DLK1

Summary

Gene Symbol: DLK1
Description: delta like non-canonical Notch ligand 1
Alias: DLK, DLK-1, Delta1, FA1, PREF1, Pref-1, ZOG, pG2, protein delta homolog 1, delta-like 1 homolog, fetal antigen 1, preadipocyte factor 1, secredeltin
Species: human
Products:     DLK1

Top Publications

  1. Paulsen M, Takada S, Youngson N, Benchaib M, Charlier C, Segers K, et al. Comparative sequence analysis of the imprinted Dlk1-Gtl2 locus in three mammalian species reveals highly conserved genomic elements and refines comparison with the Igf2-H19 region. Genome Res. 2001;11:2085-94 pubmed
    The Dlk1-Gtl2 domain on mouse chromosome 12 contains reciprocally imprinted genes with the potential to contribute to our understanding of common features involved in imprinting control...
  2. Li L, Forman S, Bhatia R. Expression of DLK1 in hematopoietic cells results in inhibition of differentiation and proliferation. Oncogene. 2005;24:4472-6 pubmed
    The Delta-like (DLK1) gene is overexpressed in CD34+ cells from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. DLK1 encodes an EGF-like homeotic transmembrane protein homologous to the notch/delta/serrate family...
  3. Edwards C, Mungall A, Matthews L, Ryder E, Gray D, Pask A, et al. The evolution of the DLK1-DIO3 imprinted domain in mammals. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e135 pubmed publisher
    ..The imprinting status, DNA methylation, and genomic landscape of the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster were determined in eutherian, metatherian, and prototherian mammals including tammar wallaby and ..
  4. Luk J, Burchard J, Zhang C, Liu A, Wong K, Shek F, et al. DLK1-DIO3 genomic imprinted microRNA cluster at 14q32.2 defines a stemlike subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with poor survival. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30706-13 pubmed publisher
    ..a TRE-c-Met-driven transgenic HCC mouse model, we identified a cluster of 23 miRNAs that is encoded within the Dlk1-Gtl2 imprinted region on chromosome 12qF1 overexpressed in all of the isolated liver tumors...
  5. Smas C, Sul H. Pref-1, a protein containing EGF-like repeats, inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Cell. 1993;73:725-34 pubmed
    With the aim of identifying novel regulators of adipocyte differentiation, we have cloned and characterized preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1), a novel member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family of proteins...
  6. Sul H. Minireview: Pref-1: role in adipogenesis and mesenchymal cell fate. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1717-25 pubmed publisher
    Preadipocyte factor-1 [Pref-1; also called Dlk1 (Delta-like protein 1)] is made as an epidermal growth factor-repeat containing transmembrane protein that produces a biologically active soluble form by TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE)-..
  7. Astuti D, Latif F, Wagner K, Gentle D, Cooper W, Catchpoole D, et al. Epigenetic alteration at the DLK1-GTL2 imprinted domain in human neoplasia: analysis of neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and Wilms' tumour. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:1574-80 pubmed
    ..imprinted gene cluster at 14q32 has been defined and includes two closely linked but reciprocally imprinted genes, DLK1 and GTL2, that have similarities to IGF2 and H19, respectively...
  8. Kagami M, Sekita Y, Nishimura G, Irie M, Kato F, Okada M, et al. Deletions and epimutations affecting the human 14q32.2 imprinted region in individuals with paternal and maternal upd(14)-like phenotypes. Nat Genet. 2008;40:237-42 pubmed publisher
    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries a cluster of imprinted genes including paternally expressed genes (PEGs) such as DLK1 and RTL1 and maternally expressed genes (MEGs) such as MEG3 (also known as GTL2), RTL1as (RTL1 antisense) and MEG8 (..
