Gene Symbol: DRD4
Description: dopamine receptor D4
Alias: D4DR, D(4) dopamine receptor, D(2C) dopamine receptor, dopamine D4 receptor, seven transmembrane helix receptor
Species: human
Products:     DRD4

Top Publications

  1. Shao C, Li Y, Jiang K, Zhang D, Xu Y, Lin L, et al. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism modulates cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;186:185-90 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that heroin addicts carrying D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) long type allele would have higher craving after exposure to a heroin-related ..
  2. Bakermans Kranenburg M, van IJzendoorn M. Gene-environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers. Dev Psychobiol. 2006;48:406-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have related aggression and other externalizing problems in children to either dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms or harsh and insensitive parenting...
  3. Gill R, Hsiung M, Sum C, Lavine N, Clark S, Van Tol H. The dopamine D4 receptor activates intracellular platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta to stimulate ERK1/2. Cell Signal. 2010;22:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The DRD4-mediated ERK1/2 response was only partially blunted by PDGF-BB-mediated downregulation, but remained sensitive to ..
  4. Shaw P, Gornick M, Lerch J, Addington A, Seal J, Greenstein D, et al. Polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor, clinical outcome, and cortical structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:921-31 pubmed
    ..disorder (ADHD) is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, and a polymorphism within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been frequently implicated in its pathogenesis...
  5. Eisenegger C, Knoch D, Ebstein R, Gianotti L, Sandor P, Fehr E. Dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism predicts the effect of L-DOPA on gambling behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:702-6 pubmed publisher
    ..suggests that vulnerability for pathological gambling may be linked to variation in the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene...
  6. Guo G, North K, Gorden Larsen P, Bulik C, Choi S. Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: the add health study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1199-206 pubmed
    To investigate the joint role of the 48-base pair repeat polymorphism of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) and environmental factors in body mass variation among an ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults...
  7. Congdon E, Lesch K, Canli T. Analysis of DRD4 and DAT polymorphisms and behavioral inhibition in healthy adults: implications for impulsivity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:27-32 pubmed
    ..in a sample of healthy adults to investigate the influence of two candidate dopaminergic gene polymorphisms (DRD4 and DAT) on the endophenotype of impulsivity, which we operationalized as behavioral inhibition during the Stop-..
  8. Gizer I, Ficks C, Waldman I. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet. 2009;126:51-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant associations were identified for several candidate genes including DAT1, DRD4, DRD5, 5HTT, HTR1B, and SNAP25...
  9. Ellis J, Olsson C, Moore E, Greenwood P, Van De Ven M, Patton G. A role for the DRD4 exon III VNTR in modifying the association between nicotine dependence and neuroticism. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The 7-repeat allele of a Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in DRD4 (and evolutionary derivatives 5, 6, and 8 repeats; 7R+) is associated with reduced dopamine receptor function...

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kereszturi E, Kiraly O, Csapo Z, Tarnok Z, Gadoros J, Sasvari Szekely M, et al. Association between the 120-bp duplication of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: genetic and molecular analyses. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:231-6 pubmed
    ..Promoter variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have attracted particular interest due to their possible role in regulation of gene ..
  2. van IJzendoorn M, Bakermans Kranenburg M. DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism moderates the association between maternal unresolved loss or trauma and infant disorganization. Attach Hum Dev. 2006;8:291-307 pubmed
    Previous studies have related attachment disorganization in children to either dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms or maternal unresolved loss or trauma and frightening or anomalous parenting...
  3. Munafo M, Johnstone E. Smoking status moderates the association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR polymorphism with selective processing of smoking-related cues. Addict Biol. 2008;13:435-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently, a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been reported to be associated with greater craving and more attention to smoking cues, following a cue-elicited craving ..
  4. Das D, Cherbuin N, Tan X, Anstey K, Easteal S. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20177 pubmed publisher
    ..The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse ..
