Gene Symbol: DRD2
Description: dopamine receptor D2
Alias: D2DR, D2R, D(2) dopamine receptor, dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine receptor D2 isoform, seven transmembrane helix receptor
Species: human
Products:     DRD2

Top Publications

  1. Borroto Escuela D, Van Craenenbroeck K, Romero Fernandez W, Guidolin D, Woods A, Rivera A, et al. Dopamine D2 and D4 receptor heteromerization and its allosteric receptor-receptor interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioinformatic predictions suggest the existence of a basic set of common triplets (ALQ and LRA) in the two participating receptors that may contribute to the receptor-receptor interaction interfaces. ..
  2. Voisey J, Swagell C, Hughes I, van Daal A, Noble E, Lawford B, et al. A DRD2 and ANKK1 haplotype is associated with nicotine dependence. Psychiatry Res. 2012;196:285-9 pubmed publisher
    To test the importance of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) region in nicotine dependence, 150 smokers and 228 controls were genotyped for the DRD2 C957T, -141delC and ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphisms (rs6277, rs1799732 and rs1800497, respectively)..
  3. Peciña M, Mickey B, Love T, Wang H, Langenecker S, Hodgkinson C, et al. DRD2 polymorphisms modulate reward and emotion processing, dopamine neurotransmission and openness to experience. Cortex. 2013;49:877-90 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission through D2 receptors (DRD2) has been implicated in the regulation of reward processing, cognition and the effects of drugs of abuse, and also has significant effects in responses to stressors and salient ..
  4. Nyman E, Loukola A, Varilo T, Taanila A, Hurtig T, Moilanen I, et al. Sex-specific influence of DRD2 on ADHD-type temperament in a large population-based birth cohort. Psychiatr Genet. 2012;22:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..birth cohort that demonstrated an association with ADHD-affected males and the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2)...
  5. Hettinger J, Liu X, Hudson M, Lee A, Cohen I, Michaelis R, et al. DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32) polymorphisms independently confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorders and additively predict affected status in male-only affected sib-pair families. Behav Brain Funct. 2012;8:19 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined two additional genes which affect DA function, the DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32) genes, in a cohort of 112 male-only affected sib-pair families...
  6. Colzato L, van den Wildenberg W, Van der Does A, Hommel B. Genetic markers of striatal dopamine predict individual differences in dysfunctional, but not functional impulsivity. Neuroscience. 2010;170:782-8 pubmed publisher
    ..participants with a genetic predisposition to have relatively high striatal DA levels (DAT1 9-repeat carriers, DRD2 C957T T/T homozygotes, and DRD4 7-repeat carriers) with participants with other genetic predispositions...
  7. Kazantseva A, Gaysina D, Malykh S, Khusnutdinova E. The role of dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and dopamine D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) gene polymorphisms in personality traits. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1033-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we aimed to test: (1) the effects of four polymorphisms of dopamine system genes: ANKK1/DRD2 Taq1A, DRD2 rs6275, SLC6A3 40-bp VNTR and rs27072, on personality traits; (2) whether these effects differ between ..
  8. Chen A, Blum K, Chen T, Giordano J, Downs B, Han D, et al. Correlation of the Taq1 dopamine D2 receptor gene and percent body fat in obese and screened control subjects: a preliminary report. Food Funct. 2012;3:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genes and obesity, body mass index, body type, overeating, carbohydrate binging, energy expenditure and low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) receptor density, there is a paucity of research concerning the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) ..
  9. Stelzel C, Basten U, Montag C, Reuter M, Fiebach C. Frontostriatal involvement in task switching depends on genetic differences in d2 receptor density. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14205-12 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest an association of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability with flexibility in reward-based learning...

More Information


  1. Blum K, Chen A, Oscar Berman M, Chen T, Lubar J, White N, et al. Generational association studies of dopaminergic genes in reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) subjects: selecting appropriate phenotypes for reward dependence behaviors. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4425-59 pubmed publisher
    ..association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH])...