  9. Geuns E, De Temmerman N, Hilven P, Van Steirteghem A, Liebaers I, De Rycke M. Methylation analysis of the intergenic differentially methylated region of DLK1-GTL2 in human. Eur J Hum Genet. 2007;15:352-61 pubmed
    ..We studied the methylation patterns of the intergenic (IG)-DMR of DLK1 and GTL2...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Benetatos L, Hatzimichael E, Londin E, Vartholomatos G, Loher P, Rigoutsos I, et al. The microRNAs within the DLK1-DIO3 genomic region: involvement in disease pathogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:795-814 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, the DLK1-DIO3 genomic region, located on human chromosome 14 (14q32) contains the paternally expressed imprinted genes DLK1, ..
  2. Yin D, Xie D, Sakajiri S, Miller C, Zhu H, Popoviciu M, et al. DLK1: increased expression in gliomas and associated with oncogenic activities. Oncogene. 2006;25:1852-61 pubmed
    b>DLK1 (delta-like) is a transmembrane and secreted protein in the epidermal growth factor-like homeotic family. Although expressed widely during embryonic development, only a few tissues retain the expression in adults...
  3. Yanai H, Nakamura K, Hijioka S, Kamei A, Ikari T, Ishikawa Y, et al. Dlk-1, a cell surface antigen on foetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, is expressed in hepatocellular, colon, pancreas and breast carcinomas at a high frequency. J Biochem. 2010;148:85-92 pubmed publisher
    Delta-like 1 protein (Dlk-1), also known as preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), is a transmembrane and secreted protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats...
  4. Murphy S, Wylie A, Coveler K, Cotter P, Papenhausen P, Sutton V, et al. Epigenetic detection of human chromosome 14 uniparental disomy. Hum Mutat. 2003;22:92-7 pubmed
    The recent demonstration of genomic imprinting of DLK1 and MEG3 on human chromosome 14q32 indicates that these genes might contribute to the discordant phenotypes associated with uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 14...
  5. Xu X, Liu R, Zhang X, Huang L, Chen F, Fei Q, et al. DLK1 as a potential target against cancer stem/progenitor cells of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012;11:629-38 pubmed publisher
    Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1; Drosophila) is a hepatic stem/progenitor cell marker in fetal livers that plays a vital role in oncogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  6. Abdallah B, Boissy P, Tan Q, Dahlgaard J, Traustadottir G, Kupisiewicz K, et al. dlk1/FA1 regulates the function of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by modulating gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune response-related factors. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7339-51 pubmed
    b>dlk1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like homeotic protein family whose expression is known to modulate the differentiation signals of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow...
  7. Wylie A, Murphy S, Orton T, Jirtle R. Novel imprinted DLK1/GTL2 domain on human chromosome 14 contains motifs that mimic those implicated in IGF2/H19 regulation. Genome Res. 2000;10:1711-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of two reciprocally imprinted genes, GTL2 and DLK1, which together define a novel imprinting cluster on human chromosome 14q32...
  8. Abdallah B, Jensen C, Gutierrez G, Leslie R, Jensen T, Kassem M. Regulation of human skeletal stem cells differentiation by Dlk1/Pref-1. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:841-52 pubmed
    Dlk-1/Pref-1 was identified as a novel regulator of human skeletal stem cell differentiation. Dlk1/Pref-1 is expressed in bone and cultured osteoblasts, and its constitutive overexpression led to inhibition of osteoblast and adipocyte ..
  9. Sakajiri S, O Kelly J, Yin D, Miller C, Hofmann W, Oshimi K, et al. Dlk1 in normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. Leukemia. 2005;19:1404-10 pubmed
    b>Dlk1 (Pref-1) is a transmembrane and secreted protein, which is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family, homologous to Notch/Delta/Serrate...
  10. Khoury H, Suarez Saiz F, Wu S, Minden M. An upstream insulator regulates DLK1 imprinting in AML. Blood. 2010;115:2260-3 pubmed publisher
    b>DLK1 is an imprinted gene on chromosome 14...