  5. Kaplan A, Levitan R, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy J. A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction associated with maximum BMI in women with bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2008;41:22-8 pubmed
    The goals of the current study were threefold: 1) to examine whether the hypofunctional 7R allele of the DRD4 gene contributes to maximal lifetime body mass in women with BN; 2) to determine whether the BDNF gene contributes to maximal ..
  6. Kaitz M, Shalev I, Sapir N, Devor N, Samet Y, Mankuta D, et al. Mothers' dopamine receptor polymorphism modulates the relation between infant fussiness and sensitive parenting. Dev Psychobiol. 2010;52:149-57 pubmed publisher
    We determined whether the combination of the 48-bp variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine (DRD4) gene and infants' (fussy-difficult) temperament predicted parenting sensitivity...
  7. Van Craenenbroeck K, Clark S, Cox M, Oak J, Liu F, Van Tol H. Folding efficiency is rate-limiting in dopamine D4 receptor biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19350-7 pubmed
    ..The D2 class of dopamine receptors (DRD2, -3, and -4) is the target for antipsychotic medication. DRD4 has been implicated in cognition, and genetic studies have found an association between a highly polymorphic repeat ..
  8. Kieling C, Roman T, Doyle A, Hutz M, Rohde L. Association between DRD4 gene and performance of children with ADHD in a test of sustained attention. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:1163-5 pubmed
    ..The association between a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism at the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the performance of children and adolescents with ADHD in a continuous performance test (CPT)..
  9. Guo G, North K, Choi S. DRD4 gene variant associated with body mass: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Hum Mutat. 2006;27:236-41 pubmed
    In this article we report a novel statistically significant association between the D4.7/D4.7 genotype of the DRD4 gene and the body mass of black and Hispanic participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add ..
  10. Larsen H, van der Zwaluw C, Overbeek G, Granic I, Franke B, Engels R. A variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene affects social adaptation of alcohol use: investigation of a gene-environment interaction. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:1064-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Carrying the 7-repeat allele may increase the risk for heavy alcohol use or abuse in the company of heavy-drinking peers. ..
  11. Tovo Rodrigues L, Rohde L, Roman T, Schmitz M, Polanczyk G, Zeni C, et al. Is there a role for rare variants in DRD4 gene in the susceptibility for ADHD? Searching for an effect of allelic heterogeneity. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:520-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7-repeat (7R) allele in the 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in the exon 3 at dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), others failed to replicate this finding...
  12. Vogel C, Laucht M, Furtado E, Becker K, Schmidt M. Association of DRD4 exon III polymorphism with auditory P300 amplitude in 8-year-old children. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2006;113:1935-41 pubmed
    The present study was designed to investigate the association between the DRD4 genotype and auditory P300 amplitudes in a high-risk community sample...
  13. Kótyuk E, Kovacs Nagy R, Faludi G, Urban R, Ronai Z, Sasvari Szekely M, et al. [Association between nicotine dependence and the -521 promoter polymorfism of the dopamine D4 receptor in patients with major depression]. Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2009;11:59-67 pubmed
    ..Exon of the DRD4 (DRD4 VNTR), two promoter SNPs of this gene (-521 CT and -616CG), as well as the repeat polymorphism of the ..
  14. Forbes E, Brown S, Kimak M, Ferrell R, Manuck S, Hariri A. Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:60-70 pubmed
    ..and availability (DAT1 9-repeat), as well as diminished inhibitory postsynaptic DA effects (DRD2 -141C deletion and DRD4 7-repeat), predicted 9-12% of the interindividual variability in reward-related VS reactivity...
  15. Park A, Sher K, Todorov A, Heath A. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and proximal and distal environments in alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120:585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..developmental approach, we characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek ..
  16. Gervai J, Novak A, Lakatos K, Toth I, Danis I, Ronai Z, et al. Infant genotype may moderate sensitivity to maternal affective communications: attachment disorganization, quality of care, and the DRD4 polymorphism. Soc Neurosci. 2007;2:307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The Hungarian group found an association between a polymorphism of the DRD4 gene and disorganized attachment (Lakatos et al., 2000; 2002; Gervai et al., 2005)...
