Gene Symbol: DR5
Description: TNF receptor superfamily member 10b
Alias: CD262, DR5, KILLER, KILLER/DR5, TRAIL-R2, TRAILR2, TRICK2, TRICK2A, TRICK2B, TRICKB, ZTNFR9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10B, Fas-like protein, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2, apoptosis inducing protein TRICK2A/2B, apoptosis inducing receptor TRAIL-R2, cytotoxic TRAIL receptor-2, death domain containing receptor for TRAIL/Apo-2L, death receptor 5, p53-regulated DNA damage-inducible cell death receptor(killer), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10b, tumor necrosis factor receptor-like protein ZTNFR9
Species: human
Products:     DR5

Top Publications

  1. Jin Z, Li Y, Pitti R, Lawrence D, Pham V, Lill J, et al. Cullin3-based polyubiquitination and p62-dependent aggregation of caspase-8 mediate extrinsic apoptosis signaling. Cell. 2009;137:721-35 pubmed publisher
    Cell-surface death receptors such as DR4 and DR5 trigger apoptosis through a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) that recruits the apical protease caspase-8...
  2. Herbeuval J, Nilsson J, Boasso A, Hardy A, Kruhlak M, Anderson S, et al. Differential expression of IFN-alpha and TRAIL/DR5 in lymphoid tissue of progressor versus nonprogressor HIV-1-infected patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7000-5 pubmed
    ..LT from HIV(prog) exhibited higher TRAIL and DR5 mRNA levels than LT from HIV(NP) or controls. TRAIL mRNA levels in LT correlated with plasma viral load...
  3. Chaudhary P, Eby M, Jasmin A, Bookwalter A, Murray J, Hood L. Death receptor 5, a new member of the TNFR family, and DR4 induce FADD-dependent apoptosis and activate the NF-kappaB pathway. Immunity. 1997;7:821-30 pubmed
    ..We have isolated a new member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, designated DR5, which bears a high degree of sequence homology to DR4...
  4. Oh Y, Yue P, Zhou W, Balko J, Black E, Owonikoko T, et al. Oncogenic Ras and B-Raf proteins positively regulate death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of ERK and JNK signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a cell surface pro-apoptotic death receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ..
  5. Kelley R, Totpal K, Lindstrom S, Mathieu M, Billeci K, Deforge L, et al. Receptor-selective mutants of apoptosis-inducing ligand 2/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand reveal a greater contribution of death receptor (DR) 5 than DR4 to apoptosis signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2205-12 pubmed
    ..Apo2L/TRAIL is a homotrimeric protein that interacts with five receptors: death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5 mediate apoptosis activation, whereas decoy receptor 1 (DcR1), DcR2, and osteoprotegerin counteract this function...
  6. Tsai A, Pan S, Sun H, Wang C, Peng C, Wang S, et al. CHM-1, a new vascular targeting agent, induces apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells via p53-mediated death receptor 5 up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Such sensitization was achieved through up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) but not DR4 or Fas...
  7. Wiley S, Schooley K, Smolak P, Din W, Huang C, Nicholl J, et al. Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis. Immunity. 1995;3:673-82 pubmed
    ..Both full-length cell surface expressed TRAIL and picomolar concentrations of soluble TRAIL rapidly induce apoptosis in a wide variety of transformed cell lines of diverse origin. ..
  8. Oikonomou E, Kosmidou V, Katseli A, Kothonidis K, Mourtzoukou D, Kontogeorgos G, et al. TRAIL receptor upregulation and the implication of KRAS/BRAF mutations in human colon cancer tumors. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher expression of its pro-death receptors TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) attenuates higher sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and represents a marker for better cancer prognosis and ..
  9. Wu G, Burns T, McDonald E, Jiang W, Meng R, Krantz I, et al. KILLER/DR5 is a DNA damage-inducible p53-regulated death receptor gene. Nat Genet. 1997;17:141-3 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ouyang W, Yang C, Liu Y, Xiong J, Zhang J, Zhong Y, et al. Redistribution of DR4 and DR5 in lipid rafts accounts for the sensitivity to TRAIL in NSCLC cells. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:1577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..compared to TRAIL-sensitive H460 cell line, TRAIL-resistant A549 cell line showed a similar expression level of DR5 and a higer expression level of DR4...