  11. Yin D, Xie D, de Vos S, Liu G, Miller C, Black K, et al. Imprinting status of DLK1 gene in brain tumors and lymphomas. Int J Oncol. 2004;24:1011-5 pubmed
    b>DLK1 and GTL2 are reciprocally imprinted genes on human chromosome 14q32. DLK1 encodes a transmembrane protein that is a paternally expressed gene. The maternally expressed GTL2 allele encodes a non-translated RNA...
  12. Ogata T, Kagami M, Ferguson Smith A. Molecular mechanisms regulating phenotypic outcome in paternal and maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14. Epigenetics. 2008;3:181-7 pubmed
    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries a cluster of imprinted genes including paternally expressed genes (PEGs) such as DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes (MEGs) such as GTL2 (alias, MEG3), RTL1as (RTL1 antisense) and MEG8...
  13. Kobayashi S, Wagatsuma H, Ono R, Ichikawa H, Yamazaki M, Tashiro H, et al. Mouse Peg9/Dlk1 and human PEG9/DLK1 are paternally expressed imprinted genes closely located to the maternally expressed imprinted genes: mouse Meg3/Gtl2 and human MEG3. Genes Cells. 2000;5:1029-37 pubmed
    ..A novel paternally expressed mouse imprinted gene, Peg9/Dlk1, was identified...
  14. Van Limpt V, Chan A, Van Sluis P, Caron H, van Noesel C, Versteeg R. High delta-like 1 expression in a subset of neuroblastoma cell lines corresponds to a differentiated chromaffin cell type. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:61-9 pubmed
    ..By Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), we previously identified the Drosophila Delta homologue Dlk1 as one of the genes most highly expressed in the neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-FI...
  15. Wang Y, Zhao L, SMAS C, Sul H. Pref-1 interacts with fibronectin to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3480-92 pubmed publisher
    Pref-1/Dlk1 is made as an epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat-containing transmembrane protein but is cleaved by tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) to generate a biologically active soluble form...
  16. Freking B, Murphy S, Wylie A, Rhodes S, Keele J, Leymaster K, et al. Identification of the single base change causing the callipyge muscle hypertrophy phenotype, the only known example of polar overdominance in mammals. Genome Res. 2002;12:1496-506 pubmed
    ..Initial functional analysis indicates sequence encompassing the mutation is part of a novel transcript expressed in sheep fetal muscle we have named CLPG1. ..
  17. Yu F, Hao X, Zhao H, Ge C, Yao M, Yang S, et al. Delta-like 1 contributes to cell growth by increasing the interferon-inducible protein 16 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2010;30:703-14 pubmed publisher
    Delta-like 1 (DLK1), a fetal liver stem cell marker, is strongly expressed in human and rodent fetal liver, but not in adult liver. Notably, dysregulation of DLK1 was found in some human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)...
  18. Wallace C, Smyth D, Maisuria Armer M, Walker N, Todd J, Clayton D. The imprinted DLK1-MEG3 gene region on chromosome 14q32.2 alters susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2010;42:68-71 pubmed publisher
    ..79). This marker is in the imprinted region of chromosome 14q32.2, which contains the functional candidate gene DLK1. Our meta-analysis also provided support at genome-wide significance for a T1D locus at chromosome 19p13.2...
  19. Ferron S, Charalambous M, Radford E, McEwen K, Wildner H, Hind E, et al. Postnatal loss of Dlk1 imprinting in stem cells and niche astrocytes regulates neurogenesis. Nature. 2011;475:381-5 pubmed publisher
    The gene for the atypical NOTCH ligand delta-like homologue 1 (Dlk1) encodes membrane-bound and secreted isoforms that function in several developmental processes in vitro and in vivo...
  20. Tornehave D, Jensen C, Teisner B, Larsson L. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression. Histochem Cell Biol. 1996;106:535-42 pubmed
    b>Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats...
  21. Kawakami T, Chano T, Minami K, Okabe H, Okada Y, Okamoto K. Imprinted DLK1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene and inactivated by epimutation at the region upstream of GTL2 in human renal cell carcinoma. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:821-30 pubmed
    ..We report that imprinted DLK1 at 14q32, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, is a candidate TSG in RCCs...
