DNA polymerase beta


Gene Symbol: DNA polymerase beta
Description: DNA polymerase beta
Alias: DNA polymerase beta, DNA pol beta, DNA polymerase beta subunit, polymerase (DNA directed), beta, polymerase (DNA) beta
Species: human
Products:     DNA polymerase beta

Top Publications

  1. Beard W, Shock D, Wilson S. Influence of DNA structure on DNA polymerase beta active site function: extension of mutagenic DNA intermediates. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31921-9 pubmed
  2. Wang L, Patel U, Ghosh L, Banerjee S. DNA polymerase beta mutations in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1992;52:4824-7 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, the entire coding region of DNA polymerase beta, a repair enzyme, mRNA from colorectal tumors, and corresponding normal mucosa were amplified by polymerase ..
  3. Freudenthal B, Beard W, Shock D, Wilson S. Observing a DNA polymerase choose right from wrong. Cell. 2013;154:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be coupled to subdomain repositioning that is required for catalytic activation/deactivation. The structures provide insights into a fundamental chemical reaction that impacts polymerase fidelity and genome stability. ..
  4. Podlutsky A, Dianova I, Podust V, Bohr V, Dianov G. Human DNA polymerase beta initiates DNA synthesis during long-patch repair of reduced AP sites in DNA. EMBO J. 2001;20:1477-82 pubmed
    ..b>DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is responsible for the repair synthesis in this pathway and also removes a 5'-sugar phosphate ..
  5. Dobashi Y, Kubota Y, Shuin T, Torigoe S, Yao M, Hosaka M. Polymorphisms in the human DNA polymerase beta gene. Hum Genet. 1995;95:389-90 pubmed
    ..The DNA polymerase beta gene is one of the DNA repair genes, and mutations in it have been detected in 83% of human colorectal ..
  6. Donigan K, Sun K, Nemec A, MURPHY D, Cong X, Northrup V, et al. Human POLB gene is mutated in high percentage of colorectal tumors. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23830-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such compromised base excision repair may drive tumorigenesis by leading to an increase in mutagenesis or genomic instability. ..
  7. Matsumoto Y, Kim K, Katz D, Feng J. Catalytic center of DNA polymerase beta for excision of deoxyribose phosphate groups. Biochemistry. 1998;37:6456-64 pubmed
    The amino-terminal 8-kDa domain of vertebrate DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) has an activity to excise deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) groups from 5'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites during base excision repair...
  8. Copani A, Hoozemans J, Caraci F, Calafiore M, van Haastert E, Veerhuis R, et al. DNA polymerase-beta is expressed early in neurons of Alzheimer's disease brain and is loaded into DNA replication forks in neurons challenged with beta-amyloid. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10949-57 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, by investigating the neuronal expression of DNA pol-beta, along with phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and neurofibrillary changes in AD brain, we show an early involvement of DNA pol-beta in the pathogenesis of AD. ..
  9. Sawaya M, Prasad R, Wilson S, Kraut J, Pelletier H. Crystal structures of human DNA polymerase beta complexed with gapped and nicked DNA: evidence for an induced fit mechanism. Biochemistry. 1997;36:11205-15 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) fills single nucleotide (nt) gaps in DNA produced by the base excision repair pathway of mammalian cells...

More Information


  1. Servant L, Bieth A, Hayakawa H, Cazaux C, Hoffmann J. Involvement of DNA polymerase beta in DNA replication and mutagenic consequences. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:1039-47 pubmed
    Overexpression in mammalian cells of the error-prone DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) has been found to increase the spontaneous mutagenesis...
  2. Wiederhold L, Leppard J, Kedar P, Karimi Busheri F, Rasouli Nia A, Weinfeld M, et al. AP endonuclease-independent DNA base excision repair in human cells. Mol Cell. 2004;15:209-20 pubmed
    ..NEIL1 stably interacts with other BER proteins, DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) and DNA ligase IIIalpha...
  3. Dalal S, Chikova A, Jaeger J, Sweasy J. The Leu22Pro tumor-associated variant of DNA polymerase beta is dRP lyase deficient. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:411-22 pubmed
    Approximately 30% of human tumors characterized to date express DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) variant proteins...
