Gene Symbol: Egr-1
Description: early growth response 1
Alias: AT225, G0S30, KROX-24, NGFI-A, TIS8, ZIF-268, ZNF225, early growth response protein 1, EGR-1, nerve growth factor-induced protein A, transcription factor ETR103, transcription factor Zif268, zinc finger protein 225, zinc finger protein Krox-24
Species: human
Products:     Egr-1

Top Publications

  1. Wagner M, Schmelz K, Dorken B, Tamm I. Transcriptional regulation of human survivin by early growth response (Egr)-1 transcription factor. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1278-87 pubmed
    ..Using p53 wildtype and mutated cell lines, we show that Egr-1 negatively regulates survivin expression and sensitizes cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. ..
  2. Al Sarraj A, Thiel G. Substance P induced biosynthesis of the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 in human glioma cells requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase. Neurosci Lett. 2002;332:111-4 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of Egr-1 in glioma cells as a result of substance P stimulation suggests that substance P exerts long-term effects in glioma cells via Egr-1-mediated gene transcription. ..
  3. Maekawa T, Takahashi N, Honda T, Yonezawa D, Miyashita H, Okui T, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens and interleukin-6 stimulate the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 via the upregulation of early growth response-1 transcription in human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Vasc Res. 2010;47:346-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clearly suggest that periodontal infection has the potential to affect HCAECs and hence contribute to the development of subsequent atherosclerosis. ..
  4. Al Sarraj A, Day R, Thiel G. Specificity of transcriptional regulation by the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Egr-1. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:153-67 pubmed
    ..This does not exclude the existence of composite Sp1/Sp3/Egr-1 binding sites, where competition for a common DNA-binding site occurs. ..
  5. Yang S, Abdulkadir S. Early growth response gene 1 modulates androgen receptor signaling in prostate carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39906-11 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that EGR1 may promote prostate cancer development by modulating the androgen receptor signaling pathway. ..
  6. Bauer I, Hohl M, Al Sarraj A, Vinson C, Thiel G. Transcriptional activation of the Egr-1 gene mediated by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;438:36-52 pubmed
    ..The fact that Egr-1 promoter/reporter gene transcription is upregulated by a constitutively active CREB mutant indicates that the CRE couples other signaling cascades via CREB to the Egr-1 gene. ..
  7. Tan L, Peng H, Osaki M, Choy B, Auron P, Sandell L, et al. Egr-1 mediates transcriptional repression of COL2A1 promoter activity by interleukin-1beta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17688-700 pubmed
  8. Wang B, Khachigian L, Esau L, Birrer M, Zhao X, Parker M, et al. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that EGR-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB mediate GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer and may represent potential target molecules for therapeutic intervention. ..
  9. Ogishima T, Shiina H, Breault J, Tabatabai L, Bassett W, Enokida H, et al. Increased heparanase expression is caused by promoter hypomethylation and up-regulation of transcriptional factor early growth response-1 in human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:1028-36 pubmed
    ..0001). To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive study demonstrating that increased heparanase expression in prostate cancer tissues is due to promoter hypomethylation and up-regulation of transcription factor EGR1. ..

More Information


  1. Dyson O, Traylen C, Akula S. Cell membrane-bound Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded glycoprotein B promotes virus latency by regulating expression of cellular Egr-1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37491-502 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have ramifications leading to a better understanding of the role of virus-encoded structural proteins not only in KSHV-related diseases but also in other viruses causing latent infections...
  2. Pagel J, Deindl E. Early growth response 1--a transcription factor in the crossfire of signal transduction cascades. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48:226-35 pubmed
    ..The acquired knowledge on transcriptional regulation of Egr-1 is not entirely understood. In this review, we highlight upstream and downstream signaling in vitro and in vivo associated with Egr-1. ..