  2. Sullivan D, Pinsonneault J, Papp A, Zhu H, Lemeshow S, Mash D, et al. Dopamine transporter DAT and receptor DRD2 variants affect risk of lethal cocaine abuse: a gene-gene-environment interaction. Transl Psychiatry. 2013;3:e222 pubmed publisher
    ..role of aberrant dopaminergic signaling, involving the dopamine transporter DAT, a cocaine target, and the dopamine D2 receptor, which physically interacts with DAT...
  3. Wang T, Lee S, Chen S, Huang S, Chang Y, Tzeng N, et al. Association between DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, and ALDH2 genes and specific personality traits in alcohol- and opiate-dependent patients. Behav Brain Res. 2013;250:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), 5-HTT-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes were genotyped ..
  4. Bertolino A, Taurisano P, Pisciotta N, Blasi G, Fazio L, Romano R, et al. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9348 pubmed publisher
    Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2) has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits...
  5. Lohoff F, Bloch P, Hodge R, Nall A, Ferraro T, Kampman K, et al. Association analysis between polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes with cocaine dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2010;473:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The dopamine receptor D(2) (DRD2) protein and dopamine transporter (DAT1) protein play regulatory roles in dopamine neurotransmission...
  6. Clarke T, Weiss A, Ferarro T, Kampman K, Dackis C, Pettinati H, et al. The dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) SNP rs1076560 is associated with opioid addiction. Ann Hum Genet. 2014;78:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One functional single nucleotide polymorphism in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), rs1076560, is involved in regulating splicing of the gene and alters the ratio of DRD2 isoforms located pre- and ..
  7. Ghahremani D, Lee B, Robertson C, Tabibnia G, Morgan A, De Shetler N, et al. Striatal dopamine D?/D? receptors mediate response inhibition and related activity in frontostriatal neural circuitry in humans. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7316-24 pubmed publisher
  8. Wang F, Simen A, Arias A, Lu Q, Zhang H. A large-scale meta-analysis of the association between the ANKK1/DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism and alcohol dependence. Hum Genet. 2013;132:347-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of studies have analyzed the association between the Taq1A polymorphism (located in the gene cluster ANKK1/DRD2) and AD...
  9. De Palma G, Dick F, Calzetti S, Scott N, Prescott G, Osborne A, et al. A case-control study of Parkinson's disease and tobacco use: gene-tobacco interactions. Mov Disord. 2010;25:912-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA...
  10. Sharma M, Celver J, Octeau J, Kovoor A. Plasma membrane compartmentalization of D2 dopamine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:12554-68 pubmed publisher
    ..in-cell biotin transfer assay to demonstrate that the majority of plasma membrane-expressed D2 dopamine receptor (D2R) is microcompartmentalized within detergent-resistant structures...
  11. Zhan L, Kerr J, Lafuente M, MacLean A, Chibalina M, Liu B, et al. Altered expression and coregulation of dopamine signalling genes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2011;37:206-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of C14ORF28, GNB2L1, MLLT3, DRD2 and DARPP-32 genes was altered in schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder samples relative to controls (P < 0.05)...
  12. Moyer R, Wang D, Papp A, Smith R, Duque L, Mash D, et al. Intronic polymorphisms affecting alternative splicing of human dopamine D2 receptor are associated with cocaine abuse. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:753-62 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine receptor D2 (encoded by DRD2) is implicated in susceptibility to mental disorders and cocaine abuse, but mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain uncertain...
  13. Frank M, Fossella J. Neurogenetics and pharmacology of learning, motivation, and cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:133-52 pubmed publisher
    ..a role for genes controlling dopaminergic function in frontostriatal circuitry, including COMT, DARPP-32, DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4...
  14. Chen D, Liu F, Shang Q, Song X, Miao X, Wang Z. Association between polymorphisms of DRD2 and DRD4 and opioid dependence: evidence from the current studies. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:661-70 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have assessed the association between genetic polymorphisms of DRD2 and DRD4 genes and opioid dependence risk, while the results were inconsistent...
  15. van Holstein M, Aarts E, van der Schaaf M, Geurts D, Verkes R, Franke B, et al. Human cognitive flexibility depends on dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..recent work with animals as well as current theorizing has suggested that cognitive flexibility depends on dopamine D2 receptor signaling. However, there is no evidence for similar mechanisms in humans...