  4. Abbotts J, Sengupta D, Zmudzka B, Widen S, Notario V, Wilson S. Expression of human DNA polymerase beta in Escherichia coli and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Biochemistry. 1988;27:901-9 pubmed
    ..The enzyme is unable to synthesize past methylated bases N3-methyl-dT or O6-methyl-dG. ..
  5. Kubota Y, Nash R, Klungland A, Schär P, Barnes D, Lindahl T. Reconstitution of DNA base excision-repair with purified human proteins: interaction between DNA polymerase beta and the XRCC1 protein. EMBO J. 1996;15:6662-70 pubmed
    ..with the recombinant human proteins uracil-DNA glycosylase, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase III...
  6. An C, Chen D, Makridakis N. Systematic biochemical analysis of somatic missense mutations in DNA polymerase ? found in prostate cancer reveal alteration of enzymatic function. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the availability of detailed structural information for pol ? allows understanding of the potential mechanistic effects of these mutants on polymerase function. ..
  7. Beard W, Shock D, Yang X, DeLauder S, Wilson S. Loss of DNA polymerase beta stacking interactions with templating purines, but not pyrimidines, alters catalytic efficiency and fidelity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8235-42 pubmed
    ..Upon binding a correct deoxynucleoside triphosphate, alpha-helix N of DNA polymerase beta is observed to form one face of the binding pocket for the new base pair...
  8. Lang T, Dalal S, Chikova A, DiMaio D, Sweasy J. The E295K DNA polymerase beta gastric cancer-associated variant interferes with base excision repair and induces cellular transformation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5587-96 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that base excision repair is critical for maintaining genome stability and could therefore be a tumor suppressor mechanism. ..
  9. Matakidou A, El Galta R, Webb E, Rudd M, Bridle H, Eisen T, et al. Genetic variation in the DNA repair genes is predictive of outcome in lung cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2333-40 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the pathway-based approach has the potential to generate prognostic markers of clinical outcome. ..
  10. El Andaloussi N, Valovka T, Toueille M, Steinacher R, Focke F, Gehrig P, et al. Arginine methylation regulates DNA polymerase beta. Mol Cell. 2006;22:51-62 pubmed
    ..Here, a regulatory mechanism for DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is described...
  11. Beard W, Shock D, Vande Berg B, Wilson S. Efficiency of correct nucleotide insertion governs DNA polymerase fidelity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47393-8 pubmed
    ..An analysis of the efficiency of dNTP (correct and incorrect) insertion for a low fidelity mutant of DNA polymerase beta (R283A) and exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases from five families derived from a variety of biological ..
  12. Yamtich J, Nemec A, Keh A, Sweasy J. A germline polymorphism of DNA polymerase beta induces genomic instability and cellular transformation. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003052 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that people who carry the rs3136797 germline SNP may be at an increased risk for cancer susceptibility...
  13. Kedar P, Kim S, Robertson A, Hou E, Prasad R, Horton J, et al. Direct interaction between mammalian DNA polymerase beta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31115-23 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that at least one of the PIM-like sequences in beta-polymerase appears to be a functional PIM and was required in the interaction between beta-polymerase and PCNA. ..
  14. Bennett R, Wilson D, Wong D, Demple B. Interaction of human apurinic endonuclease and DNA polymerase beta in the base excision repair pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7166-9 pubmed
    ..Mammalian DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta) carries out most base excision repair synthesis and also can excise deoxyribose 5-phosphate after ..
  15. Zmudzka B, Fornace A, Collins J, Wilson S. Characterization of DNA polymerase beta mRNA: cell-cycle and growth response in cultured human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988;16:9587-96 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase beta (beta-polymerase) is a housekeeping enzyme involved in DNA repair in vertebrate cells. We used a cDNA probe to study abundance of beta-polymerase mRNA in cultured human cells...
  16. Krahn J, Beard W, Miller H, Grollman A, Wilson S. Structure of DNA polymerase beta with the mutagenic DNA lesion 8-oxodeoxyguanine reveals structural insights into its coding potential. Structure. 2003;11:121-7 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insights into the mechanisms employed by polymerases to select the complementary dNTP. ..