  3. Decker E, Nehmann N, Kampen E, Eibel H, Zipfel P, Skerka C. Early growth response proteins (EGR) and nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) form heterodimers and regulate proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:911-21 pubmed
    ..Binding of regulatory EGR and NFAT factors to these sites and the functional interaction and formation of stable heterodimeric complexes indicate an important role of these factors for gene transcription. ..
  4. Choi B, Kim C, Bae Y, Lim Y, Lee Y, Shin S. p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression by curcumin in U-87MG human glioma cells: role of early growth response-1 expression. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ERK and JNK MAPK/Elk-1/Egr-1 signal cascade is required for p53-independent transcriptional activation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in response to curcumin in U-87MG human glioblastoma cells. ..
  5. Ogishima T, Shiina H, Breault J, Terashima M, Honda S, Enokida H, et al. Promoter CpG hypomethylation and transcription factor EGR1 hyperactivate heparanase expression in bladder cancer. Oncogene. 2005;24:6765-72 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that increased heparanase expression during the pathogenesis of bladder cancer is due to promoter hypomethylation and transcription factor EGR1. ..
  6. Shimoyamada H, Yazawa T, Sato H, Okudela K, Ishii J, Sakaeda M, et al. Early growth response-1 induces and enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in lung cancer cells. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:70-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that EGR-1 plays important roles on VEGF-A expression in lung cancer cells, and epigenetic silencing of transactivator(s) associated with NAB-2 expression might also contribute to upregulate VEGF-A expression. ..
  7. Chen S, Ning H, Ishida W, Sodin Semrl S, Takagawa S, Mori Y, et al. The early-immediate gene EGR-1 is induced by transforming growth factor-beta and mediates stimulation of collagen gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21183-97 pubmed
    ..The results therefore implicate Egr-1 in the profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-beta and suggest that Egr-1 may play a new and important role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. ..
  8. Thyss R, Virolle V, Imbert V, Peyron J, Aberdam D, Virolle T. NF-kappaB/Egr-1/Gadd45 are sequentially activated upon UVB irradiation to mediate epidermal cell death. EMBO J. 2005;24:128-37 pubmed
    ..Failure in the induction of each protagonist of this pathway alters the UVB-mediated cell death process. Therefore, impairment of the cascade could be at the onset of skin carcinogenesis mediated by genotoxic stress. ..
  9. Kumbrink J, Gerlinger M, Johnson J. Egr-1 induces the expression of its corepressor nab2 by activation of the nab2 promoter thereby establishing a negative feedback loop. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42785-93 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Egr-1 mediates the induction of its own repressor, thereby preventing a permanent transactivation of Egr-1 target genes and a damaging overreaction in response to environmental signals. ..
  10. Zwang Y, Sas Chen A, Drier Y, Shay T, Avraham R, Lauriola M, et al. Two phases of mitogenic signaling unveil roles for p53 and EGR1 in elimination of inconsistent growth signals. Mol Cell. 2011;42:524-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings uncover two gating mechanisms, which ensure that cells ignore fortuitous growth factors and undergo proliferation only in response to consistent mitogenic signals. ..
  11. Bae M, Jeong C, Kim S, Bae M, Jeong J, Ahn M, et al. Regulation of Egr-1 by association with the proteasome component C8. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1592:163-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, Egr-1 protein was specifically multiubiquitinated by ubiquitin. These data strongly imply that Egr-1 protein is targeted for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway. ..
  12. Zhang X, Liu Y. Suppression of HGF receptor gene expression by oxidative stress is mediated through the interplay between Sp1 and Egr-1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F1216-25 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a novel transcriptional regulatory mechanism by which Egr-1 sequesters Sp1 as a transcriptional activator of c-met via physical interaction. ..
  13. Sauer L, Gitenay D, Vo C, Baron V. Mutant p53 initiates a feedback loop that involves Egr-1/EGF receptor/ERK in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:2628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, p53 may further regulate this feedback loop by altering the level of EGFR expression. ..
  14. Parra E, Ortega A, Saenz L. Down-regulation of Egr-1 by siRNA inhibits growth of human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:1513-8 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of Egr-1 expression can induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. The use of Egr-1 siRNA deserves further investigation as a novel approach to cancer therapy. ..