  17. Tochigi M, Hibino H, Otowa T, Kato C, Marui T, Ohtani T, et al. Association between dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and Neuroticism in the Japanese population. Neurosci Lett. 2006;398:333-6 pubmed
    The association between the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and personality trait of novelty seeking (NS) has been studied intensively...
  18. Bellgrove M, Hawi Z, Lowe N, Kirley A, Robertson I, Gill M. DRD4 gene variants and sustained attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): effects of associated alleles at the VNTR and -521 SNP. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;136B:81-6 pubmed
    Associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and genetic variants within the dopamine D4 receptor gene have been much reported...
  19. Nakajima M, Hattori E, Yamada K, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Iwata Y, et al. Association and synergistic interaction between promoter variants of the DRD4 gene in Japanese schizophrenics. J Hum Genet. 2007;52:86-91 pubmed
    Recent association studies suggest that polymorphisms in the promoter and exon 1 upstream region of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene play a functional role in the development of common psychiatric illnesses, although there are also ..
  20. de Sousa S, Karwautz A, Wöber C, Wagner G, Breen G, Zesch H, et al. A dopamine D4 receptor exon 3 VNTR allele protecting against migraine without aura. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:574-8 pubmed
    ..antimigraine drugs have an effect on the dopamine system, the objective of this study was to examine the dopamine D4 receptor gene for involvement in the cause of migraine...
  21. Laucht M, Hohm E, Esser G, Schmidt M, Becker K. Association between ADHD and smoking in adolescence: shared genetic, environmental and psychopathological factors. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114:1097-104 pubmed
    ..Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using standardized interviews. DNA was genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III polymorphism...
  22. Ben Zion I, Tessler R, Cohen L, Lerer E, Raz Y, Bachner Melman R, et al. Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, arousal and sexual function. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:782-6 pubmed
    ..Recently, a specific dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) agonist was shown in rats to induce penile erection through a central mechanism...
  23. Matthews L, Butler P. Novelty-seeking DRD4 polymorphisms are associated with human migration distance out-of-Africa after controlling for neutral population gene structure. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;145:382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) polymorphisms are associated with low neuronal reactivity and increased exploratory behavior, novelty seeking, and ..
  24. Huang S, Cook D, Hinks L, Chen X, Ye S, Gilg J, et al. CYP2A6, MAOA, DBH, DRD4, and 5HT2A genotypes, smoking behaviour and cotinine levels in 1518 UK adolescents. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005;15:839-50 pubmed
    ..DBH(rs77905), MAOA(rs1801291+VNTR), DRD4(VNTR) and 5HT2A(rs6313) were also studied...
  25. Hohmann S, Becker K, Fellinger J, Banaschewski T, Schmidt M, Esser G, et al. Evidence for epistasis between the 5-HTTLPR and the dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms in externalizing behavior among 15-year-olds. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:1621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was genotyped for the DRD4 exon III VNTR and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms...
  26. Derringer J, Krueger R, Dick D, Saccone S, Grucza R, Agrawal A, et al. Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes. A candidate-system approach. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:1282-90 pubmed publisher
  27. Ptacek R, Kuzelova H, Stefano G. Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:RA215-20 pubmed
    ..b>DRD4 influences the postsynaptic action of dopamine and is implicated in many neurological processes, exhibits ..
  28. Hopfer C, Timberlake D, Haberstick B, Lessem J, Ehringer M, Smolen A, et al. Genetic influences on quantity of alcohol consumed by adolescents and young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;78:187-93 pubmed
    ..34. The DAT1 440 allele was associated at Wave 1 (p=0.007). DRD2 TaqI A1/A2 was associated at Wave 3 (p=0.007). DRD4 and 5HTT were not associated. The DAT1 and DRD2 polymorphisms accounted for 3.1% and 2...
  29. Sen S, Nesse R, Sheng L, Stoltenberg S, Gleiberman L, Burmeister M, et al. Association between a dopamine-4 receptor polymorphism and blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1206-10 pubmed
    ..The dopamine-4 receptor (DRD4) gene has a 16 amino acid (48 base pairs [bp]) repeat polymorphism located in exon 3 where a G-protein binding area ..