  16. Vallelunga A, Flaibani R, Formento Dojot P, Biundo R, Facchini S, Antonini A. Role of genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed whether allelic variants of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were associated with the development of ICDs ..
  17. Cho D, Min C, Jung K, Cheong S, Zheng M, Cheong S, et al. The N-terminal region of the dopamine D2 receptor, a rhodopsin-like GPCR, regulates correct integration into the plasma membrane and endocytic routes. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:659-75 pubmed publisher
  18. Chun L, Free R, Doyle T, Huang X, Rankin M, Sibley D. D1-D2 dopamine receptor synergy promotes calcium signaling via multiple mechanisms. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, SKF83959 may not exhibit selective activation of D(1)-D(2) heteromers, and its significant cross-reactivity to other receptors warrants careful interpretation of its use in vivo. ..
  19. Davis C, Levitan R, Yilmaz Z, Kaplan A, Carter J, Kennedy J. Binge eating disorder and the dopamine D2 receptor: genotypes and sub-phenotypes. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012;38:328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the D2 receptors genes (DRD2/ANKK1) and their relation to the BED phenotype and four sub-phenotypes of BED that reflect an enhanced response to ..
  20. Chien Y, Hwu H, Fann C, Chang C, Tsuang M, Liu C. DRD2 haplotype associated with negative symptoms and sustained attention deficits in Han Chinese with schizophrenia in Taiwan. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:229-32 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have reported significant associations between schizophrenia and the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) variants...
  21. Montag C, Markett S, Basten U, Stelzel C, Fiebach C, Canli T, et al. Epistasis of the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq Ia and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impacts novelty seeking and harm avoidance. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1860-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met SNP) and the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene (DRD2 Taq Ia/ANKK1 SNP) on the personality traits of Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, which are mediated, in part, ..
  22. Itokawa M, Arinami T, Toru M. Advanced research on dopamine signaling to develop drugs for the treatment of mental disorders: Ser311Cys polymorphisms of the dopamine D2-receptor gene and schizophrenia. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;114:1-5 pubmed
    ..The dopamine D(2)-receptor (DRD2) gene is thus a promising candidate for associations with risk of schizophrenia...
  23. Seeman P. Schizophrenia and dopamine receptors. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the antipsychotic/dopamine D2 receptor can exist in vitro in a state of high affinity for dopamine (as D2High), or in a state of low affinity for ..
  24. Zheng C, Shen Y, Xu Q. Rs1076560, a functional variant of the dopamine D2 receptor gene, confers risk of schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Neurosci Lett. 2012;518:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify whether functional variants of the D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4) confer risk of schizophrenia, we conducted a two-stage association study...
  25. Bolton J, Marioni R, Deary I, Harris S, Stewart M, Murray G, et al. Association between polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D2 and catechol-o-methyl transferase genes and cognitive function. Behav Genet. 2010;40:630-8 pubmed publisher
    ..studied the association between polymorphisms in the catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes and general cognitive ability in a secondary analysis of 2091 men and women, aged 55-80 years living in ..
  26. Zhang J, Lencz T, Malhotra A. D2 receptor genetic variation and clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors conducted the first meta-analysis to examine the relationship between DRD2 polymorphisms and antipsychotic drug response...
  27. Marley A, von Zastrow M. DISC1 regulates primary cilia that display specific dopamine receptors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10902 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insight to receptor cell biology and suggest a relationship between DISC1 and neural dopamine signaling. ..
  28. Łukasiewicz S, Faron Górecka A, Dobrucki J, Polit A, Dziedzicka Wasylewska M. Studies on the role of the receptor protein motifs possibly involved in electrostatic interactions on the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor oligomerization. FEBS J. 2009;276:760-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we find that the acidic epitope from the C-terminus of the dopamine D(1) receptor is engaged in the heterodimerization process. ..