  15. Sharma A, Kumar M, Aich J, Hariharan M, Brahmachari S, Agrawal A, et al. Posttranscriptional regulation of interleukin-10 expression by hsa-miR-106a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results showed that IL-10 expression may be regulated by miR-106a, which is in turn transcriptionally regulated by Egr1 and Sp1. ..
  16. Russo M, Sevetson B, Milbrandt J. Identification of NAB1, a repressor of NGFI-A- and Krox20-mediated transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6873-7 pubmed
    ..NAB1 also represses Krox20 activity, but it does not influence Egr3 or NGFI-G, thus providing a mechanism for the differential regulation of this family of immediate-early transcription factors. ..
  17. Zheng L, Pu J, Jiang G, Weng M, He J, Mei H, et al. Abnormal expression of early growth response 1 in gastric cancer: association with tumor invasion, metastasis and heparanase transcription. Pathol Int. 2010;60:268-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that aberrant expression of EGR1 in gastric cancer is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis, and HPA transcription. ..
  18. Svaren J, Sevetson B, Apel E, Zimonjic D, Popescu N, Milbrandt J. NAB2, a corepressor of NGFI-A (Egr-1) and Krox20, is induced by proliferative and differentiative stimuli. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3545-53 pubmed
    ..Sequencing of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome has identified a gene that bears high homology to both NAB1 and NAB2, suggesting that NAB molecules fulfill an evolutionarily conserved role. ..
  19. Kang H, Ock J, Lee H, Lee Y, Kwon B, Hong S. Early growth response protein 1 upregulation and nuclear translocation by 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde induces prostate cancer cell death. Cancer Lett. 2013;329:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are known to be induced by transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1)...
  20. Rossmann C, Rauh A, Hammer A, Windischhofer W, Zirkl S, Sattler W, et al. Hypochlorite-modified high-density lipoprotein promotes induction of HO-1 in endothelial cells via activation of p42/44 MAPK and zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;509:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates a novel compensatory pathway against adverse effects of HOCl-HDL, providing cytoprotection in a number of pathological conditions including cardiovascular disease. ..
  21. Kobayashi D, Yamada M, Kamagata C, Kaneko R, Tsuji N, Nakamura M, et al. Overexpression of early growth response-1 as a metastasis-regulatory factor in gastric cancer. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:3963-70 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that Egr-1 has a significant role in carcinogenesis and in cancer progression, especially metastasis. Measurement of this mRNA should be useful for evaluation of the metastatic potential of gastric cancer. ..
  22. Jin E, Liu J, Suehiro J, Yuan L, Okada Y, Nikolova Krstevski V, et al. Differential roles for ETS, CREB, and EGR binding sites in mediating VEGF receptor 1 expression in vivo. Blood. 2009;114:5557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mutation of the -39 ETS site resulted in increased LacZ staining in multiple vascular beds. Together, these results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of VEGFR1. ..
  23. Choi B, Kim C, Lim Y, Lee Y, Shin S. Transcriptional activation of the human Klotho gene by epidermal growth factor in HEK293 cells; role of Egr-1. Gene. 2010;450:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that the Ras/MEK/Erk signaling cascade is involved in EGF-induced activation of the Klotho promoter. We conclude that the Klotho gene is activated by EGF in HEK293 cells. ..
  24. Lokeshwar V, Gomez P, Kramer M, Knapp J, McCornack M, Lopez L, et al. Epigenetic regulation of HYAL-1 hyaluronidase expression. identification of HYAL-1 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29215-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HYAL-1 expression is epigenetically regulated by the binding of different transcription factors to the methylated and unmethylated HYAL-1 promoter. ..
  25. Yu J, De Belle I, Liang H, Adamson E. Coactivating factors p300 and CBP are transcriptionally crossregulated by Egr1 in prostate cells, leading to divergent responses. Mol Cell. 2004;15:83-94 pubmed
    ..This complex balance of opposing effects appears to finely modulate important cellular life and death responses. ..
