Gene Symbol: DYNC1I1
Description: dynein cytoplasmic 1 intermediate chain 1
Alias: DNCI1, DNCIC1, cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 1, DH IC-1, cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 1, dynein intermediate chain 1, cytosolic, dynein, cytoplasmic, intermediate polypeptide 1
Species: human
Products:     DYNC1I1

Top Publications

  1. Lo K, Naisbitt S, Fan J, Sheng M, Zhang M. The 8-kDa dynein light chain binds to its targets via a conserved (K/R)XTQT motif. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14059-66 pubmed
    ..The role of each conserved amino acid residue in this pentapeptide motif in supporting complex formation with DLC8 was systematically studied using site-directed mutagenesis. ..
  2. Hoogenraad C, Akhmanova A, Howell S, Dortland B, De Zeeuw C, Willemsen R, et al. Mammalian Golgi-associated Bicaudal-D2 functions in the dynein-dynactin pathway by interacting with these complexes. EMBO J. 2001;20:4041-54 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that mammalian BICD2 plays a role in the dynein- dynactin interaction on the surface of membranous organelles, by associating with these complexes. ..
  3. King S, Dillman J, Benashski S, Lye R, Patel King R, Pfister K. The mouse t-complex-encoded protein Tctex-1 is a light chain of brain cytoplasmic dynein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32281-7 pubmed
  4. Lam C, Vergnolle M, Thorpe L, Woodman P, Allan V. Functional interplay between LIS1, NDE1 and NDEL1 in dynein-dependent organelle positioning. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, expression of exogenous NDE1 or NDEL1 rescued the effects of LIS1 depletion on Golgi organisation, whereas LIS1 was only partially effective at rescuing the loss of NDE1 and NDEL1. ..
  5. Neubauer H, Tea M, Zebol J, Gliddon B, Stefanidis C, Moretti P, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates the subcellular localization of sphingosine kinase 2 to elicit tumor-suppressive functions in glioblastoma. Oncogene. 2019;38:1151-1165 pubmed publisher
    ..with the intermediate chain subunits of the retrograde-directed transport motor complex, cytoplasmic dynein 1 (DYNC1I1 and -2), and we show that this interaction, particularly with DYNC1I1, facilitates the transport of SK2 away from ..
  6. Shen C, Honda H, Suzuki S, Maeda N, Shijo M, Hamasaki H, et al. Dynactin is involved in Lewy body pathology. Neuropathology. 2018;38:583-590 pubmed publisher
    ..for p-SNCA, DCTN1, dynactin 2 (DCTN2, dynamitin) and dynein cytoplasmic 1 intermediate chain 1 (DYNC1I1)...
  7. Rattanasopha S, Tongkobpetch S, Srichomthong C, Kitidumrongsook P, Suphapeetiporn K, Shotelersuk V. Absent expression of the osteoblast-specific maternally imprinted genes, DLX5 and DLX6, causes split hand/split foot malformation type I. J Med Genet. 2014;51:817-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these 10, two had no limb anomalies, making a penetrance of 80%. The deletion encompassed exons 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1, which are known enhancers of two downstream genes, DLX5 and DLX6...
  8. Liu Z, Zhang S, Hao J, Xie T, Kang J. Cellular model of neuronal atrophy induced by DYNC1I1 deficiency reveals protective roles of RAS-RAF-MEK signaling. Protein Cell. 2016;7:638-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the DYNC1I1 deficiency, a neuron-specific dynein intermediate chain, causes neuronal atrophy in primary hippocampal neurons...
  9. Ramos Zaldívar H, Martínez Irías D, Espinoza Moreno N, Napky Rajo J, Bueso Aguilar T, Reyes Perdomo K, et al. A novel description of a syndrome consisting of 7q21.3 deletion including DYNC1I1 with preserved DLX5/6 without ectrodactyly: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10:156 pubmed publisher
    Chromosomal region 7q21.3 comprises approximately 5.2 mega base pairs that include genes DLX5/6, SHFM1, and DYNC1I1 associated with split hand/split foot malformation 1...