  30. Bhaduri N, Das M, Sinha S, Chattopadhyay A, Gangopadhyay P, Chaudhuri K, et al. Association of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) polymorphisms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:61-6 pubmed
    ..have implicated a possible association between ADHD and transmission of different polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in different ethnic groups...
  31. Carrasco X, Rothhammer P, Moraga M, Henríquez H, Chakraborty R, Aboitiz F, et al. Genotypic interaction between DRD4 and DAT1 loci is a high risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Chilean families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:51-4 pubmed
    ..out a family-based discordant sib-pair analysis to detect possible associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter 1 (DAT1) polymorphisms and ADHD in Chilean families...
  32. Guo G, Tong Y. Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene. Demography. 2006;43:747-69 pubmed
    ..between age at first sexual intercourse and the 48-bp repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4)...
  33. Xiang L, Szebeni K, Szebeni A, Klimek V, Stockmeier C, Karolewicz B, et al. Dopamine receptor gene expression in human amygdaloid nuclei: elevated D4 receptor mRNA in major depression. Brain Res. 2008;1207:214-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated DA receptor gene expression in depressive subjects further implicates altered dopaminergic transmission in the amygdala in depression. ..
  34. Filbey F, Ray L, Smolen A, Claus E, Audette A, Hutchison K. Differential neural response to alcohol priming and alcohol taste cues is associated with DRD4 VNTR and OPRM1 genotypes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:1113-23 pubmed publisher
    Studies suggest that polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and opioid receptor, mu 1 (OPRM1) genes are involved in differential response to the effects of alcohol and to alcohol cues...
  35. Ray L, Bryan A, MacKillop J, McGeary J, Hesterberg K, Hutchison K. The dopamine D Receptor (DRD4) gene exon III polymorphism, problematic alcohol use and novelty seeking: direct and mediated genetic effects. Addict Biol. 2009;14:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..study sought to integrate convergent lines of research on the associations among the dopamine D(4) receptor (DRD4) gene, novelty seeking and drinking behaviors with the overall goal of elucidating genetic influences on ..
  36. Hattori E, Nakajima M, Yamada K, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Saitou N, et al. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of DRD4: re-evaluation of selection hypothesis and analysis of association with schizophrenia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:793-801 pubmed publisher
    ..have been reported between the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the exon 3 of dopamine D4 receptor gene gene and multiple psychiatric illnesses/traits...
  37. Bidwell L, Willcutt E, McQueen M, DeFries J, Olson R, Smith S, et al. A family based association study of DRD4, DAT1, and 5HTT and continuous traits of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Genet. 2011;41:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study further examined the association between ADHD and the DRD4, DAT1, and 5HTT genes by testing their association with multivariate phenotypes derived from continuous measures of ..
  38. Szantai E, Kiraly O, Nemoda Z, Kereszturi E, Csapo Z, Sasvari Szekely M, et al. Linkage analysis and molecular haplotyping of the dopamine D4 receptor gene promoter region. Psychiatr Genet. 2005;15:259-70 pubmed
    Polymorphic regions of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and its promoter region are in the focus of psychogenetic association studies...
  39. Namkoong K, Cheon K, Kim J, Jun J, Lee J. Association study of dopamine D2, D4 receptor gene, GABAA receptor beta subunit gene, serotonin transporter gene polymorphism with children of alcoholics in Korea: a preliminary study. Alcohol. 2008;42:77-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the association of the polymorphism of the DRD2, Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), GABRB3, 5-HTTLPR with the COAs...
  40. Szekely A, Balota D, Duchek J, Nemoda Z, Vereczkei A, Sasvari Szekely M. Genetic factors of reaction time performance: DRD4 7-repeat allele associated with slower responses. Genes Brain Behav. 2011;10:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most extensively studied candidate genes of cognitive functioning is the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), which has been suggested to be related to attentional disorders...
  41. Nederhof E, Creemers H, Huizink A, Ormel J, Oldehinkel A. L-DRD4 genotype not associated with sensation seeking, gambling performance and startle reactivity in adolescents: the TRAILS study. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:1359-1362 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a length polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) was associated with approach related traits in adolescents...