  17. Donigan K, Hile S, Eckert K, Sweasy J. The human gastric cancer-associated DNA polymerase ? variant D160N is a mutator that induces cellular transformation. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012;11:381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the interpretation that complex mutagenesis is the underlying mechanism of the observed cellular phenotypes, all of which are linked to tumorigenesis or tumor progression. ..
  18. Asagoshi K, Liu Y, Masaoka A, Lan L, Prasad R, Horton J, et al. DNA polymerase beta-dependent long patch base excision repair in living cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:109-19 pubmed publisher
    We examined a role for DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) in mammalian long patch base excision repair (LP BER)...
  19. Toueille M, El Andaloussi N, Frouin I, Freire R, Funk D, Shevelev I, et al. The human Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 damage sensor clamp interacts with DNA polymerase beta and increases its DNA substrate utilisation efficiency: implications for DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3316-24 pubmed
    ..In this work, we showed that the 9-1-1 complex can physically interact with DNA polymerase beta in vitro...
  20. Batra V, Beard W, Shock D, Pedersen L, Wilson S. Structures of DNA polymerase beta with active-site mismatches suggest a transient abasic site intermediate during misincorporation. Mol Cell. 2008;30:315-24 pubmed publisher
    We report the crystallographic structures of DNA polymerase beta with dG-dAMPCPP and dC-dAMPCPP mismatches in the active site...
  21. Guo Z, Zheng L, Dai H, Zhou M, Xu H, Shen B. Human DNA polymerase beta polymorphism, Arg137Gln, impairs its polymerase activity and interaction with PCNA and the cellular base excision repair capacity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:3431-41 pubmed publisher
    b>DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is a key enzyme in DNA base excision repair, and an important factor for maintaining genome integrity and stability...
  22. Brown J, Duym W, Fowler J, Suo Z. Single-turnover kinetic analysis of the mutagenic potential of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine during gap-filling synthesis catalyzed by human DNA polymerases lambda and beta. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:1258-69 pubmed
    ..Employing single-turnover kinetic methods, we examined human DNA polymerase beta and its novel X-family homolog, human DNA polymerase lambda, to determine which nucleotide and template ..
  23. Sucato C, Upton T, Kashemirov B, Batra V, Martinek V, Xiang Y, et al. Modifying the beta,gamma leaving-group bridging oxygen alters nucleotide incorporation efficiency, fidelity, and the catalytic mechanism of DNA polymerase beta. Biochemistry. 2007;46:461-71 pubmed
    ..The results are addressed theoretically in terms of the energetics of successive primer 3'-O addition (bond forming) and pyrophosphate analogue elimination (bond breaking) reaction energy barriers. ..
  24. Pelletier H, Sawaya M, Wolfle W, Wilson S, Kraut J. Crystal structures of human DNA polymerase beta complexed with DNA: implications for catalytic mechanism, processivity, and fidelity. Biochemistry. 1996;35:12742-61 pubmed
    Mammalian DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is a small (39 kDa) DNA gap-filling enzyme that comprises an amino-terminal 8-kDa domain and a carboxy-terminal 31-kDa domain...
  25. Moreno V, Gemignani F, Landi S, Gioia Patricola L, Chabrier A, Blanco I, et al. Polymorphisms in genes of nucleotide and base excision repair: risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:2101-8 pubmed
    ..This knowledge may help to clarify the utility of specific adjuvant treatments according to the individual genetic background. ..
  26. Yamtich J, Speed W, Straka E, Kidd J, Sweasy J, Kidd K. Population-specific variation in haplotype composition and heterozygosity at the POLB locus. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:579-84 pubmed publisher
    b>DNA polymerase beta plays a central role in base excision repair (BER), which removes large numbers of endogenous DNA lesions from each cell on a daily basis...
  27. Nemec A, Donigan K, MURPHY D, Jaeger J, Sweasy J. Colon cancer-associated DNA polymerase ? variant induces genomic instability and cellular transformation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23840-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, this suggests that the G231D variant has impaired base excision repair. Together, these data indicate that the G231D variant plays a role in driving cancer. ..
