture induced by hypervitaminosis A. ..
  70. Jou Y, Chiu Y, Chen Y, Hwang J, Chao P, Shiu J, et al. Expression of protein kinase Cα and the MZF-1 and elk-1 transcription factors in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. Chin J Physiol. 2012;55:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although the findings showed elevated expression of Elk-1 and PKCα in 5637 cells, the regulator of PKCα in bladder cancer cells is yet to be determined. ..
  71. Kim J, Jung T, Seo J, Lee S, Kim M, Leem K, et al. Involvement of MAPK signaling pathway in the osteogenic gene expressions of Cervi Pantotrichum Cornu in MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells. Life Sci. 2014;94:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..p38 pathway is needed for ALPL expression. These results imply that MAPK signaling pathway is an indispensable factor for bone matrix genes expression of CPC in MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells. ..
  72. Weinl C, Wasylyk C, Garcia Garrido M, Sothilingam V, Beck S, Riehle H, et al. Elk3 deficiency causes transient impairment in post-natal retinal vascular development and formation of tortuous arteries in adult murine retinae. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107048 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that Elk3 has distinct roles in maintaining retinal artery integrity. The Elk3 knockout mouse is presented as a new animal model to study retinal artery tortuousity in mice and human patients. ..
  73. Anglada Huguet M, Giralt A, Pérez Navarro E, Alberch J, Xifro X. Activation of Elk-1 participates as a neuroprotective compensatory mechanism in models of Huntington's disease. J Neurochem. 2012;121:639-48 pubmed publisher
  74. Duan Q, Pang C, Chang N, Zhang J, Liu W. Overexpression of PAD4 suppresses drug resistance of NSCLC cell lines to gefitinib through inhibiting Elk1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Oncol Rep. 2016;36:551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Above all, our study showed that overexpression of PAD4 constrains the activity of EMT via suppressing Elk1 expression, and inhibits resistance of NSCLC to gefitinib. ..
  75. Jilg C, Ketscher A, Metzger E, Hummel B, Willmann D, Rüsseler V, et al. PRK1/PKN1 controls migration and metastasis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2014;5:12646-64 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a novel mechanism controlling the metastatic behavior of PCa cells and identify PRK1 as a promising therapeutic target to treat androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer. ..
  76. Shi W, Hou X, Peng H, Zhang L, Li Y, Gu Z, et al. MEK/ERK signaling pathway is required for enterovirus 71 replication in immature dendritic cells. Virol J. 2014;11:227 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the MEK/ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in EV71-infected iDCs and these molecules may be potential targets for the development of new anti-EV71 drugs. ..
  77. Pang L, You L, Ji C, Shi C, Chen L, Yang L, et al. miR-1275 inhibits adipogenesis via ELK1 and its expression decreases in obese subjects. J Mol Endocrinol. 2016;57:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that miR-1275 could play a future role in the management of obesity, as a novel therapeutic target or biomarker. ..
  78. Cho J, Akbarali Y, Zerbini L, Gu X, Boltax J, Wang Y, et al. Isoforms of the Ets transcription factor NERF/ELF-2 physically interact with AML1 and mediate opposing effects on AML1-mediated transcription of the B cell-specific blk gene. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19512-22 pubmed
  79. Majka M, Ratajczak J, Kowalska M, Ratajczak M. Binding of stromal derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) to CXCR4 chemokine receptor in normal human megakaryoblasts but not in platelets induces phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p42/44 (MAPK), ELK-1 transcription factor and serine/th. Eur J Haematol. 2000;64:164-72 pubmed
    ..The biological consequences of MAPK, ELK-1 and AKT phosphorylation in megakaryoblasts after stimulation with SDF-1alpha require further studies. ..
  80. Chen Z, Raman M, Chen L, Lee S, Gilman A, Cobb M. TAO (thousand-and-one amino acid) protein kinases mediate signaling from carbachol to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and ternary complex factors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:22278-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies suggest that TAO protein kinases relay signals from carbachol through heterotrimeric G proteins to the p38 MAP kinase, which then activates TCFs in the nucleus. ..