  29. Guo W, Urizar E, Kralikova M, Mobarec J, Shi L, Filizola M, et al. Dopamine D2 receptors form higher order oligomers at physiological expression levels. EMBO J. 2008;27:2293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, at physiological levels of expression, the receptor is organized in the plasma membrane into a higher order oligomeric structure. ..
  30. Monakhov M, Golimbet V, Abramova L, Kaleda V, Karpov V. Association study of three polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene and schizophrenia in the Russian population. Schizophr Res. 2008;100:302-7 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) have repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia...
  31. Huang S, Lin W, Wan F, Chang A, Ko H, Wang T, et al. Monoamine oxidase-A polymorphisms might modify the association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol dependence. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32:185-92 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present study investigates whether the association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and alcoholism is affected by different polymorphisms of the MAO type A (MAOA) gene...
  32. Hirvonen M, Lumme V, Hirvonen J, Pesonen U, Någren K, Vahlberg T, et al. C957T polymorphism of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene predicts extrastriatal dopamine receptor availability in vivo. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:630-6 pubmed publisher
    The C957T (rs6277) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene (DRD2) affects DRD2 mRNA stability and has been shown to predict striatal DRD2 availability (B(max)/K(D)) in vivo in man...
  33. Berlin I, Covey L, Jiang H, Hamer D. Lack of effect of D2 dopamine receptor TaqI A polymorphism on smoking cessation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:725-8 pubmed
    ..2004] Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 229-239) found that the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) TaqI A polymorphism was associated with smoking cessation: Carriers of the A1 allele were less likely to quit than ..
  34. Glatt S, Jonsson E. The Cys allele of the DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism has a dominant effect on risk for schizophrenia: evidence from fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:149-54 pubmed
    Previously we derived independent estimates of the effect of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Ser311Cys polymorphism on risk for schizophrenia using fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses...
  35. Lee H, Lee H, Kim Y, Kim L, Lee M, Jung I, et al. D2 and D4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and personality traits in a young Korean population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;121B:44-9 pubmed
    The correlation between the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) polymorphisms was investigated with personality traits...
  36. Forbes E, Brown S, Kimak M, Ferrell R, Manuck S, Hariri A. Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:60-70 pubmed
    ..Genetic variants associated with relatively increased striatal DA release (DRD2 -141C deletion) and availability (DAT1 9-repeat), as well as diminished inhibitory postsynaptic DA effects (DRD2 -..
  37. Huang W, Payne T, Ma J, Beuten J, Dupont R, Inohara N, et al. Significant association of ANKK1 and detection of a functional polymorphism with nicotine dependence in an African-American sample. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:319-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated various polymorphisms in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) and its neighboring ankyrin repeats and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) to determine whether they were ..
  38. Gupta M, Chauhan C, Bhatnagar P, Gupta S, Grover S, Singh P, et al. Genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia: role of dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms. Pharmacogenomics. 2009;10:277-91 pubmed publisher
    We investigated 16 polymorphisms from three genes, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are involved in the dopaminergic pathways, and have been reported to ..
  39. Konishi T, Calvillo M, Leng A, Lin K, Wan Y. Polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, serotonin transporter, and GABA(A) receptor beta(3) subunit genes and alcoholism in Mexican-Americans. Alcohol. 2004;32:45-52 pubmed
    ..abuse and dependence, we examined the genetic variations of the major neurotransmitter genes, including the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) TaqI A, B, and -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphisms, the serotonin transporter-linked ..
  40. Saiz P, García Portilla M, Arango C, Morales B, Arias B, Corcoran P, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine-2 receptor (DRD2), dopamine-3 receptor (DRD3), and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genes in schizophrenia: Data from an association study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:26-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between dopaminergic polymorphisms [DRD2 -141C Ins/Del, DRD3 Ser9Gly, and SLC6A3 VNTR] and schizophrenia. Two hundred and eighty-eight outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) [mean age (SD)=36.4 (12...
  41. Singh M, Khan A, Shah P, Shukla R, Khanna V, Parmar D. Polymorphism in environment responsive genes and association with Parkinson disease. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;312:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in genotype and allele frequencies was observed for manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), dopamine receptor-D2(DRD2), and dopamine transporter (DAT) genes between controls and PD cases...