  42. Lopez Leon S, Croes E, Sayed Tabatabaei F, Claes S, Van Broeckhoven C, van Duijn C. The dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair-repeat polymorphism and mood disorders: a meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:999-1003 pubmed
    We conducted a meta-analysis to re-evaluate the role of the dopamine D4 receptor gene 48-base-pair- repeat (DRD4) polymorphism in mood disorders...
  43. Levitan R, Masellis M, Lam R, Kaplan A, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, et al. A birth-season/DRD4 gene interaction predicts weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder: A seasonal thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2498-503 pubmed
    ..recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD)...
  44. Cheon K, Kim B, Cho S. Association of 4-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism and response to methylphenidate treatment in Korean ADHD children. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1377-83 pubmed
    In the present study, we investigated the association between the 4-repeat allele at the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity ..
  45. Kang J, Namkoong K, Kim S. Association of DRD4 and COMT polymorphisms with anger and forgiveness traits in healthy volunteers. Neurosci Lett. 2008;430:252-7 pubmed
    ..was to investigate the possible relationship between anger and forgiveness traits and the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158 Met polymorphisms in healthy Korean subjects...
  46. Laucht M, Becker K, Frank J, Schmidt M, Esser G, Treutlein J, et al. Genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associated with smoking progression in adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Smoking initiation was related to allelic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), whereas smoking continuation and dependence showed association with the dopamine D2 receptor ..
  47. McClernon F, Hutchison K, Rose J, Kozink R. DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;194:433-41 pubmed
    A dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism has been related to reactivity to smoking cues among smokers, but the effect of this genetic variation on brain responses to smoking cues has not been evaluated...
  48. Propper C, Willoughby M, Halpern C, Carbone M, Cox M. Parenting quality, DRD4, and the prediction of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood. Dev Psychobiol. 2007;49:619-32 pubmed
    Recent research has found that the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and maternal insensitivity may interact to predict externalizing behavior in preschoolers...
  49. Krämer U, Cunillera T, Camara E, Marco Pallares J, Cucurell D, Nager W, et al. The impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase and dopamine D4 receptor genotypes on neurophysiological markers of performance monitoring. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14190-8 pubmed
    ..dopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex [catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-521] on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring...
  50. Lung F, Yang M, Shu B. The interleukin 10 promoter haplotype ACA and the long-form variant of the DRD4 uVNTR polymorphism are associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2011;188:294-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of 934 patients with schizophrenia and 433 controls were genotyped for the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter and DRD4 uVNTR polymorphisms...
  51. Knafo A, Israel S, Ebstein R. Heritability of children's prosocial behavior and differential susceptibility to parenting by variation in the dopamine receptor D4 gene. Dev Psychopathol. 2011;23:53-67 pubmed publisher
  52. Bakermans Kranenburg M, van IJzendoorn M, Pijlman F, Mesman J, Juffer F. Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers' externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Dev Psychol. 2008;44:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..5-hr intervention sessions focusing on maternal sensitivity and discipline. A moderating role of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) exon III polymorphism was found: VIPP-SD proved to be effective ..
  53. Bakermans Kranenburg M, van IJzendoorn M, Caspers K, Philibert R. DRD4 genotype moderates the impact of parental problems on unresolved loss or trauma. Attach Hum Dev. 2011;13:253-69 pubmed publisher
    In the current study we tested whether the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genotype moderates the association of experienced parental problems during childhood (e.g...
  54. Kereszturi E, Kiraly O, Barta C, Molnar N, Sasvari Szekely M, Csapo Z. No direct effect of the -521 C/T polymorphism in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene promoter on transcriptional activity. BMC Mol Biol. 2006;7:18 pubmed
    The human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been studied extensively as a candidate gene for certain psychological traits and several behavioural and psychiatric disorders...
  55. Eisenberg D, Campbell B, Gray P, Sorenson M. Dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms and body composition in undernourished pastoralists: an exploration of nutrition indices among nomadic and recently settled Ariaal men of northern Kenya. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:173 pubmed publisher
    Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food ..