  22. Jensen C, Krogh T, Højrup P, Clausen P, Skjødt K, Larsson L, et al. Protein structure of fetal antigen 1 (FA1). A novel circulating human epidermal-growth-factor-like protein expressed in neuroendocrine tumors and its relation to the gene products of dlk and pG2. Eur J Biochem. 1994;225:83-92 pubmed
    The present paper describes the primary structure, glycosylation and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 (FA1) isolated from second-trimester human amniotic fluid...
  23. Ceder J, Jansson L, Helczynski L, Abrahamsson P. Delta-like 1 (Dlk-1), a novel marker of prostate basal and candidate epithelial stem cells, is downregulated by notch signalling in intermediate/transit amplifying cells of the human prostate. Eur Urol. 2008;54:1344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..and activity of Notch-protein family members, including the Notch-homologous protein Delta-like 1 (Dlk-1/Pref1), were investigated immunohistochemically in normal/benign tissue and explant cultures...
  24. Liu Y, Tan J, Li L, Li S, Zou S, Zhang Y, et al. [Study on the molecular mechanisms of dlk1 stimulated lung cancer cell proliferation]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:923-7 pubmed publisher
    The imprinted gene dlk1 has been recognized as a cancer related gene since it aberrantly expressed in a series of cancer tissues, but its role in lung cancer is still unknown...
  25. Yang W, Yang C, Luo J, Wei Y, Wang W, Zhong Y. Adiponectin promotes preadipocyte differentiation via the PPAR? pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
  26. Chopra Dewasthaly R, Spergser J, Zimmermann M, Citti C, Jechlinger W, Rosengarten R. Vpma phase variation is important for survival and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the immunocompetent host. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006656 pubmed publisher
    ..like chimeras, deletions and duplications in the vpma loci that were previously unknown in type strain PG2. Another novel finding is the differential infection potential of Vpma variants, as local infection sites ..
  27. Jürimäe J, Tillmann V, Cicchella A, Stefanelli C, Võsoberg K, Tamm A, et al. Increased sclerostin and preadipocyte factor-1 levels in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts: associations with bone mineral density, body composition, and adipocytokine values. Osteoporos Int. 2016;27:1239-1243 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific physical activity pattern seen in prepubertal RG has a beneficial effect on bone mineralization despite increased levels of hormones that inhibit bone formation. ..
  28. Schneider G, Bowser M, Shin D, Barr F, Ratajczak M. The paternally imprinted DLK1-GTL2 locus is differentially methylated in embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Int J Oncol. 2014;44:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..As the DLK1-GTL2 locus is structurally similar to the IGF2-H19 locus, the status of parental imprinting of the DLK1-GTL2 locus ..
  29. Kavalkova P, Dostalova I, Haluzikova D, Trachta P, Hanusová V, Lacinova Z, et al. Preadipocyte factor-1 concentrations in patients with anorexia nervosa: the influence of partial realimentation. Physiol Res. 2012;61:153-9 pubmed
    ..05). We conclude that alterations in Pref-1 are not involved in the ethiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa but its changes after partial realimentation could be involved in the regulation of adipose tissue expansion after realimentation. ..
  30. Lee Y, Yun M, Kim H, Jeon B, Park B, Lee B, et al. Exogenous administration of DLK1 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and regulates gluconeogenesis via activation of AMPK. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), an imprinted gene that can modulate adipogenesis and muscle development in mice, was found as an inhibitory ..
  31. Wang X, Wan L, Weng X, Xie J, Zhang A, Liu Y, et al. Alteration in methylation level at differential methylated regions of MEST and DLK1 in fetus of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purposes of the current investigation were to clarify the changes in DNA methylation at MEST and DLK1 DMRs in fetus of preeclampsia and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the high risk of adult diseases in the ..