More Information


  1. Kuta A, Deng W, Morsi El Kadi A, Banks G, Hafezparast M, Pfister K, et al. Mouse cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains: identification of new isoforms, alternative splicing and tissue distribution of transcripts. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11682 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals this multiprotein complex includes dynein intermediate chains 1 and 2 which are encoded by two genes, Dync1i1 and Dync1i2...
  2. Di Bartolomeo S, Corazzari M, Nazio F, Oliverio S, Lisi G, Antonioli M, et al. The dynamic interaction of AMBRA1 with the dynein motor complex regulates mammalian autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:155-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results demonstrate that in addition to a function for microtubules in mediating autophagosome transport, there is a strict and regulatory relationship between cytoskeleton dynamics and autophagosome formation. ..
  3. Malikov V, da Silva E, Jovasevic V, Bennett G, de Souza Aranha Vieira D, Schulte B, et al. HIV-1 capsids bind and exploit the kinesin-1 adaptor FEZ1 for inward movement to the nucleus. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6660 pubmed publisher
  4. Thom C, Traxler E, Khandros E, Nickas J, Zhou O, Lazarus J, et al. Trim58 degrades Dynein and regulates terminal erythropoiesis. Dev Cell. 2014;30:688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that Trim58 promotes this process by eliminating dynein. Our findings identify an erythroid-specific regulator of enucleation and elucidate a previously unrecognized mechanism for controlling dynein activity. ..
  5. Lukic Z, Dharan A, Fricke T, Diaz Griffero F, Campbell E. HIV-1 uncoating is facilitated by dynein and kinesin 1. J Virol. 2014;88:13613-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting these factors may either directly inhibit infection or delay it enough to trigger mediators of intrinsic immunity that recognize cytoplasmic capsid or DNA and subsequently induce an antiviral state in these cells. ..
  6. Ding C, Liang X, Ma L, Yuan X, Zhu X. Opposing effects of Ndel1 and alpha1 or alpha2 on cytoplasmic dynein through competitive binding to Lis1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also help to explain why brain development is particularly sensitive to a decrease in Lis1 levels. ..
  7. Sivaram M, Wadzinski T, Redick S, Manna T, Doxsey S. Dynein light intermediate chain 1 is required for progress through the spindle assembly checkpoint. EMBO J. 2009;28:902-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a Cdk1 phosphorylated form of LIC1 is required to remove Mad1/2 and Zw10 but not BubR1 from kinetochores during spindle assembly checkpoint silencing. ..
  8. Ban K, Torres J, Miller J, Mikhailov A, Nachury M, Tung J, et al. The END network couples spindle pole assembly to inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in early mitosis. Dev Cell. 2007;13:29-42 pubmed
    ..The organization of the APC/C on the spindle also provides a framework for understanding microtubule-dependent organization of protein destruction. ..
  9. Crackower M, Sinasac D, Xia J, Motoyama J, Prochazka M, Rommens J, et al. Cloning and characterization of two cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain genes in mouse and human. Genomics. 1999;55:257-67 pubmed
    ..We report here the identification of the human homologue of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 1 gene (DNCI1) located on human chromosome 7q21.3-q22.1...
  10. Choi W, Khurana A, Mathur R, Viswanathan V, Steele D, Fedida D. Kv1.5 surface expression is modulated by retrograde trafficking of newly endocytosed channels by the dynein motor. Circ Res. 2005;97:363-71 pubmed
    ..This work has significant implications for understanding the way Kv channel surface expression is regulated. ..
  11. Pfister K, Fisher E, Gibbons I, Hays T, Holzbaur E, McIntosh J, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:411-3 pubmed
    ..This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms. ..
  12. Diefenbach R, Diefenbach E, Douglas M, Cunningham A. The heavy chain of conventional kinesin interacts with the SNARE proteins SNAP25 and SNAP23. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14906-15 pubmed
    ..In support of separate binding sites on heavy chain for light chain and SNAPs, a complex of heavy and light chains was observed to interact with SNAP25 and SNAP23. ..