  56. Krämer U, Rojo N, Schule R, Cunillera T, Schols L, Marco Pallares J, et al. ADHD candidate gene (DRD4 exon III) affects inhibitory control in a healthy sample. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:150 pubmed publisher
    ..Several recent studies point to an association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and this condition...
  57. Zhong S, Israel S, Shalev I, Xue H, Ebstein R, Chew S. Dopamine D4 receptor gene associated with fairness preference in ultimatum game. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13765 pubmed publisher
    ..The D4 receptor (DRD4) exon3 is a well-characterized functional polymorphism, which is known to be associated with attention deficit ..
  58. Babic M, Nedic G, Muck Seler D, Borovecki F, Pivac N. Lack of association between dopamine receptor D4 variable numbers of tandem repeats gene polymorphism and smoking. Neurosci Lett. 2012;520:67-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of association between variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism located in the third exon of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and smoking...
  59. McGough J, McCracken J, Swanson J, Riddle M, Kollins S, Greenhill L, et al. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in preschoolers with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:1314-22 pubmed
    ..effects, secondary analyses revealed associations between symptom response and variants at the dopamine receptor (DRD4) promoter (p=.05) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) allelesT1065G (p=.03) andT1069C (p=.05)...
  60. Gornick M, Addington A, Shaw P, Bobb A, Sharp W, Greenstein D, et al. Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene 7-repeat allele with children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:379-82 pubmed
    Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene DRD4, 11p15.5, have previously been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [Bobb et al., 2005; Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 132:109-125; Faraone et al...
  61. Nemoda Z, Lyons Ruth K, Szekely A, Bertha E, Faludi G, Sasvari Szekely M. Association between dopaminergic polymorphisms and borderline personality traits among at-risk young adults and psychiatric inpatients. Behav Brain Funct. 2010;6:4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, candidate polymorphisms of the DRD2 and DRD4 dopamine receptor genes were selected from the impulsive behavior literature...
  62. Sánchez Mora C, Ribases M, Casas M, Bayés M, Bosch R, Fernàndez Castillo N, et al. Exploring DRD4 and its interaction with SLC6A3 as possible risk factors for adult ADHD: a meta-analysis in four European populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:600-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we analyzed two functional polymorphisms within the DRD4 gene (120 bp duplication in the promoter and 48 bp VNTR in exon 3) in a clinical sample of 1,608 adult ADHD ..
  63. Otten R, Barker E, Huizink A, Engels R. The interplay between parental monitoring and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in adolescent cannabis use. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49432 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we will examine the interplay between effects of parental monitoring and the presence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in adolescent lifetime cannabis use and the developmental course of cannabis use...
  64. Laucht M, Becker K, El Faddagh M, Hohm E, Schmidt M. Association of the DRD4 exon III polymorphism with smoking in fifteen-year-olds: a mediating role for novelty seeking?. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:477-84 pubmed
    This study was designed to examine the role of DNA variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in smoking experimentation in adolescents and to determine the extent to which novelty seeking (NS) could account for a possible effect of ..
  65. Fuemmeler B, Agurs Collins T, McClernon F, Kollins S, Kail M, Bergen A, et al. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:348-55 pubmed publisher
    This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and ..
  66. Stice E, Yokum S, Bohon C, Marti N, Smolen A. Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4. Neuroimage. 2010;50:1618-25 pubmed publisher
    ..of reward circuitry to food predicts future increases in body mass and whether polymorphisms in DRD2 and DRD4 moderate these relations...
  67. Bachner Melman R, Lerer E, Zohar A, Kremer I, Elizur Y, Nemanov L, et al. Anorexia nervosa, perfectionism, and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4). Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:748-56 pubmed
    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), a well-characterized, polymorphic gene, is an attractive candidate for contributing risk to disordered eating and anorexia nervosa (AN)...