  32. Beygo J, Küchler A, Gillessen Kaesbach G, Albrecht B, Eckle J, Eggermann T, et al. New insights into the imprinted MEG8-DMR in 14q32 and clinical and molecular description of novel patients with Temple syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017;25:935-945 pubmed publisher
    The chromosomal region 14q32 contains several imprinted genes, which are expressed either from the paternal (DLK1 and RTL1) or the maternal (MEG3, RTL1as and MEG8) allele only...
  33. Larhammar M, Huntwork Rodriguez S, Jiang Z, Solanoy H, Sengupta Ghosh A, Wang B, et al. Dual leucine zipper kinase-dependent PERK activation contributes to neuronal degeneration following insult. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..is a component of the mouse MAP kinase neuronal stress response controlled by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase (DLK) and contributes to DLK-mediated neurodegeneration...
  34. Enfield K, Martinez V, Marshall E, Stewart G, Kung S, Enterina J, et al. Deregulation of small non-coding RNAs at the DLK1-DIO3 imprinted locus predicts lung cancer patient outcome. Oncotarget. 2016;7:80957-80966 pubmed publisher
    Deregulation of the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus at chromosome 14q32.1-14q32.31 has been associated with developmental and respiratory disorders, including cancer...
  35. Fenech M, Gavrilovic J, Turner J. Effect of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 on DLK1 shedding in cultured human pre-adipocytes and implications for adipose tissue remodelling. Lancet. 2015;385 Suppl 1:S35 pubmed publisher
    ..adipose tissue remodelling by regulating extracellular matrix turnover and shedding of the adipogenic regulator DLK1, but that in adipose tissue inflammation it might drive development of metabolically unhealthy obesity...
  36. Sutton V, Coveler K, Lalani S, Kashork C, Shaffer L. Subtelomeric FISH uncovers trisomy 14q32: lessons for imprinted regions, cryptic rearrangements and variant acrocentric short arms. Am J Med Genet. 2002;112:23-7 pubmed
    ..FISH analysis using two BAC clones that contain the imprinted genes MEG3 and DLK1, which localize to 14q32, established that our patient has two maternal copies of these genes...
  37. Saul M, Zhao C, Driessen T, Eisinger B, Gammie S. MicroRNA expression is altered in lateral septum across reproductive stages. Neuroscience. 2016;312:130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNAs (relative to virgin) were highly localized within the 12qF1 region of chromosome 12 that includes the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster implicated in stem cell and neuronal differentiation...
  38. Chen F, Zhou Y, Qi Y, Khivansara V, Li H, Chun S, et al. Context-dependent modulation of Pol II CTD phosphatase SSUP-72 regulates alternative polyadenylation in neuronal development. Genes Dev. 2015;29:2377-90 pubmed publisher
    ..polyadenylation site (PAS) in unc-44/ankyrin yet promotes termination at the weak intronic PAS of the MAP kinase dlk-1...
  39. Helman L, Sack N, Plon S, Israel M. The sequence of an adrenal specific human cDNA, pG2. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:685 pubmed
  40. Qi X, Chen Z, Liu D, Cen J, Gu M. Expression of Dlk1 gene in myelodysplastic syndrome determined by microarray, and its effects on leukemia cells. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:61-8 pubmed
    Delta-like-1 (Dlk1, also Pref-1), a transmembrane and secreted protein, is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family, homologous to Notch/Delta/Serrate...
  41. Katrincsakova B, Takeda H, Urbankova H, Michaux L, Jarosova M, Vandenberghe P, et al. Methylation analysis of the imprinted DLK1-GTL2 domain supports the random parental origin of the IGH-involving del(14q) in B-cell malignancies. Epigenetics. 2009;4:469-75 pubmed
    Leukemias/lymphomas with IGH-involving del(14q)(1) commonly lose the DLK1-GTL2 imprinted domain that comprises several paternally and maternally expressed genes, including a cluster of microRNAs...