  2. Hague A, Hicks D, Hasan F, Smartt H, Cohen G, Paraskeva C, et al. Increased sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis occurs during the adenoma to carcinoma transition of colorectal carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:736-42 pubmed
  3. Lemke J, Noack A, Adam D, Tchikov V, Bertsch U, Roder C, et al. TRAIL signaling is mediated by DR4 in pancreatic tumor cells despite the expression of functional DR5. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010;88:729-40 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic anti-DR4/TRAIL-R1 and anti-DR5/TRAIL-R2 antibodies are currently under clinical investigation for treatment of different malignancies...
  4. Leonardi R, Almeida L, Trevilatto P, Loreto C. Occurrence and regional distribution of TRAIL and DR5 on temporomandibular joint discs: comparison of disc derangement with and without reduction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Specimens were processed for immunohistochemistry to evaluate TRAIL and its receptor DR5 expression...
  5. Zhu H, Dong H, Eksioglu E, Hemming A, Cao M, Crawford J, et al. Hepatitis C virus triggers apoptosis of a newly developed hepatoma cell line through antiviral defense system. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1649-59 pubmed
    ..by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, death receptor 4 and death receptor 5, which were up-regulated in HCV infection...
  6. Werner A, de Vries E, Tait S, Bontjer I, Borst J. TRAIL receptor and CD95 signal to mitochondria via FADD, caspase-8/10, Bid, and Bax but differentially regulate events downstream from truncated Bid. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40760-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the TRAIL receptor can bypass or neutralize the activity of cytosolic factor that blocks truncated Bid function. This may benefit the capacity of TRAIL to break apoptosis resistance in tumor cells. ..
  7. Sheridan J, Marsters S, Pitti R, Gurney A, Skubatch M, Baldwin D, et al. Control of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a family of signaling and decoy receptors. Science. 1997;277:818-21 pubmed
    ..Two additional TRAIL receptors were identified. The receptor designated death receptor 5 (DR5) contained a cytoplasmic death domain and induced apoptosis much like DR4...
  8. Baritaki S, Suzuki E, Umezawa K, Spandidos D, Berenson J, Daniels T, et al. Inhibition of Yin Yang 1-dependent repressor activity of DR5 transcription and expression by the novel proteasome inhibitor NPI-0052 contributes to its TRAIL-enhanced apoptosis in cancer cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:6199-210 pubmed
    ..Proteasome inhibitors potentiate TRAIL apoptosis in vitro and in vivo and correlate with up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) via an unknown mechanism...
  9. Higuchi H, Grambihler A, Canbay A, Bronk S, Gores G. Bile acids up-regulate death receptor 5/TRAIL-receptor 2 expression via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent pathway involving Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51-60 pubmed
    Bile acids up-regulate death receptor 5 (DR5)/TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) expression thereby sensitizing hepatocytes to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis...
  10. Yamaguchi H, Wang H. CHOP is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis by enhancing DR5 expression in human carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45495-502 pubmed
    ..We and others have reported previously that DR5 expression is up-regulated in thapsigargin (THG)-treated human cancer cells...
  11. Thomas L, Henson A, Reed J, Salsbury F, Thorburn A. Direct binding of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor DR5 is regulated by the death effector domain of FADD. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32780-5 pubmed
    ..Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signals apoptosis through two receptors, DR4 and DR5. Although there is much interest in TRAIL, the mechanism by which FADD is recruited to the TRAIL receptors is not ..
  12. Drosopoulos K, Roberts M, Cermak L, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, Andera L, et al. Transformation by oncogenic RAS sensitizes human colon cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating death receptor 4 and death receptor 5 through a MEK-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22856-67 pubmed
    ..is able to kill specific tumor cells through the engagement of its receptors, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), and the activation of apoptotic pathways, providing promising targets for anticancer therapies...
  13. Panner A, Crane C, Weng C, Feletti A, Parsa A, Pieper R. A novel PTEN-dependent link to ubiquitination controls FLIPS stability and TRAIL sensitivity in glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define the PTEN-Akt-AIP4 pathway as a key regulator of FLIP(S) ubiquitination, FLIP(S) stability, and TRAIL sensitivity and also define a novel link between PTEN and the ubiquitin-mediated control of protein stability. ..