  68. Pal P, Mihanovic M, Molnar S, Xi H, Sun G, Guha S, et al. Association of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms on 8 candidate genes in dopaminergic pathway with schizophrenia in Croatian population. Croat Med J. 2009;50:361-9 pubmed
    ..001) of these 4 tagSNPs. Additionally, moderate association (P<0.05) was observed with 8 tagSNPs on SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, SLC6A4, and COMT...
  69. Eisenberg D, Apicella C, Campbell B, Dreber A, Garcia J, Lum J. Assortative human pair-bonding for partner ancestry and allelic variation of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010;5:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..However, replications and extensions of this study are needed and the way ancestry/race is assessed must be carefully considered. ..
  70. Garcia J, MacKillop J, Aller E, Merriwether A, Wilson D, Lum J. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14162 pubmed publisher
    ..The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible ..
  71. Froehlich T, Lanphear B, Dietrich K, Cory Slechta D, Wang N, Kahn R. Interactive effects of a DRD4 polymorphism, lead, and sex on executive functions in children. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:243-9 pubmed
    Prior studies have examined independent effects of a dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism (DRD4-7) and lead exposure on executive functions but not their interaction or the role of sex as a modifier of their effects...
  72. Beaver K, Wright J, DeLisi M, Walsh A, Vaughn M, Boisvert D, et al. A gene x gene interaction between DRD2 and DRD4 is associated with conduct disorder and antisocial behavior in males. Behav Brain Funct. 2007;3:30 pubmed
    ..disorder and adult antisocial behavior were related to the dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism (DRD2) and the dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4)...
  73. Ho A, Tang N, Cheung B, Stadlin A. Dopamine receptor D4 gene -521C/T polymorphism is associated with opioid dependence through cold-pain responses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1139:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is associated with heroin dependence; one of its polymorphisms is a C/T variation 521 bp upstream to the gene (-..
  74. Kuhnen C, Chiao J. Genetic determinants of financial risk taking. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4362 pubmed publisher
    ..neurotransmission and have been previously linked to emotional behavior, anxiety and addiction (5-HTTLPR and DRD4) are significant determinants of risk taking in investment decisions...
  75. Zai C, Tiwari A, Basile V, De Luca V, Muller D, King N, et al. Association study of tardive dyskinesia and five DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009;9:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The DRD4 gene codes for the third member of the D(2)-like dopamine receptor family, and the variable number tandem-repeat ..
  76. Colzato L, van den Wildenberg W, Van der Does A, Hommel B. Genetic markers of striatal dopamine predict individual differences in dysfunctional, but not functional impulsivity. Neuroscience. 2010;170:782-8 pubmed publisher
    ..predisposition to have relatively high striatal DA levels (DAT1 9-repeat carriers, DRD2 C957T T/T homozygotes, and DRD4 7-repeat carriers) with participants with other genetic predispositions...
  77. Borroto Escuela D, Van Craenenbroeck K, Romero Fernandez W, Guidolin D, Woods A, Rivera A, et al. Dopamine D2 and D4 receptor heteromerization and its allosteric receptor-receptor interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioinformatic predictions suggest the existence of a basic set of common triplets (ALQ and LRA) in the two participating receptors that may contribute to the receptor-receptor interaction interfaces. ..
  78. Brookes K, Xu X, Chen C, Huang Y, Wu Y, Asherson P. No evidence for the association of DRD4 with ADHD in a Taiwanese population within-family study. BMC Med Genet. 2005;6:31 pubmed
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and highly heritable childhood disorder. The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has shown a genetic association with ADHD in Caucasian populations with meta-analysis indicating ..
  79. Emanuele E, Brondino N, Pesenti S, Re S, Geroldi D. Genetic loading on human loving styles. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007;28:815-21 pubmed
    ..transporter gene, 5-HTT; the serotonin receptor 2A, 5HT2A; the dopamine D2 receptor gene, DRD2; and the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4) and the six styles of love as conceptualized by Lee (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and ..
  80. Loo S, Rich E, Ishii J, McGough J, McCracken J, Nelson S, et al. Cognitive functioning in affected sibling pairs with ADHD: familial clustering and dopamine genes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:950-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects were genotyped for several dopaminergic candidate genes (DAT1, DRD4, and DRD5)...