  28. Sellick G, Wade R, Richards S, Oscier D, Catovsky D, Houlston R. Scan of 977 nonsynonymous SNPs in CLL4 trial patients for the identification of genetic variants influencing prognosis. Blood. 2008;111:1625-33 pubmed
    ..To facilitate the identification of prognostic markers through pooled analyses, we have made all data from our analysis publicly available. ..
  29. Conlon K, Miller H, Rosenquist T, Zharkov D, Berrios M. The murine DNA glycosylase NEIL2 (mNEIL2) and human DNA polymerase beta bind microtubules in situ and in vitro. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:419-31 pubmed
    ..Purified recombinant human DNA polymerase beta (DNA Pol beta) and purified recombinant mNEIL2 were chemically conjugated to fluorochromes and ..
  30. Fan J, Otterlei M, Wong H, Tomkinson A, Wilson D. XRCC1 co-localizes and physically interacts with PCNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2193-201 pubmed
    ..The current evidence suggests a model where XRCC1 is sequestered via its interaction with PCNA to sites of DNA replication factories to facilitate efficient SSBR in S phase. ..
  31. Li D, Suzuki H, Liu B, Morris J, Liu J, Okazaki T, et al. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:740-6 pubmed publisher
    ..02). These observations suggest that genetic variations in DNA repair may act alone or in concert with other risk factors on modifying a patient's risk for pancreatic cancer. ..
  32. Eckert K, Mowery A, Hile S. Misalignment-mediated DNA polymerase beta mutations: comparison of microsatellite and frame-shift error rates using a forward mutation assay. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10490-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first direct quantitation of DNA polymerase errors in vitro using template microsatellite sequences. ..
  33. Widen S, Kedar P, Wilson S. Human beta-polymerase gene. Structure of the 5'-flanking region and active promoter. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:16992-8 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) is a housekeeping enzyme considered to be involved in DNA repair in vertebrate cells...
  34. Dapa T, Fleurier S, Bredeche M, Matic I. The SOS and RpoS Regulons Contribute to Bacterial Cell Robustness to Genotoxic Stress by Synergistically Regulating DNA Polymerase Pol II. Genetics. 2017;206:1349-1360 pubmed publisher
  35. Ho E, Satoh M. Repair of single-strand DNA interruptions by redundant pathways and its implication in cellular sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:7032-40 pubmed
    ..Through biochemical studies, two SSI repair subpathways have been identified: a pathway mediated by DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and DNA ligase III (Lig III), and a pathway mediated by DNA polymerase delta/epsilon (Pol delta/..
  36. Li Y, Freudenthal B, Beard W, Wilson S, Schlick T. Optimal and variant metal-ion routes in DNA polymerase ?'s conformational pathways. J Am Chem Soc. 2014;136:3630-9 pubmed publisher
  37. DeMott M, Beyret E, Wong D, Bales B, Hwang J, Greenberg M, et al. Covalent trapping of human DNA polymerase beta by the oxidative DNA lesion 2-deoxyribonolactone. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7637-40 pubmed
    ..incised by the main human abasic endonuclease enzyme Ape1, we show here that subsequent excision by human DNA polymerase beta is impaired at dL compared with unmodified abasic sites...
  38. Eckenroth B, Towle Weicksel J, Sweasy J, DOUBLIE S. The E295K cancer variant of human polymerase β favors the mismatch conformational pathway during nucleotide selection. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison with published structures provides insight into the structural rearrangements within pol β that occur during the process of nucleotide discrimination. ..
  39. Batra V, Shock D, Beard W, McKenna C, Wilson S. Binary complex crystal structure of DNA polymerase ? reveals multiple conformations of the templating 8-oxoguanine lesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An adjustment in the position of the phosphodiester backbone 5'-phosphate enables 8-oxoG to adopt the syn-conformation. ..
  40. Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Wang H, Zhang G, Hu D, Xiong J, et al. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen binds DNA polymerase-β and mediates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neuronal death. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106669 pubmed publisher
    ..The aberrant DNA replication mediated by the PCNA-DNA pol-β complex induces p53-dependent neuronal cell death. Our results indicate that the interaction of PCNA and DNA pol-β contributes to neuronal death in PD. ..