  42. Azarbarzin S, Hosseinpour Feizi M, Safaralizadeh R, Ravanbakhsh R, Kazemzadeh M, Fateh A, et al. The Value of miR-299-5p in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma. Biochem Genet. 2016;54:413-420 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-299-5p is located in the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region in chromosome 14q32. Aberrant expression of miR-299-5p was determined in solid and blood cancers...
  43. Cai Y, Dai X, Zhang Q, Hu R, Dai Z. Gene expression profiling of somatic and pluripotent cells reveals novel pathways involved in reprogramming. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:12085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..with the expression levels that were significantly different between ES and iPS cells were found, including LEFTY2, DLK1, and NLRP2...
  44. Li L, Liu B, Wapinski O, Tsai M, Qu K, Zhang J, et al. Targeted disruption of Hotair leads to homeotic transformation and gene derepression. Cell Rep. 2013;5:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivation reveal an ongoing requirement of Hotair to repress HoxD genes and several imprinted loci such as Dlk1-Meg3 and Igf2-H19 without affecting imprinting choice...
  45. Hao Y, Frey E, Yoon C, Wong H, Nestorovski D, Holzman L, et al. An evolutionarily conserved mechanism for cAMP elicited axonal regeneration involves direct activation of the dual leucine zipper kinase DLK. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify the Dual Leucine-zipper Kinase (DLK, Wnd in Drosophila) as a critical target and effector of cAMP in injured axons...
  46. Oetjen E. Regulation of Beta-Cell Function and Mass by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2016;349:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) inhibits the action of two transcription factors within the beta-cell, thereby interfering with insulin secretion ..
  47. Hörl S, Ejaz A, Ernst S, Mattesich M, Kaiser A, Jenewein B, et al. CD146 (MCAM) in human cs-DLK1-/cs-CD34+ adipose stromal/progenitor cells. Stem Cell Res. 2017;22:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of human abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) according to cell surface (cs) expression of CD146, DLK1 and CD34...
  48. Arena R, Zacchini F, Toschi P, Palazzese L, Czernik M, Ptak G. Developmental peculiarities in placentae of ovine uniparental conceptuses. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188278 pubmed publisher
    ..qPCR analysis showed that imprinted genes (H19, IGF2R and DLK1) were expressed accordingly to their parental origin while the expression f DNA methyltransferases () was ..
  49. Franco F, Lopes M, Henriques F, Neves R, Bianchi Filho C, Batista M. Cancer cachexia differentially regulates visceral adipose tissue turnover. J Endocrinol. 2017;232:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..AT turnover was analysed according to the Pref1/Adiponectin ratio of gene expression from the stromal vascular fraction and pro-apoptotic CASPASE3 and CASPASE9 ..
  50. Langer F, Stickel J, Tessema M, Kreipe H, Lehmann U. Overexpression of delta-like (Dlk) in a subset of myelodysplastic syndrome bone marrow trephines. Leuk Res. 2004;28:1081-3 pubmed
    The mRNA expression level of the gene delta-like (Dlk), coding for a signal transducer related to the Delta-Notch family, was measured using real-time PCR methodology in a large series of control biopsies (n = 61) and bone marrow ..
  51. Kumamoto S, Takahashi N, Nomura K, Fujiwara M, Kijioka M, Uno Y, et al. Overexpression of microRNAs from the Gtl2-Rian locus contributes to postnatal death in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3653-3662 pubmed publisher
    The Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted domain functions in embryonic development but the roles of noncoding RNAs expressed from this domain remain unclear...
  52. Liang J, Huang W, Cai W, Wang L, Guo L, Paul C, et al. Inhibition of microRNA-495 Enhances Therapeutic Angiogenesis of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells. 2017;35:337-350 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-angiogenic miR-495 belonging to Dlk1-Dio3 miR cluster was identified through expression profiling and computational analysis...