  26. Zhang Y, Bonzo J, Gonzalez F, Wang L. Diurnal regulation of the early growth response 1 (Egr-1) protein expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) cross-talk in liver fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study revealed control network for Egr-1 expression through a feedback loop between SHP and HNF4α. ..
  27. Silverman E, Du J, Williams A, Wadgaonkar R, Drazen J, Collins T. cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1). Biochem J. 1998;336 ( Pt 1):183-9 pubmed
  28. Fernández Alvarez A, Tur G, López Rodas G, Casado M. Reciprocal regulation of the human sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1a promoter by Sp1 and EGR-1 transcription factors. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:177-84 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel physiologically relevant transcriptional mechanism for the reciprocal regulation of the SREBP-1a expression. ..
  29. Sakurai K, Furukawa C, Haraguchi T, Inada K, Shiogama K, Tagawa T, et al. MicroRNAs miR-199a-5p and -3p target the Brm subunit of SWI/SNF to generate a double-negative feedback loop in a variety of human cancers. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may offer a partial explanation for why miR-199a-5p and -3p have been reported to be either upregulated or downregulated in a variety of tumors. ..
  30. Davis W, Chen Z, Ile K, Tew K. Reciprocal regulation of expression of the human adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding cassette, sub-family A, transporter 2 (ABCA2) promoter by the early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and Sp-family transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1097-107 pubmed
  31. Mora López F, Pedreño Horrillo N, Delgado Pérez L, Brieva J, Campos Caro A. Transcription of PRDM1, the master regulator for plasma cell differentiation, depends on an SP1/SP3/EGR-1 GC-box. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies together characterize for the first time the basal activity of the human PRDM1 promoter, through which several factors, including SP1, SP3 and early growth response 1, modulate its expression through a conserved GC-box. ..
  32. Silverman E, Collins T. Pathways of Egr-1-mediated gene transcription in vascular biology. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:665-70 pubmed
  33. Arora S, Wang Y, Jia Z, Vardar Sengul S, Munawar A, Doctor K, et al. Egr1 regulates the coordinated expression of numerous EGF receptor target genes as identified by ChIP-on-chip. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R166 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that M12 cells undergo Egr1-dependent apoptotic response upon UV stimulation and led to the identification of downstream targets of Egr1, which mediate epidermal growth factor receptor function. ..
  34. Chen Z, Kim H, Sciurba F, Lee S, Feghali Bostwick C, Stolz D, et al. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3316 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury. ..
  35. Bhattacharyya S, Chen S, Wu M, Warner Blankenship M, Ning H, Lakos G, et al. Smad-independent transforming growth factor-beta regulation of early growth response-1 and sustained expression in fibrosis: implications for scleroderma. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1085-99 pubmed publisher
  36. Mora G, Olivier K, Cheville J, Mitchell R, Lingle W, Tindall D. The cytoskeleton differentially localizes the early growth response gene-1 protein in cancer and benign cells of the prostate. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:115-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we add the novel concept that microtubules regulate EGR-1 localization in benign prostate cells but not in malignant prostate cells. ..
  37. Wang B, Chen J, Santiago F, Janes M, Kavurma M, Chong B, et al. Phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 and autoregulation by early growth response 1 mediate interleukin 1beta induction of early growth response 1 transcription. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1beta induction of EGR-1 transcription involves histone H3 phosphorylation, acetylation, and autoregulation by EGR-1. ..
  38. Abdel Malak N, Mofarrahi M, Mayaki D, Khachigian L, Hussain S. Early growth response-1 regulates angiopoietin-1-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Ang-1 triggers significant and transient induction of Egr-1, and Egr-1 contributes to Ang-1-induced endothelial cell migration and proliferation. ..