  42. Erblich J, Lerman C, Self D, Diaz G, Bovbjerg D. Effects of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and transporter (SLC6A3) polymorphisms on smoking cue-induced cigarette craving among African-American smokers. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10:407-14 pubmed
    ..Smokers carrying either the DRD2 (D2 dopamine receptor gene) TaqI A1 RFLP or the SLC6A3 (dopamine transporter gene) 9-repeat VNTR polymorphisms had ..
  43. Nair V, Sealfon S. Agonist-specific transactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway mediated by the dopamine D2 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47053-61 pubmed
    Bromocriptine, acting through the dopamine D2 receptor, provides robust protection against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in PC12-D2R and immortalized nigral dopamine cells...
  44. Bontempi S, Fiorentini C, Busi C, Guerra N, Spano P, Missale C. Identification and characterization of two nuclear factor-kappaB sites in the regulatory region of the dopamine D2 receptor. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2563-70 pubmed
    Regulation of D2 receptor (D2R) expression is crucial in the function of dopaminergic systems...
  45. Hamajima N, Ito H, Matsuo K, Saito T, Tajima K, Ando M, et al. Association between smoking habits and dopamine receptor D2 taqI A A2 allele in Japanese males: a confirmatory study. J Epidemiol. 2002;12:297-304 pubmed
    Our previous study showed that A2 allele of dopamine D2 (DRD2) TaqI A polymorphism related to smoking habits, which was opposed to the results of studies for Caucasians...
  46. Stice E, Yokum S, Bohon C, Marti N, Smolen A. Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4. Neuroimage. 2010;50:1618-25 pubmed publisher
    ..responsivity of reward circuitry to food predicts future increases in body mass and whether polymorphisms in DRD2 and DRD4 moderate these relations...
  47. Gizer I, Ficks C, Waldman I. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet. 2009;126:51-90 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ADHD subtype diagnoses, gender, exposure to environmental risk factors). We conclude with a discussion of these findings in relation to emerging themes relevant to future studies of the genetics of ADHD. ..
  48. Wu X, Hudmon K, Detry M, Chamberlain R, Spitz M. D2 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans: a lung cancer case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9:1021-6 pubmed
    Recent research suggests that variant alleles (A1 and B1) of the DRD2 gene play a role in determining smoking status. However, no studies have evaluated these variant alleles in African-Americans and Mexican-Americans...
  49. Schindler K, Pato M, Dourado A, Macedo A, Azevedo M, Kennedy J, et al. Association and linkage disequilibrium between a functional polymorphism of the dopamine-2 receptor gene and schizophrenia in a genetically homogeneous Portuguese population. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1002-5 pubmed
    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the DRD2 gene has been found to be associated with schizophrenia in Japanese(1,2) and Swedish populations...
  50. Hou Q, Li S. Potential association of DRD2 and DAT1 genetic variation with heroin dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2009;464:127-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was to investigate the potential association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) TaqI RFLP A (rs1800497) and dopamine transporter gene (DAT) 3'untranslated region VNTR genetic variations with heroin addiction...
  51. Samochowiec J, Kucharska Mazur J, Grzywacz A, Jabłoński M, Rommelspacher H, Samochowiec A, et al. Family-based and case-control study of DRD2, DAT, 5HTT, COMT genes polymorphisms in alcohol dependence. Neurosci Lett. 2006;410:1-5 pubmed
    ..that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes including: dopaminergic system polymorphic variants (DRD2 -141C Ins/Del in promoter region, exon 8 and DRD2 TaqI A and DAT 40bp VNTR genes polymorphisms) that cause ..
  52. Lawford B, Young R, Noble E, Sargent J, Rowell J, Shadforth S, et al. The D(2) dopamine receptor A(1) allele and opioid dependence: association with heroin use and response to methadone treatment. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96:592-8 pubmed
    ..The frequency of the TaqI A(1) allele of the D(2) dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene was 19.0% in these patients compared with 4...