  14. van der Sloot A, Tur V, Szegezdi E, Mullally M, Cool R, Samali A, et al. Designed tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand variants initiating apoptosis exclusively via the DR5 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8634-9 pubmed
    ..drug that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells by interacting with death receptors DR4 and DR5. TRAIL can also bind to decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, and osteoprotegerin receptor) that cannot induce apoptosis...
  15. Schneider P, Thome M, Burns K, Bodmer J, Hofmann K, Kataoka T, et al. TRAIL receptors 1 (DR4) and 2 (DR5) signal FADD-dependent apoptosis and activate NF-kappaB. Immunity. 1997;7:831-6 pubmed
    TRAIL induces apoptosis through two closely related receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5). Here we show that TRAIL-R1 can associate with TRAIL-R2, suggesting that TRAIL may signal through heteroreceptor signaling complexes...
  16. Ramaswamy M, Efimova E, Martinez O, Mulherkar N, Singh S, Prabhakar B. IG20 (MADD splice variant-5), a proapoptotic protein, interacts with DR4/DR5 and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing recruitment of FADD and caspase-8 to the DISC. Oncogene. 2004;23:6083-94 pubmed
    ..and immunoprecipitation studies showed that IG20 can interact with TRAIL death receptors (DR), DR4 and DR5 and increase recruitment of FADD and caspase-8 into the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex (DISC)...
  17. Wang C, Qi R, Li N, Wang Z, An H, Zhang Q, et al. Notch1 signaling sensitizes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting Akt/Hdm2-mediated p53 degradation and up-regulating p53-dependent DR5 expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Notch1 signaling could enhance DR5 expression in a p53-dependent manner...
  18. Ichikawa K, Liu W, Fleck M, Zhang H, Zhao L, Ohtsuka T, et al. TRAIL-R2 (DR5) mediates apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2003;171:1061-9 pubmed
    ..Using two agonistic mAbs specific for TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), we examined the expression and function of these death receptors in RA synovial fibroblast cells...
  19. He Q, Huang Y, Sheikh M. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 upregulates death receptor 5 and cooperates with Apo2L/TRAIL to induce apoptosis in Bax-proficient and -deficient cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:2554-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that proteasome inhibitor MG132 upregulates Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor 5 expression in both Bax-proficient and -deficient HCT116 cells...
  20. Herbeuval J, Hardy A, Boasso A, Anderson S, Dolan M, Dy M, et al. Regulation of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on primary CD4+ T cells by HIV-1: role of type I IFN-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13974-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a potential unique role of pDCs in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection by inducing the death molecule TRAIL. ..
  21. Kuijlen J, Mooij J, Platteel I, Hoving E, van der Graaf W, Span M, et al. TRAIL-receptor expression is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a primary glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2006;78:161-71 pubmed
    ..Both receptors could be targets for TRAIL therapy. As TRAIL-R2 is more expressed, in comparison with TRAIL-R1, on GBM tumor cells, TRAIL-R2 seems to be of more importance as a target for future TRAIL therapy than TRAIL-R1. ..
  22. Elrod H, Fan S, Muller S, Chen G, Pan L, Tighiouart M, et al. Analysis of death receptor 5 and caspase-8 expression in primary and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and their prognostic impact. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12178 pubmed publisher
    b>Death receptor 5 (DR5) and caspase-8 are major components in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway...
  23. Bavi P, Prabhakaran S, Abubaker J, Qadri Z, George T, Al Sanea N, et al. Prognostic significance of TRAIL death receptors in Middle Eastern colorectal carcinomas and their correlation to oncogenic KRAS alterations. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:203 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis upon binding to its death domain containing receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (DR4) and TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5)...
  24. Screaton G, Mongkolsapaya J, Xu X, Cowper A, McMichael A, Bell J. TRICK2, a new alternatively spliced receptor that transduces the cytotoxic signal from TRAIL. Curr Biol. 1997;7:693-6 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a new member of this family, TRICK2, the TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptor inducer of cell killing 2...