  41. Goetze R, Kim D, Schinazi R, Kim B. A CRISPR/Cas9 approach reveals that the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase β is dispensable for HIV-1 infection in dividing and nondividing cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14016-14025 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the idea that Pol β polymerase activity is dispensable for HIV-1 infection in both dividing and nondividing stages of human cells targeted by the virus. ..
  42. Rodriguez Y, Howard M, Cuneo M, Prasad R, Wilson S. Unencumbered Pol ? lyase activity in nucleosome core particles. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8901-8915 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate 5'-dRP gap trimming proceeds unperturbed within the NCP; whereas, gap filling is strongly limited. In the absence of additional factors, base excision repair in NCPs will stall at the gap-filling step. ..
  43. Jezewska M, Galletto R, Bujalowski W. Dynamics of gapped DNA recognition by human polymerase beta. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20316-27 pubmed
    ..However, the phosphate group affects the enzyme orientation in the complex with the DNA, particularly, for the substrate with a longer gap. ..
  44. Bhattacharyya N, Banerjee S. A variant of DNA polymerase beta acts as a dominant negative mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10324-9 pubmed
    In eukaryotic cells, DNA polymerase beta (polbeta) carries out base-excision repair (BER) required for DNA maintenance, replication, recombination, and drug resistance...
  45. Liu Y, Prasad R, Beard W, Kedar P, Hou E, Shock D, et al. Coordination of steps in single-nucleotide base excision repair mediated by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase beta. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13532-41 pubmed
    ..DNA binding specificities of two major human SN-BER enzymes, apurinic/aprymidinic endonuclease 1 (APE) and DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta). It is known that these enzymes do not form a stable complex in solution...
  46. Mendez F, Sandigursky M, Franklin W, Kenny M, Kureekattil R, Bases R. Heat-shock proteins associated with base excision repair enzymes in HeLa cells. Radiat Res. 2000;153:186-95 pubmed
    Two enzymes of base excision repair (BER), uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) and DNA polymerase beta (beta pol), from HeLa cells co-eluted from Superose 12 FPLC columns...
  47. Heacock M, Poltoratsky V, Prasad R, Wilson S. Evidence for abasic site sugar phosphate-mediated cytotoxicity in alkylating agent treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47945 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that after MMS exposure, the 5'-dRP group in the repair intermediate is cytotoxic and that Rad27(Fen1) protection against MMS in wild-type cells is due to elimination of the 5'-dRP group. ..
  48. Heider M, Burkhart B, Santangelo T, Gardner A. Defining the RNaseH2 enzyme-initiated ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in Archaea. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8835-8845 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of redundancies in ribonucleotide repair in archaea perhaps suggests a more ancestral form of ribonucleotide excision repair compared with the eukaryotic pathway. ..
  49. Li Y, Wu Z, Zhang S, Chen S, Li P, Li J, et al. Genetic Variants of IκB Kinase β (IKBKB) and Polymerase β (POLB) Were Not Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk in a Chinese Han Population. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0132556 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our findings indicate that the IKBKB (rs12676482 and rs2272733) and POLB (rs3136717, rs3136744) SNPs confer no genetic predisposition to SLE risk in this Chinese Han population. ..
  50. Klvana M, Jerabek P, Goodman M, Florian J. An abridged transition state model to derive structure, dynamics, and energy components of DNA polymerase ? fidelity. Biochemistry. 2011;50:7023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis, using human DNA polymerase beta (pol ?), is performed within the framework of an electrostatic linear free energy response (EFER) model...
  51. Chyan Y, Strauss P, Wood T, Wilson S. Identification of novel mRNA isoforms for human DNA polymerase beta. DNA Cell Biol. 1996;15:653-9 pubmed
    Recently, we reported the organization of the thirteen exons of the human DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) gene and the sequences of the exon-intron junctions...