  53. Smith L, Watson M, Gates S, Ball D, Foxcroft D. Meta-analysis of the association of the Taq1A polymorphism with the risk of alcohol dependency: a HuGE gene-disease association review. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:125-38 pubmed
    ..The relatively small effect for the association of the A1 allele, or another genetic variant linked to it, with alcohol dependence indicates a multigene causality for this complex disorder. ..
  54. Huertas E, Ponce G, Koeneke M, Poch C, España Serrano L, Palomo T, et al. The D2 dopamine receptor gene variant C957T affects human fear conditioning and aversive priming. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:103-9 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of DRD2 and ANKK1 have been associated with psychiatric syndromes where there is believed to be an underlying learning process deficit such as addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder and psychopathy...
  55. Munafo M, Clark T, Johnstone E, Murphy M, Walton R. The genetic basis for smoking behavior: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:583-97 pubmed
    ..The meta-analysis included data on the DRD2, DAT, 5HTT, and CYP2A6 genes and smoking behavior...
  56. Sarkar G, Kapelner S, Grandy D, Marchionni M, Civelli O, Sobell J, et al. Direct sequencing of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in schizophrenics reveals three polymorphisms but no structural change in the receptor. Genomics. 1991;11:8-14 pubmed
    The dopamine D2 receptor gene (gene symbol DRD2) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because the potency of certain neuroleptics correlates with their affinity for this receptor...
  57. Moises H, Frieboes R, Spelzhaus P, Yang L, Kohnke M, Herden Kirchhoff O, et al. No association between dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and human intelligence. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2001;108:115-21 pubmed
    ..The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) was chosen as a candidate gene for general cognitive ability (g) since it has been found to be ..
  58. van der Zwaluw C, Engels R, Vermulst A, Franke B, Buitelaar J, Verkes R, et al. Interaction between dopamine D2 receptor genotype and parental rule-setting in adolescent alcohol use: evidence for a gene-parenting interaction. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:727-35 pubmed publisher
    Association studies investigating the link between the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and alcohol (mis)use have shown inconsistent results. This may be due to lack of attention for environmental factors...
  59. Preuss U, Zill P, Koller G, Bondy B, Sokya M. D2 dopamine receptor gene haplotypes and their influence on alcohol and tobacco consumption magnitude in alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007;42:258-66 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it makes D2 dopamine receptor a candidate gene significantly influencing both alcohol and nicotine dependence. ..
  60. Rashid A, So C, Kong M, Furtak T, El Ghundi M, Cheng R, et al. D1-D2 dopamine receptor heterooligomers with unique pharmacology are coupled to rapid activation of Gq/11 in the striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:654-9 pubmed
  61. Hopfer C, Timberlake D, Haberstick B, Lessem J, Ehringer M, Smolen A, et al. Genetic influences on quantity of alcohol consumed by adolescents and young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;78:187-93 pubmed
    ..85, Waves 1 and 3 were 0.34. The DAT1 440 allele was associated at Wave 1 (p=0.007). DRD2 TaqI A1/A2 was associated at Wave 3 (p=0.007). DRD4 and 5HTT were not associated...
  62. Lee H. Gender-specific molecular heterosis and association studies: dopamine D2 receptor gene and smoking. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;118B:55-9 pubmed
    ..Therein, heterosis and its gender effect in the genetic effect of DRD2 gene for smoking were examined with 187 healthy Korean individuals...
  63. Li Y, Shao C, Zhang D, Zhao M, Lin L, Yan P, et al. The effect of dopamine D2, D5 receptor and transporter (SLC6A3) polymorphisms on the cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:269-73 pubmed
    ..Significantly stronger cue-elicited heroin craving was found in individuals carrying D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) TaqI RFLP A1 allele than the non-carriers (P < 0.001)...
  64. Audrain McGovern J, Lerman C, Wileyto E, Rodriguez D, Shields P. Interacting effects of genetic predisposition and depression on adolescent smoking progression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1224-30 pubmed
    ..Effects of dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and dopamine receptor (DRD2) genetic variants on smoking progression were evaluated in a cohort of 615 adolescents, including those who had ..