  25. Sprick M, Weigand M, Rieser E, Rauch C, Juo P, Blenis J, et al. FADD/MORT1 and caspase-8 are recruited to TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 and are essential for apoptosis mediated by TRAIL receptor 2. Immunity. 2000;12:599-609 pubmed
    ..FADD/MORT1- and caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells expressing only TRAIL-R2 were resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, FADD/MORT1 and caspase-8 are essential for apoptosis induction via TRAIL-R2. ..
  26. Zhang Y, Zhang B. TRAIL resistance of breast cancer cells is associated with constitutive endocytosis of death receptors 4 and 5. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated clinically as anticancer therapies, selectively kill cancer cells through the death receptors DR4 and DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by occurring resistance in tumor cells...
  27. Kwon D, Choi K, Choi C, Benveniste E. Hydrogen peroxide enhances TRAIL-induced cell death through up-regulation of DR5 in human astrocytic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:870-4 pubmed publisher
    ..responsible for H(2)O(2)-induced sensitization, we examined expression of various genes (Caspase-8, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, DcR1, DcR2, TRAIL, TNFRp55) related to TRAIL-induced cell death...
  28. Pavet V, Beyrath J, Pardin C, Morizot A, Lechner M, Briand J, et al. Multivalent DR5 peptides activate the TRAIL death pathway and exert tumoricidal activity. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..are exploring anticancer approaches based on signaling by TRAIL, a ligand for the cell death receptors DR4 and DR5. In this study, we report on the selective apoptotic effects of multivalent DR5 binding peptides (TRAIL(mim/DR5)) ..
  29. Henson E, Johnston J, Gibson S. The role of TRAIL death receptors in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAIL induces apoptosis by binding to its two death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2)...
  30. Bellail A, Tse M, Song J, Phuphanich S, Olson J, Sun S, et al. DR5-mediated DISC controls caspase-8 cleavage and initiation of apoptosis in human glioblastomas. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1303-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these receptors, only DR5 was expressed consistently in glioblastoma cell lines and tumour tissues, ruling out the role of DcR1/2 in TRAIL ..
  31. Gonzalvez F, Lawrence D, Yang B, Yee S, Pitti R, Marsters S, et al. TRAF2 Sets a threshold for extrinsic apoptosis by tagging caspase-8 with a ubiquitin shutoff timer. Mol Cell. 2012;48:888-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The death receptors (DRs), DR4, DR5, and Fas, transduce cell-extrinsic apoptotic signals by recruiting caspase-8 into a death-inducing signaling ..
  32. MacFarlane M, Ahmad M, Srinivasula S, Fernandes Alnemri T, Cohen G, Alnemri E. Identification and molecular cloning of two novel receptors for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:25417-20 pubmed
    ..cytoplasmic "death domain" necessary for induction of apoptosis and is hence designated death receptor-5 (DR5). Like DR4, DR5 engages the apoptotic pathway independent of the adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1...
  33. Thomas L, Bender L, Morgan M, Thorburn A. Extensive regions of the FADD death domain are required for binding to the TRAIL receptor DR5. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:160-2 pubmed
  34. Arai T, Akiyama Y, Okabe S, Saito K, Iwai T, Yuasa Y. Genomic organization and mutation analyses of the DR5/TRAIL receptor 2 gene in colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Lett. 1998;133:197-204 pubmed
    The DR5/TRAIL receptor 2 gene is a novel TNF receptor family member and induces apoptosis by overexpression of its product. DR5 is located on chromosome 8p21, where allelic deletions are often observed in advanced colorectal cancers...
  35. Dorr J, Bechmann I, Waiczies S, Aktas O, Walczak H, Krammer P, et al. Lack of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand but presence of its receptors in the human brain. J Neurosci. 2002;22:RC209 pubmed
    ..Conversely, this death receptor-ligand system might well play an important role in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis. ..
  36. Merino D, Lalaoui N, Morizot A, Schneider P, Solary E, Micheau O. Differential inhibition of TRAIL-mediated DR5-DISC formation by decoy receptors 1 and 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7046-55 pubmed
    ..apoptosis is mediated by the transmembrane receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) (also known as TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2)...