  81. Witty J, Aguilar Martinez E, Sharrocks A. SENP1 participates in the dynamic regulation of Elk-1 SUMOylation. Biochem J. 2010;428:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results therefore reveal an important role for SENP1 in the regulation of Elk-1-mediated gene expression in response to mitogenic signalling cues. ..
  82. Janknecht R, Nordheim A. MAP kinase-dependent transcriptional coactivation by Elk-1 and its cofactor CBP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;228:831-7 pubmed
    ..Thereby MAP kinase stimulation can pleiotropically affect activation of genes regulated by different transcription factors interacting with the same coactivator CBP. ..
  83. Ng M, Ng R, Kong C, Jin D, Chan L. Activation of Ras-dependent Elk-1 activity by MLL-AF4 family fusion oncoproteins. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:481-8 pubmed publisher
  84. Taylor L, Wilborn C, Kreider R, Willoughby D. Effects of resistance exercise intensity on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in men. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that resistance exercise upregulates ERK1/2 signaling in a manner that does not appear to be preferentially dependent on exercise intensity. ..
  85. Laliotis A, Vrekoussis T, Kafousi M, Sanidas E, Askoxilakis J, Melissas J, et al. Immunohistochemical study of pElk-1 expression in human breast cancer: association with breast cancer biologic profile and clinicopathologic features. Breast. 2013;22:89-95 pubmed publisher
  86. Eblen S, Kumar N, Shah K, Henderson M, Watts C, Shokat K, et al. Identification of novel ERK2 substrates through use of an engineered kinase and ATP analogs. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14926-35 pubmed
    ..These results not only identify two novel ERK2 substrates but also provide a framework for the future identification of numerous cellular targets of this important signaling cascade. ..
  87. Zhu Z, Mukhina S, Zhu T, Mertani H, Lee K, Lobie P. p44/42 MAP kinase-dependent regulation of catalase by autocrine human growth hormone protects human mammary carcinoma cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Oncogene. 2005;24:3774-85 pubmed
  88. Hasan R, Schafer A. Hemin upregulates Egr-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via reactive oxygen species ERK-1/2-Elk-1 and NF-kappaB. Circ Res. 2008;102:42-50 pubmed
    ..Upregulation of Egr-1 and its target genes by heme-induced oxidant stress may be an important event in the initiation and progression of inflammatory vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. ..
  89. Alonso N, Diaz Nebreda A, Monczor F, Gutkind J, Davio C, Fernandez N, et al. PI3K pathway is involved in ERK signaling cascade activation by histamine H2R agonist in HEK293T cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860:1998-2007 pubmed publisher
    ..This work indicates that the modulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by H2R in turn regulates Ras/MEK/ERK activation conditioning the proliferative capacity of the cells. ..
  90. Rao V, Reddy E. Delta elk-1, a variant of elk-1, fails to interact with the serum response factor and binds to DNA with modulated specificity. Cancer Res. 1993;53:215-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, elk-1 appears to fall in the category of genes that encode activators and repressors through the mechanism of differential splicing. ..
  91. Ahmed N, Niu J, Dorahy D, Gu X, Andrews S, Meldrum C, et al. Direct integrin alphavbeta6-ERK binding: implications for tumour growth. Oncogene. 2002;21:1370-80 pubmed
    ..The physical interaction between integrin alphavbeta6 and ERK2 defines a novel paradigm of integrin-mediated signalling and provides a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. ..
  92. Dixon D, Tolley N, Bemis Standoli K, Martinez M, Weyrich A, Morrow J, et al. Expression of COX-2 in platelet-monocyte interactions occurs via combinatorial regulation involving adhesion and cytokine signaling. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2727-38 pubmed
    ..These checkpoints may be altered in disease and therefore useful as targets for antiinflammatory intervention. ..