  39. Dabrowska A, Kim N, Aldovini A. Tat-induced FOXO3a is a key mediator of apoptosis in HIV-1-infected human CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008;181:8460-77 pubmed
    ..The induction of Egr1 and FOXO3a and its target genes was observed in Jurkat cells transduced by Tat alone. Tat-dependent activation of the Egr1-PTEN-FOXO3a pathway provides a mechanism for HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T cell death. ..
  40. Subbaramaiah K, Yoshimatsu K, Scherl E, Das K, Glazier K, Golijanin D, et al. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 is overexpressed in inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence for involvement of the transcription factor Egr-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12647-58 pubmed
    ..Moreover, TNF-alpha induced mPGES-1 by stimulating PC-PLC --> PKC --> NO --> cGMP --> PKG signal transduction pathway. ..
  41. Adamson E, Mercola D. Egr1 transcription factor: multiple roles in prostate tumor cell growth and survival. Tumour Biol. 2002;23:93-102 pubmed
    ..This review points to areas where research should be focussed. ..
  42. Hao M, Liang Y, Liu Y, Liu L, Wu M, Yang H. Transcription factor EGR-1 inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma cell lines. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:203-7 pubmed
    ..Egr-1 gene of transfected HHCC and ECa109 cells showed obvious suppression of the cell growth and malignant phenotypes, but no suppression in SMMC7721 (HCC cell line) cells. ..
  43. Myung D, Park Y, Kim N, Chung C, Park H, Kim J, et al. Expression of early growth response-1 in colorectal cancer and its relation to tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Oncol Rep. 2014;31:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Egr-1 may be associated with colorectal cancer progression via tumor cell proliferation. ..
  44. Ma Y, Cheng Q, Ren Z, Xu L, Zhao Y, Sun J, et al. Induction of IGF-1R expression by EGR-1 facilitates the growth of prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2012;317:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that EGR-1 may stimulate prostate cancer cell growth through up-regulation of IGF-1R and indicate that down-regulation of EGR-1 could be an effective therapeutic approach against prostate cancer. ..
  45. Li C, Ning W, Matthay M, Feghali Bostwick C, Choi A. MAPK pathway mediates EGR-1-HSP70-dependent cigarette smoke-induced chemokine production. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1297-303 pubmed
    ..In view of these findings, we hypothesize that the MAPK-EGR-1-HSP70 pathway regulates the cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory process. ..
  46. Hao F, Tan M, Xu X, Cui M. Histamine induces Egr-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells via the H1 receptor-mediated protein kinase Cdelta-dependent ERK activation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, these results suggest a central role of Egr-1 in histamine-induced gene expression and in histamine-induced vascular disease. ..
  47. Zhang F, Lin M, Abidi P, Thiel G, Liu J. Specific interaction of Egr1 and c/EBPbeta leads to the transcriptional activation of the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44246-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we provide strong evidence that Egr1 regulates LDLR transcription via a novel mechanism of protein-protein interaction with c/EBPbeta. ..
  48. Gibbs J, Liebermann D, Hoffman B. Egr-1 abrogates the E2F-1 block in terminal myeloid differentiation and suppresses leukemia. Oncogene. 2008;27:98-106 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Egr-1 and/or Egr-1 target genes may be useful tools to treat or suppress oncogene-driven hematological malignancies. ..
  49. Trabandt A, Aicher W, Gay R, Sukhatme V, Fassbender H, Gay S. Spontaneous expression of immediately-early response genes c-fos and egr-1 in collagenase-producing rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Rheumatol Int. 1992;12:53-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the localization of both oncoprotein c-fos and fibroblast-type collagenase within synovial fibroblast-like cells attached to bone erosions. ..
  50. Fantini D, Vascotto C, Deganuto M, Bivi N, Gustincich S, Marcon G, et al. APE1/Ref-1 regulates PTEN expression mediated by Egr-1. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the data open new perspectives in the comprehension of the many functions exerted by APE1 in controlling cell response to oxidative stress. ..