  53. Sluch V, Chamling X, Liu M, Berlinicke C, Cheng J, Mitchell K, et al. Enhanced Stem Cell Differentiation and Immunopurification of Genome Engineered Human Retinal Ganglion Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017;6:1972-1986 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this system in combination with RNAi-based knockdown, we show that knockdown of dual leucine kinase (DLK) promotes survival of human RGCs, expanding to the human system prior reports that DLK inhibition is ..
  54. Jensen C, Meyer M, Schroder H, Kliem A, Zimmer J, Teisner B. Neurons in the monoaminergic nuclei of the rat and human central nervous system express FA1/dlk. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3959-63 pubmed
    ..to the action of an unknown protease, this type 1 membrane protein generates a soluble peptide referred to as Fetal antigen 1 (FA1)...
  55. Kameswaran V, Bramswig N, McKenna L, Penn M, Schug J, Hand N, et al. Epigenetic regulation of the DLK1-MEG3 microRNA cluster in human type 2 diabetic islets. Cell Metab. 2014;19:135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a role for microRNAs and their epigenetic control by DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of T2DM. ..
  56. Espina A, Méndez Vidal C, Moreno Mateos M, Saez C, Romero Franco A, Japon M, et al. Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified dlk1 (also known as pref-1) as one of the most abundantly expressed PTTG1 targets...
  57. Smas C, Chen L, Sul H. Cleavage of membrane-associated pref-1 generates a soluble inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:977-88 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we present evidence that alternate splicing is the mechanism that governs the production of transmembrane versus soluble pref-1, thereby determining the mode of action, juxtacrine or paracrine, of the pref-1 protein. ..
  58. Kagami M, Mizuno S, Matsubara K, Nakabayashi K, Sano S, Fuke T, et al. Epimutations of the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR at the 14q32.2 imprinted region in two patients with Silver-Russell Syndrome-compatible phenotype. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:1062-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyrosequencing identified hypomethylation of the DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the MEG3-DMR in two cases...
  59. Miyoshi N, Stel J, Shioda K, Qu N, Odahima J, Mitsunaga S, et al. Erasure of DNA methylation, genomic imprints, and epimutations in a primordial germ-cell model derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..PSCs harboring abnormal hypermethylation at ICRs of the Dlk1-Gtl2-Dio3 imprinting cluster diminished these 5meCs upon differentiation to PGCLCs, resulting in transcriptional ..
  60. Jørgensen L, Sellathurai J, Davis E, Thedchanamoorthy T, Al Bader R, Jensen C, et al. Delta-like 1 homolog (dlk1): a marker for rhabdomyosarcomas implicated in skeletal muscle regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60692 pubmed publisher
    b>Dlk1, a member of the Epidermal Growth Factor family, is expressed in multiple tissues during development, and has been detected in carcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors...
  61. Lee J, Kim H, Cho S, Kim K, Jin H, Ryu G, et al. Characterization of 458 single nucleotide polymorphisms of disease candidate genes in the Korean population. J Hum Genet. 2003;48:213-6 pubmed
  62. Xu W, Wang Y, Zhao H, Fan B, Guo K, Cai M, et al. Delta-like 2 Negatively Regulates Chondrogenic Differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Delta-like 2 (Dlk2), a glycoprotein highly homologous to Dlk1, belongs to the Notch/Delta/Serrata family...
  63. Chen M, Yang Y, Li Y, Li X, Zhang W, Wang J, et al. Shengfu Oil Enhances the Healing of Full-Thickness Scalded Skin Accompanying the Differential Regulation of ?-Catenin, Dlk1, and COX-2. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:801 pubmed publisher
    ..healing of rabbit full-thickness scalded skin by Shengfu oil and to elucidate its regulatory effects on ?-catenin, Dlk1, and COX-2...
  64. Caporossi A, Simi C, Licignano R, Traversi C, Balestrazzi A. Air-guided manual deep lamellar keratoplasty. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:55-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of a new modified technique of deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK).