  52. Khanra K, Bhattacharya C, Bhattacharyya N. Association of a newly identified variant of DNA polymerase beta (pol??63-123, 208-304) with the risk factor of ovarian carcinoma in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1999-2002 pubmed
    ..44 and 0.39). Individuals from this part of India with this type of variant may be at risk of stage IV, endometrioid type ovarian carcinoma. ..
  53. Whitehouse C, Taylor R, Thistlethwaite A, Zhang H, Karimi Busheri F, Lasko D, et al. XRCC1 stimulates human polynucleotide kinase activity at damaged DNA termini and accelerates DNA single-strand break repair. Cell. 2001;104:107-17 pubmed
    ..These data identify a novel pathway for mammalian single-strand break repair and demonstrate a concerted role for XRCC1 and PNK in the initial step of processing damaged DNA ends. ..
  54. Gieseking S, Bergen K, Di Pasquale F, Diederichs K, Welte W, Marx A. Human DNA polymerase beta mutations allowing efficient abasic site bypass. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4011-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutations described in this work are located in well characterized regions but have not been reported before. A crystallographic structure of one of the mutants was obtained, providing structural insights. ..
  55. Dalal S, Starcevic D, Jaeger J, Sweasy J. The I260Q variant of DNA polymerase beta extends mispaired primer termini due to its increased affinity for deoxynucleotide triphosphate substrates. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12118-25 pubmed publisher
    b>DNA polymerase beta plays a key role in base excision repair...
  56. Braithwaite E, Kedar P, Stumpo D, Bertocci B, Freedman J, Samson L, et al. DNA polymerases beta and lambda mediate overlapping and independent roles in base excision repair in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12229 pubmed publisher
    ..While DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is known to be the main polymerase in the BER pathway, various studies have implicated other DNA ..
  57. Vyas R, Reed A, Raper A, Zahurancik W, Wallenmeyer P, Suo Z. Structural basis for the D-stereoselectivity of human DNA polymerase ?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:6228-6237 pubmed publisher
    ..The two NRTIs escape some of the active site selection through the base and sugar modifications but are selected against through the inability of hPol? to complete thumb domain closure. ..
  58. Chyan Y, Ackerman S, Shepherd N, McBride O, Widen S, Wilson S, et al. The human DNA polymerase beta gene structure. Evidence of alternative splicing in gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:2719-25 pubmed
    b>DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) is a single-copy gene that is considered to be part of the DNA repair machinery in mammalian cells...
  59. Naryzhny S, Lee H. The post-translational modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen: acetylation, not phosphorylation, plays an important role in the regulation of its function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20194-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model where the acidic and M forms participate in DNA replication, whereas the basic form is associated with the termination of DNA replication. ..
  60. Belousova E, Maga G, Fan Y, Kubareva E, Romanova E, Lebedeva N, et al. DNA polymerases beta and lambda bypass thymine glycol in gapped DNA structures. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..fidelity of Tg bypass and does not influence normal DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase lambda, (iv) DNA polymerase beta catalyzes the incorporation of all four dNTPs opposite Tg, and (v) hPCNA as well as hRPA has no specific ..
  61. Maga G, van Loon B, Crespan E, Villani G, Hubscher U. The block of DNA polymerase delta strand displacement activity by an abasic site can be rescued by the concerted action of DNA polymerase beta and Flap endonuclease 1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..can be overcome through a polymerase switch, involving the combined physical and functional interaction of DNA pol beta and Flap endonuclease 1...
  62. Batra V, Pedersen L, Beard W, Wilson S, Kashemirov B, Upton T, et al. Halogenated beta,gamma-methylene- and ethylidene-dGTP-DNA ternary complexes with DNA polymerase beta: structural evidence for stereospecific binding of the fluoromethylene analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:7617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..at the CHF carbon, as in beta,gamma-fluoromethylene-dGTP, which forms an active site complex with DNA polymerase beta, a repair enzyme that plays an important role in base excision repair (BER) and oncogenesis...
  63. Rucker R, Oelschlaeger P, Warshel A. A binding free energy decomposition approach for accurate calculations of the fidelity of DNA polymerases. Proteins. 2010;78:671-80 pubmed publisher
    b>DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is a small eukaryotic enzyme with the ability to repair short single-stranded DNA gaps that has found use as a model system for larger replicative DNA polymerases...