  51. El Asrar A, Missotten L, Geboes K. Expression of high-mobility groups box-1/receptor for advanced glycation end products/osteopontin/early growth response-1 pathway in proliferative vitreoretinal epiretinal membranes. Mol Vis. 2011;17:508-18 pubmed
    ..The HMGB1/RAGE/OPN/Egr-1 pathway may be involved in inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrotic responses in proliferative vitreoretinal disorders. ..
  52. Fahmy R, Dass C, Sun L, Chesterman C, Khachigian L. Transcription factor Egr-1 supports FGF-dependent angiogenesis during neovascularization and tumor growth. Nat Med. 2003;9:1026-32 pubmed
    ..Egr-1 DNAzymes also repressed neovascularization of rat cornea. Thus, microvascular endothelial cell growth, neovascularization, tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth are processes that are critically dependent on Egr-1. ..
  53. Chen C, Lee W, Safe S. Egr-1 is activated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ELK-1. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:1063-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, Egr-1, like c-fos, is activated through non-genomic (extranuclear) pathways of estrogen action in breast cancer cells. ..
  54. Abdulkadir S. Mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis: roles for transcription factors Nkx3.1 and Egr1. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1059:33-40 pubmed
    ..Specifically, Egr1 deficiency impairs the transition from PIN to invasive carcinoma. Thus, Nkx3.1 and Egr1 regulate gene programs involved in distinct aspects of prostate tumorigenesis. ..
  55. Ma J, Ren Z, Ma Y, Xu L, Zhao Y, Zheng C, et al. Targeted knockdown of EGR-1 inhibits IL-8 production and IL-8-mediated invasion of prostate cancer cells through suppressing EGR-1/NF-kappaB synergy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, knockdown of EGR-1 inhibited IL-8-mediated tumor colony formation and invasion. Thus, targeted knockdown of EGR-1 could be an effective therapeutic approach against prostate cancer. ..
  56. Mostecki J, Showalter B, Rothman P. Early growth response-1 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2596-605 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an important role for Egr-1 in regulating both the basal and LPS-induced activity of the SOCS-1 promoter. ..
  57. Hasan R, Schafer A. Hemin upregulates Egr-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via reactive oxygen species ERK-1/2-Elk-1 and NF-kappaB. Circ Res. 2008;102:42-50 pubmed
    ..Upregulation of Egr-1 and its target genes by heme-induced oxidant stress may be an important event in the initiation and progression of inflammatory vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. ..
  58. Knight C, Slade J, Carter D. The nuclear, 75 kDa form of early growth response protein-1/nerve growth factor-induced A protein is primarily restricted to LH beta-subunit-expressing cells in rat anterior pituitary. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000;143:817-21 pubmed
    Early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1)/nerve growth factor-induced A (also known as Zif-268, Krox-24, TIS8, ZENK) is a zinc-finger transcription factor which, although expressed in a range of organ systems, has been shown to be essential ..
  59. Mahalingam D, Natoni A, Keane M, Samali A, Szegezdi E. Early growth response-1 is a regulator of DR5-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:754-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective knockdown of c-FLIP(S) sensitises cells to DR5-induced but not DR4-induced apoptosis and Egr-1 exerts an effect as an inhibitor of the DR5-induced apoptotic pathway, possibly by regulating the expression of c-FLIP(S). ..
  60. Cheng S, Afif H, Martel Pelletier J, Pelletier J, Li X, Farrajota K, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced membrane-associated prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by interfering with Egr-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22057-65 pubmed
    ..These data define mPGES-1 and Egr-1 as novel targets of PPARgamma and suggest that inhibition of mPGES-1 gene transcription may be one of the mechanisms by which PPARgamma regulates inflammatory responses. ..
  61. Raychowdhury R, Schäfer G, Fleming J, Rosewicz S, Wiedenmann B, Wang T, et al. Interaction of early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1), specificity protein 1 (Sp1), and cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) at a proximal response element is critical for gastrin-dependent activation of the ch. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2802-18 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that binding of early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) to the distal part of the -92/-62 site is also required for gastrin-dependent CgA ..