  81. Tsuchimine S, Yasui Furukori N, Kaneda A, Saito M, Sugawara N, Kaneko S. Minor genetic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) polymorphism are associated with novelty seeking in healthy Japanese subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:1232-5 pubmed publisher
    Although an association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and personality traits had been previously investigated, results from previous studies were not conclusive...
  82. Camara E, Krämer U, Cunillera T, Marco Pallares J, Cucurell D, Nager W, et al. The effects of COMT (Val108/158Met) and DRD4 (SNP -521) dopamine genotypes on brain activations related to valence and magnitude of rewards. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:1985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..codon 158 polymorphism as well as homozygous for the C or T variant of the SNP -521 polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor. Participants took part in a gambling paradigm featuring unexpectedly high monetary gains and losses in ..
  83. Prasad P, Kumar K, Ammini A, Gupta A, Gupta R, Thelma B. Association of dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes. BMC Genet. 2008;9:26 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic association of 12 polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes namely-dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1), DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, andcatechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) with diabetic CRI was investigated using a case-control approach...
  84. van den Wildenberg E, Janssen R, Hutchison K, van Breukelen G, Wiers R. Polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene (CNR1) are not strongly related to cue-reactivity after alcohol exposure. Addict Biol. 2007;12:210-20 pubmed
    Polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) have been associated with a differential response to alcohol after consumption...
  85. MacKillop J, Menges D, McGeary J, Lisman S. Effects of craving and DRD4 VNTR genotype on the relative value of alcohol: an initial human laboratory study. Behav Brain Funct. 2007;3:11 pubmed
    ..In addition, based on previous evidence of its role in the expression of craving, the influence of DRD4 VNTR genotype (DRD4-L vs. DRD4-S) was also examined...
  86. Lasky Su J, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Franke B, Brookes K, Sonuga Barke E, et al. Partial replication of a DRD4 association in ADHD individuals using a statistically derived quantitative trait for ADHD in a family-based association test. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:985-90 pubmed
    Previous research found an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of DRD4 and statistically derived phenotypes generated from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms...
  87. Dragan W, Oniszczenko W. The association between dopamine D4 receptor exon III polymorphism and intensity of PTSD symptoms among flood survivors. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2009;22:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphism located in exon III of dopamine receptor type 4 (DRD4) gene was related to maladaptive stress responses as well as temperament traits related to PTSD...
  88. Roussos P, Giakoumaki S, Bitsios P. Cognitive and emotional processing in high novelty seeking associated with the L-DRD4 genotype. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:1654-9 pubmed publisher
    The personality trait of novelty seeking (NS) has been associated with the long variant of the dopamine D4 receptor (L-DRD4) VNTR polymorphism...
  89. Docherty S, Davis O, Haworth C, Plomin R, D Souza U, Mill J. A genetic association study of DNA methylation levels in the DRD4 gene region finds associations with nearby SNPs. Behav Brain Funct. 2012;8:31 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine receptor D4(DRD4) polymorphisms have been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, but little is known about the mechanism of these associations...
  90. Laucht M, Becker K, Blomeyer D, Schmidt M. Novelty seeking involved in mediating the association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism and heavy drinking in male adolescents: results from a high-risk community sample. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:87-92 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether allelic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) are associated with alcohol use in adolescents and to determine the extent to which these links ..
  91. Eisenberg D, MacKillop J, Modi M, Beauchemin J, Dang D, Lisman S, et al. Examining impulsivity as an endophenotype using a behavioral approach: a DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48-bp VNTR association study. Behav Brain Funct. 2007;3:2 pubmed
    ..This study examined the relationship between possession of the DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48 bp VNTR genetic polymorphisms and performance on a behavioral measure of impulsivity, the delay discounting task ..
  92. Chien C, Lin C, Chang Y, Lung F. Association of VNTR polymorphisms in the MAOA promoter and DRD4 exon 3 with heroin dependence in male Chinese addicts. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) promoter and exon 3 of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene in heroin addiction modulate the vulnerability of individuals to heroin addiction...