  13. Splinter D, Razafsky D, Schlager M, Serra Marques A, Grigoriev I, Demmers J, et al. BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4226-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that dynein recruitment to cargo requires concerted action of multiple dynein cofactors...
  14. Kaplan A, Reiner O. Linking cytoplasmic dynein and transport of Rab8 vesicles to the midbody during cytokinesis by the doublecortin domain-containing 5 protein. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3989-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that DCDC5 plays an important role in mediating dynein-dependent transport of Rab8-positive vesicles and in coordinating late cytokinesis. ..
  15. Murdoch H, Vadrevu S, Prinz A, Dunlop A, Klussmann E, Bolger G, et al. Interaction between LIS1 and PDE4, and its role in cytoplasmic dynein function. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a further example to the growing notion that PDE4 itself may provide a signalling role independent of its catalytic activity, exemplified here by its modulation of dynein motor function. ..
  16. Shmueli A, Segal M, Sapir T, Tsutsumi R, Noritake J, Bar A, et al. Ndel1 palmitoylation: a new mean to regulate cytoplasmic dynein activity. EMBO J. 2010;29:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time that Ndel1 palmitoylation is a new mean for fine-tuning the activity of the retrograde motor cytoplasmic dynein. ..
  17. Fumoto K, Hoogenraad C, Kikuchi A. GSK-3beta-regulated interaction of BICD with dynein is involved in microtubule anchorage at centrosome. EMBO J. 2006;25:5670-82 pubmed
    ..These results imply that GSK-3beta may function in transporting centrosomal proteins to the centrosome by stabilizing the BICD1 and dynein complex, resulting in the regulation of a focused microtubule organization. ..
  18. Perlson E, Hendricks A, Lazarus J, Ben Yaakov K, Gradus T, Tokito M, et al. Dynein interacts with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM180) to tether dynamic microtubules and maintain synaptic density in cortical neurons. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:27812-24 pubmed publisher
  19. Lango Allen H, Caswell R, Xie W, Xu X, Wragg C, Turnpenny P, et al. Next generation sequencing of chromosomal rearrangements in patients with split-hand/split-foot malformation provides evidence for DYNC1I1 exonic enhancers of DLX5/6 expression in humans. J Med Genet. 2014;51:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3. This separates the DYNC1I1 exons recently identified as limb enhancers in mouse studies from their target genes, DLX5 and DLX6...
  20. Karki S, Ligon L, DeSantis J, Tokito M, Holzbaur E. PLAC-24 is a cytoplasmic dynein-binding protein that is recruited to sites of cell-cell contact. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1722-34 pubmed
  21. Calderilla Barbosa L, Seibenhener M, Du Y, Diaz Meco M, Moscat J, Yan J, et al. Interaction of SQSTM1 with the motor protein dynein--SQSTM1 is required for normal dynein function and trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:4052-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this model, SQSTM1 would not only affect the association of polyubiquitylated protein aggregates and endosomes with dynein, but would also be required for normal dynein function. ..
  22. Liang Y, Yu W, Li Y, Yang Z, Yan X, Huang Q, et al. Nudel functions in membrane traffic mainly through association with Lis1 and cytoplasmic dynein. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:557-66 pubmed
    ..Together, it is concluded that Nudel is critical for dynein motor activity in membrane transport and possibly other cellular activities through interactions with both Lis1 and dynein heavy chain. ..
  23. Horikawa I, Parker E, Solomon G, Barrett J. Upregulation of the gene encoding a cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain in senescent human cells. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82:415-21 pubmed
    ..Among them is the DNCI1 gene encoding an intermediate chain 1 of the cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule motor that plays a role in ..