  65. Fang Y, Thomas G, Xu Z, Fang J, Critchley J, Tomlinson B. An affected pedigree member analysis of linkage between the dopamine D2 receptor gene TaqI polymorphism and obesity and hypertension. Int J Cardiol. 2005;102:111-6 pubmed
    ..We have previously reported that the TaqI polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DD2R) gene is associated with both blood pressure and obesity indices in a normoglycaemic Hong Kong ..
  66. Laakso A, Pohjalainen T, Bergman J, Kajander J, Haaparanta M, Solin O, et al. The A1 allele of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene is associated with increased activity of striatal L-amino acid decarboxylase in healthy subjects. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005;15:387-91 pubmed
    The A1 allele of the TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) is associated with a low density of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum...
  67. Dubertret C, Gouya L, Hanoun N, Deybach J, Ades J, Hamon M, et al. The 3' region of the DRD2 gene is involved in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2004;67:75-85 pubmed
    The gene coding for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is considered as one of the most relevant candidate genes in schizophrenia...
  68. Sasabe T, Furukawa A, Matsusita S, Higuchi S, Ishiura S. Association analysis of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) SNP rs1076560 in alcoholic patients. Neurosci Lett. 2007;412:139-42 pubmed
    ..we examined the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1076560 of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and susceptibility to alcoholism. SNP rs1076560 (C/A) is located in intron 6 of DRD2, where it is 1...
  69. Johann M, Putzhammer A, Eichhammer P, Wodarz N. Association of the -141C Del variant of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) with positive family history and suicidality in German alcoholics. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;132B:46-9 pubmed
    ..The functionally relevant -141C Ins/Del polymorphism located upstream to exon 1 in the 5'-region of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene might be an interesting candidate gene...
  70. Limosin F, Loze J, Dubertret C, Gouya L, Ades J, Rouillon F, et al. Impulsiveness as the intermediate link between the dopamine receptor D2 gene and alcohol dependence. Psychiatr Genet. 2003;13:127-9 pubmed
    ..an intermediate link between the risk for alcohol dependence and the gene coding for the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2)...
  71. Yang B, Kranzler H, Zhao H, Gruen J, Luo X, Gelernter J. Association of haplotypic variants in DRD2, ANKK1, TTC12 and NCAM1 to alcohol dependence in independent case control and family samples. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2844-53 pubmed
    There have been many conflicting reports concerning the association of the DRD2 locus with alcohol dependence (AD)...
  72. Eisenberg D, Campbell B, MacKillop J, Lum J, Wilson D. Season of birth and dopamine receptor gene associations with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1216 pubmed
    ..The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR...
  73. Jenkinson C, Hanson R, Cray K, Wiedrich C, Knowler W, Bogardus C, et al. Association of dopamine D2 receptor polymorphisms Ser311Cys and TaqIA with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1233-8 pubmed
    To investigate whether (a) variants within the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians, and (b) whether variation in this gene could be responsible for previously observed linkage ..
  74. Southon A, Walder K, Sanigorski A, Zimmet P, Nicholson G, Kotowicz M, et al. The Taq IA and Ser311 Cys polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene and obesity. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2003;16:72-6 pubmed
    Dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2) in the central nervous system are involved in the regulation of feeding. It remains to be elucidated if mutations in the DRD2 gene contribute to the development of obesity...
  75. Beukers R, Booij J, Weisscher N, Zijlstra F, van Amelsvoort T, Tijssen M. Reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in myoclonus-dystonia. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To study striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability in DYT11 mutation carriers of the autosomal dominantly inherited disorder myoclonus-dystonia (M-D)...
  76. Bertolino A, Fazio L, Caforio G, Blasi G, Rampino A, Romano R, et al. Functional variants of the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulate prefronto-striatal phenotypes in schizophrenia. Brain. 2009;132:417-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Dopamine D2 receptor signalling is strongly implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia...
  77. Esposito Smythers C, Spirito A, Rizzo C, McGeary J, Knopik V. Associations of the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism with impulsivity and substance use: preliminary results from a clinical sample of adolescents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;93:306-12 pubmed publisher
    The A1 allele of the TaqIA polymorphism (rs1800497) in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) has been associated with substance use...