  37. Oh Y, Liu X, Yue P, Kang S, Chen J, Taunton J, et al. ERK/ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) signaling positively regulates death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of CHOP and Elk1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41310-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a death domain-containing transmembrane receptor that triggers apoptosis upon binding to its ligand or when overexpressed...
  38. Pan G, Ni J, Wei Y, Yu G, Gentz R, Dixit V. An antagonist decoy receptor and a death domain-containing receptor for TRAIL. Science. 1997;277:815-8 pubmed
    ..Another death domain-containing receptor for TRAIL (designated as death receptor-5), which preferentially engaged a FLICE (caspase-8)-related death protease, was also identified. ..
  39. Tian X, Ye J, Alonso Basanta M, Hahn S, Koumenis C, Dorsey J. Modulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-dependent DR5 expression by nelfinavir sensitizes glioblastoma multiforme cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29408-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Nelfinavir treatment led to ER stress-induced up-regulation of the DR5 receptor...
  40. Herbeuval J, Grivel J, Boasso A, Hardy A, Chougnet C, Dolan M, et al. CD4+ T-cell death induced by infectious and noninfectious HIV-1: role of type 1 interferon-dependent, TRAIL/DR5-mediated apoptosis. Blood. 2005;106:3524-31 pubmed
    ..The present study investigates the expression of TRAIL death receptor 5 (DR5) in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1-infected patients and its role in CD4(+) T-..
  41. Thomas L, Johnson R, Reed J, Thorburn A. The C-terminal tails of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas receptors have opposing functions in Fas-associated death domain (FADD) recruitment and can regulate agonist-specific mechanisms of receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52479-86 pubmed
    ..superfamily of receptors such as Fas/CD95 and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors DR4 and DR5 induce apoptosis by recruiting adaptor molecules and caspases...
  42. Liu G, Su L, Hao X, Zhong N, Zhong D, Singhal S, et al. Salermide up-regulates death receptor 5 expression through the ATF4-ATF3-CHOP axis and leads to apoptosis in human cancer cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1618-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that salermide up-regulates the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells...
  43. Kimberley F, Screaton G. Following a TRAIL: update on a ligand and its five receptors. Cell Res. 2004;14:359-72 pubmed
    ..This review takes a comprehensive look at the story of this enigmatic ligand, addressing its remaining potential as a therapeutic and providing an overview of the TRAIL receptors themselves. ..
  44. Pai S, Wu G, Ozoren N, Wu L, Jen J, Sidransky D, et al. Rare loss-of-function mutation of a death receptor gene in head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:3513-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, a novel tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor gene, KILLER/DR5, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, was identified as a potential mediator in p53-..
  45. van Geelen C, Pennarun B, Le P, de Vries E, de Jong S. Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells: different contributions of DR4 and DR5. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:39 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance...
  46. Jeng Y, Hsu H. Mutation of the DR5/TRAIL receptor 2 gene is infrequent in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2002;181:205-8 pubmed
    ..Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is mapped to chromosome 8p21-22...
  47. Grosse L, Hoogenboezem T, Ambrée O, Bellingrath S, Jörgens S, de Wit H, et al. Deficiencies of the T and natural killer cell system in major depressive disorder: T regulatory cell defects are associated with inflammatory monocyte activation. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;54:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..From deep frozen leukocytes, circulating percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, B, T, and natural killer (NK) cells, and various functional subsets of T and T helper (Th) cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and natural T regulatory ..
  48. Kishikawa T, Otsuka M, Ohno M, Yoshikawa T, Sato M, Koike K. Development of a screening method to identify regulators of MICA shedding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;465:764-8 pubmed publisher
    Immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, recognize virally infected and transformed cells, and eliminate them through the interaction between NKG2D receptors on NK cells and NKG2D ligands on pathogenic cells...
  49. Kim T, Kim N, Kang H, Kim E, Kim S, Ahn H, et al. FK506 causes cellular and functional defects in human natural killer cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:1089-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data provide a new insight into the mechanism of immunosuppression by FK506, which should be considered to interpret the outcome of graft transplantation...