  24. Shi L, Muthusamy N, Smith D, Bergson C. Dynein binds and stimulates axonal motility of the endosome adaptor and NEEP21 family member, calcyon. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;90:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..of cultured adult rat sensory neurons, Caly-positive organelles co-localized with dynein intermediate chain (DYNC1I1-isoform IC-1B) and the dynein regulator, lissencephaly 1 (LIS1), both of which co-precipitated from brain with ..
  25. Kirilyuk A, Shimoji M, Catania J, Sahu G, Pattabiraman N, Giordano A, et al. An intrinsically disordered region of the acetyltransferase p300 with similarity to prion-like domains plays a role in aggregation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48243 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unravel a novel activity of p300, offer new insights into the function of disordered domains and implicate p300 in pathological aggregation that occurs in neurodegeneration and cancer. ..
  26. Ligon L, Tokito M, Finklestein J, Grossman F, Holzbaur E. A direct interaction between cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin I may coordinate motor activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19201-8 pubmed
    ..There is also a vesicle population with both dynein and kinesin I bound that may be capable of bi-directional motility along cellular microtubules. ..
  27. Yamada M, Toba S, Yoshida Y, Haratani K, Mori D, Yano Y, et al. LIS1 and NDEL1 coordinate the plus-end-directed transport of cytoplasmic dynein. EMBO J. 2008;27:2471-83 pubmed publisher
  28. Hehnly H, Doxsey S. Rab11 endosomes contribute to mitotic spindle organization and orientation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:497-507 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Rab11 and its associated endosomes cocontribute to these processes through retrograde transport to poles by dynein...
  29. Dong H, Zhang H, Liang J, Yan H, Chen Y, Shen Y, et al. Digital karyotyping reveals probable target genes at 7q21.3 locus in hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Med Genomics. 2011;4:60 pubmed publisher
    ..3 locus revealed that genomic amplification of SGCE, PEG10, DYNC1I1 and SLC25A13 occurred in 11 (21%), 11 (21%), 11 (21%) and 23 (44%) of the 52 HCC samples respectively...
  30. Kim Y, Mbonye U, Hokello J, Karn J. T-cell receptor signaling enhances transcriptional elongation from latent HIV proviruses by activating P-TEFb through an ERK-dependent pathway. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:896-916 pubmed publisher
  31. Villacé P, Marion R, Ortin J. The composition of Staufen-containing RNA granules from human cells indicates their role in the regulated transport and translation of messenger RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2411-20 pubmed
    ..These results support the notion that the hStaufen-containing granules are structures essential in the localization and regulated translation of human mRNAs in vivo...
  32. Cao J, Lin C, Wang H, Wang L, Zhou N, Jin Y, et al. Circovirus transport proceeds via direct interaction of the cytoplasmic dynein IC1 subunit with the viral capsid protein. J Virol. 2015;89:2777-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight a mechanism whereby circoviruses recruit dynein for transport to the nucleus via the dynein/microtubule machinery. ..
  33. Tayebi N, Jamsheer A, Flöttmann R, Sowinska Seidler A, Doelken S, Oehl Jaschkowitz B, et al. Deletions of exons with regulatory activity at the DYNC1I1 locus are associated with split-hand/split-foot malformation: array CGH screening of 134 unrelated families. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014;9:108 pubmed publisher
    ..non-syndromic SHFM phenotype we detected microdeletions encompassing the exonic enhancer (eExons) 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1. In a fourth family, who had hearing loss in addition to SHFM, we found a larger deletion of 510 kb including the ..
  34. Dell E, Connor J, Chen S, Stebbins E, Skiba N, Mochly Rosen D, et al. The betagamma subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins interacts with RACK1 and two other WD repeat proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49888-95 pubmed
  35. Chuang J, Yeh T, Bollati F, Conde C, Canavosio F, Caceres A, et al. The dynein light chain Tctex-1 has a dynein-independent role in actin remodeling during neurite outgrowth. Dev Cell. 2005;9:75-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data suggest that the selective high level of Tctex-1 at the growth cone of growing axons drives fast neurite extension by modulating actin dynamics and also Rac1 activity. ..