  62. Joslin J, Fernald A, Tennant T, Davis E, Kogan S, Anastasi J, et al. Haploinsufficiency of EGR1, a candidate gene in the del(5q), leads to the development of myeloid disorders. Blood. 2007;110:719-26 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency for Egr1 plays a role in murine leukemogenesis, and in the development of AML/MDS characterized by abnormalities of chromosome 5. ..
  63. Shen N, Gong T, Wang J, Meng F, Qiao L, Yang R, et al. Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammatory responses are mediated by EGR-1/GGPPS/MAPK signaling. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:110-8 pubmed publisher
  64. Wang F, Connor J, Dodds R, James I, Kumar S, Zou C, et al. Differential expression of egr-1 in osteoarthritic compared to normal adult human articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000;8:161-9 pubmed
    ..Up-regulation of Egr-1 may therefore provide a novel therapeutic approach for either the prevention or treatment of OA. ..
  65. Blaschke F, Bruemmer D, Law R. Egr-1 is a major vascular pathogenic transcription factor in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2004;5:249-54 pubmed
  66. Kerpedjieva S, Kim D, Barbeau D, Tamama K. EGFR ligands drive multipotential stromal cells to produce multiple growth factors and cytokines via early growth response-1. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate EGR1 as a convergence point of multiple signaling pathways, which in turn augments the production of multiple growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the autocrine signaling with EGFR ligands. ..
  67. Quinones A, Dobberstein K, Rainov N. The egr-1 gene is induced by DNA-damaging agents and non-genotoxic drugs in both normal and neoplastic human cells. Life Sci. 2003;72:2975-92 pubmed
  68. Sukhatme V, Cao X, Chang L, Tsai Morris C, Stamenkovich D, Ferreira P, et al. A zinc finger-encoding gene coregulated with c-fos during growth and differentiation, and after cellular depolarization. Cell. 1988;53:37-43 pubmed
    ..These results, in conjunction with the Egr-1 primary structure, suggest that Egr-1 may function as a transcriptional regulator in diverse biological processes. ..
  69. Nishi H, Nishi K, Johnson A. Early Growth Response-1 gene mediates up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression during hypoxia. Cancer Res. 2002;62:827-34 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that regulation of EGFR promoter activity by Egr-1 represents a mechanism for epidermal cell growth during hypoxia. ..
  70. Wu S, Minami T, Donovan D, Aird W. The proximal serum response element in the Egr-1 promoter mediates response to thrombin in primary human endothelial cells. Blood. 2002;100:4454-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that thrombin induces Egr-1 expression in endothelial cells by a MAPK-dependent mechanism that involves an interaction between SRF and SRE-1. ..
  71. Yu J, Zhang S, Saito K, Williams S, Arimura Y, Ma Y, et al. PTEN regulation by Akt-EGR1-ARF-PTEN axis. EMBO J. 2009;28:21-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also explain the known negative feedback regulation by PTEN on its own synthesis through PI3 kinase inhibition. ..
  72. Zhu X, Lin Y, Bacanamwo M, Chang L, Chai R, Massud I, et al. Interleukin-1 beta-induced Id2 gene expression is mediated by Egr-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;76:141-8 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that IL-1beta-induced Id2 expression in VSMC is mediated by the transcription factor Egr-1 in VSMC. ..
  73. Lee K, Kim J. Hepatocyte growth factor induced up-regulations of VEGF through Egr-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26:685-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Egr-1 might play an important role in the up-regulation of VEGF and IL-8 induced by HGF and contribute to HGF-mediated angiogenesis, which might be promising targets for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. ..
  74. Grotegut S, Von Schweinitz D, Christofori G, Lehembre F. Hepatocyte growth factor induces cell scattering through MAPK/Egr-1-mediated upregulation of Snail. EMBO J. 2006;25:3534-45 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Snail upregulation by HGF is mediated via the MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway and that both Snail and Egr-1 play a critical role in HGF-induced cell scattering, migration, and invasion. ..