  50. Bortesi L, Pesci A, Bogina G, Castelli P, Zamboni G. Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas. Surg Pathol Clin. 2011;4:487-521 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its silent course, late clinical manifestation, and rapid growth, it is considered a silent killer. Only 10% to 15% of cases are resectable and the 5-year survival rate remains lower than 5%...
  51. Ruggeri L, Mancusi A, Urbani E, Velardi A. Identifying NK Alloreactive Donors for Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1393:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The self donor KIR ligands educates the donor NK repertoire and arms functional NK cells which express inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor(s) (KIRs) for self-class I ligand(s), They sense missing expression of donor KIR ..
  52. De Felice L, Agostini F, Suriano C, Fraboni D, Gregorj C, Tirindelli M, et al. Hematopoietic, Mesenchymal, and Immune Cells Are More Enhanced in Bone Marrow than in Peripheral Blood from Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Primed Healthy Donors. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016;22:1758-1764 pubmed publisher
    ..CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD19(+) cell fractions; the naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subpopulations; and natural killer and regulatory T cells increased in G-BM, whereas only slight changes were detected in PB...
  53. Paul P, Picard C, Sampol E, Lyonnet L, Di Cristofaro J, Paul Delvaux L, et al. Genetic and Functional Profiling of CD16-Dependent Natural Killer Activation Identifies Patients at Higher Risk of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy. Circulation. 2018;137:1049-1059 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor 3A [FCGR3A]) receptor was recently identified as a major determinant of antibody-mediated natural killer (NK) cell activation in HT biopsies; however, little is known about the role of CD16 in promoting allograft ..
  54. Li J, Li Z, Liu S, Zia R, Liang A, Yang L. Transcriptome studies of granulosa cells at different stages of ovarian follicular development in buffalo. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;187:181-192 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathway of immune signaling, including allograft rejection, chemokine signaling pathway, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, phagosome, and antigen processing and presentation, was significantly enriched in the ..
  55. Carvajal Alegria G, Gazeau P, Hillion S, Daïen C, Cornec D. Could Lymphocyte Profiling be Useful to Diagnose Systemic Autoimmune Diseases?. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017;53:219-236 pubmed publisher
    Considering the implications of B, T, and natural killer (NK) cells in the pathophysiology of systemic autoimmune diseases, the assessment of their distribution in the blood could be helpful for physicians in the complex process of ..
  56. van Raam B, Lacina T, Lindemann R, Reiling J. Secretory stressors induce intracellular death receptor accumulation to control apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e3069 pubmed publisher
    ..DR4 appears to be primarily responsible for the initiation of cell death downstream of Golgi stress, whereas DR5 seems to be more important for cell death triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in specific cancer cell ..
  57. Schneider P, Bodmer J, Thome M, Hofmann K, Holler N, Tschopp J. Characterization of two receptors for TRAIL. FEBS Lett. 1997;416:329-34 pubmed
    ..All three TRAIL receptors bind TRAIL with similar affinity, suggesting a complex regulation of TRAIL-mediated signals. ..
  58. Xie Y, Huang L, Chen L, Lin X, Chen L, Zheng Q. Effect of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer cells in patients with advanced colorectal cancer combined with first-line treatment. World J Surg Oncol. 2017;15:209 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dendritic cell-cytokine-induced killer (DC-CIK) cell infusion as an adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer combined with first-line ..
  59. Shimasaki N, Coustan Smith E, Kamiya T, Campana D. Expanded and armed natural killer cells for cancer treatment. Cytotherapy. 2016;18:1422-1434 pubmed publisher
    The capacity of natural killer (NK) cells to recognize and kill transformed cells suggests that their infusion could be used to treat cancer...
  60. Yang J, Li G, Zhang K. Pro-survival effects by NF-?B, Akt and ERK(1/2) and anti-apoptosis actions by Six1 disrupt apoptotic functions of TRAIL-Dr4/5 pathway in ovarian cancer. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:1078-1087 pubmed publisher
    Apoptotic signaling provoked by death receptors, DR4 and DR5, are generally considered to promote cell death and chemosensitivity in multiple cancers, but this view is being thrown into doubt with recent findings that up-regulated DR4 ..