  64. Skandalis A, Uribe E. A survey of splice variants of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase and DNA polymerase beta genes: products of alternative or aberrant splicing?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6557-64 pubmed
    ..and quantified the aberrant splice variants in the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and DNA polymerase beta (POLB) in the presence and the absence of the Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) pathway, which removes ..
  65. Ramakodi M, Devarajan K, Blackman E, Gibbs D, Luce D, Deloumeaux J, et al. Integrative genomic analysis identifies ancestry-related expression quantitative trait loci on DNA polymerase β and supports the association of genetic ancestry with survival disparities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2017;123:849-860 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer 2017;123:849-60. © 2016 American Cancer Society. ..
  66. Wang Y, Zang W, Du Y, Chen X, Zhao G. The K167I variant of DNA polymerase β that is found in Esophageal Carcinoma patients impairs polymerase activity and BER. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15986 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the K167I variant affected pol β biochemical activity resulting in impaired BER function, which might subsequently contribute to genomic instability and cancer development. ..
  67. Cağlayan M, Prasad R, Krasich R, Longley M, Kadoda K, Tsuda M, et al. Complementation of aprataxin deficiency by base excision repair enzymes in mitochondrial extracts. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:10079-10088 pubmed publisher
    ..FEN1 also failed to provide excision of the 5'-adenylated BER intermediate in mitochondrial extracts. These results illustrate the potential role of pol ? in complementing APTX deficiency in mitochondria...
  68. Poltoratsky V, Prasad R, Horton J, Wilson S. Down-regulation of DNA polymerase beta accompanies somatic hypermutation in human BL2 cell lines. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:244-53 pubmed
    ..uncertainty with this model is that BER of uracil-DNA in mammalian cells is generally error-free, wherein DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) conducts gap-filling synthesis by insertion of bases according to Watson-Crick rules...
  69. Matsumoto Y, Kim K, Hurwitz J, Gary R, Levin D, Tomkinson A, et al. Reconstitution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with purified human proteins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33703-8 pubmed
    ..In higher eukaryotes, there are two alternative pathways for base excision repair: a DNA polymerase beta-dependent pathway and a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent pathway...
  70. Wang L, Bhattacharyya N, Chelsea D, Escobar P, Banerjee S. A novel nuclear protein, MGC5306 interacts with DNA polymerase beta and has a potential role in cellular phenotype. Cancer Res. 2004;64:7673-7 pubmed
    ..An antigrowth activity and modulations of cell cycle events are identified in cells expressing siRNAMGC5306. ..
  71. Klvaňa M, Bren U, Florián J. Uniform Free-Energy Profiles of the P-O Bond Formation and Cleavage Reactions Catalyzed by DNA Polymerases β and λ. J Phys Chem B. 2016;120:13017-13030 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of the LFERs and suggest pKa of the 3'-OH group as a predictor of the catalytic rate of X-family DNA polymerases. ..
  72. Wang T, Zang W, Ma Y, Li M, Xuan X, Wang N, et al. DNA polymerase beta promoter mutations affect gene transcription, translation and the sensitivity of esophageal cancer cells to cisplatin treatment. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the DNA polymerase beta (po1?) promoter may affect the transcription of this gene; however, the relationship between these ..
  73. Tan X, Wang H, Luo G, Ren S, Li W, Cui J, et al. Clinical significance of a point mutation in DNA polymerase beta (POLB) gene in gastric cancer. Int J Biol Sci. 2015;11:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously identified a T to C point mutation at nucleotide 889 (T889C) in DNA polymerase beta (POLB) gene, a key enzyme involved in base excision repair in primary GCs...
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    ..In summary, we conclude that mitochondrial PARP1, in opposite to nuclear PARP1, exerts a negative effect on several mitochondrial-specific transactions including the repair of the mitochondrial DNA. ..
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    Although human DNA polymerase beta (DNA pol beta) shows 96% identity with rat DNA pol beta at the amino acid level, it is weakly expressed in Escherichia (E.) coli relative to the rat enzyme...