  65. Crawley O, Giles A, Desbois M, Kashyap S, Birnbaum R, Grill B. A MIG-15/JNK-1 MAP kinase cascade opposes RPM-1 signaling in synapse formation and learning. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007095 pubmed publisher
    ..The C. elegans PHR protein, called RPM-1, acts as a ubiquitin ligase to inhibit the DLK-1 and MLK-1 MAP kinase pathways...
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    ..Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use. ..
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    Delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), a paternally imprinted gene with several alternative splicing isoforms, is an important regulator of fetal and postnatal development...
  68. Lottrup G, Nielsen J, Maroun L, Møller L, Yassin M, Leffers H, et al. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2014;29:1637-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of undifferentiated cells when compared with control samples, as demonstrated by increased delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) and decreased insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) expression...
  69. Csaszar E, Wang W, Usenko T, Qiao W, Delaney C, Bernstein I, et al. Blood stem cell fate regulation by Delta-1-mediated rewiring of IL-6 paracrine signaling. Blood. 2014;123:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work describes a new mode of cytokine action in which DL1 changes cytokine receptor distributions on hematopoietic cells, altering feedback networks and their impact on stem cell fate. ..
  70. Fazeli P, Bredella M, Freedman L, Thomas B, Breggia A, Meenaghan E, et al. Marrow fat and preadipocyte factor-1 levels decrease with recovery in women with anorexia nervosa. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1864-71 pubmed publisher
    ..004). Therefore, we have shown that MAT and Pref-1 levels decrease with recovery from AN. Our data suggest that Pref-1 may have differential effects in states of nutritional deprivation compared with nutritional sufficiency. ..
  71. Jensen C, Teisner B, Højrup P, Rasmussen H, Madsen O, Nielsen B, et al. Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:635-41 pubmed
    b>Fetal antigen 1 was purified from second trimester human amniotic fluid by immunospecific affinity chromatography followed by reversed-phase chromatography. Fetal antigen 1 is a single chain glycoprotein with a M(r) of 32-38 kDa...
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    ..These factors may be key to protecting this subgroup of obese individuals from the adverse metabolic profile associated with excess adiposity. ..
  73. Balagholi S, Alizadeh S, Bagheri A, Amizadeh Y, Rezaei Kanavi M. The effects of platelet gel on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2017;17:315-322 pubmed publisher
    ..cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells when treated with different concentrations of PG named PG1, PG2, and PG3. hRPE cells were isolated from donor eyes of two newborn children, within 24 hours after their death...
  74. Diaz M, Bassols J, Aragones G, Mazarico E, Lopez Bermejo A, Ibanez L. Decreased placental expression of pre-adipocyte factor-1 in children born small-for-gestational-age: association to early postnatal weight gain. Placenta. 2013;34:331-4 pubmed publisher
    ..59, P = 0.01; and r = -0.59, P = 0.01,respectively). Placental Pref-1 expression in SGA fetuses was decreased and associated with postnatal body weight, suggesting a role of Pref-1 in the regulation of postnatal development. ..
  75. Jensen C, Erb K, Westergaard L, Kliem A, Teisner B. Fetal antigen 1, an EGF multidomain protein in the sex hormone-producing cells of the gonads and the microenvironment of germ cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5:908-13 pubmed
    b>Fetal antigen 1 (FA1), an epidermal growth factor (EGF) multidomain glycoprotein, was investigated in the human reproductive system...
  76. Rice T, Chen L, Hofstetter W, Smithers B, Rusch V, Wijnhoven B, et al. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: pathologic staging data. Dis Esophagus. 2016;29:724-733 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancers were pT1 (24%), pT2 (15%), pT3 (50%), pN0 (52%), pM0 (93%), and pG2-G3 (78%); most involved distal esophagus (71%)...
  77. Dobrowolski S, Lyons Weiler J, Spridik K, Vockley J, Skvorak K, Biery A. DNA methylation in the pathophysiology of hyperphenylalaninemia in the PAH(enu2) mouse model of phenylketonuria. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;119:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..note, observed only in hyperphenylalaninemic animals, was hypomethylation of miRNA genes within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus on chromosome 12...
  78. Le Pichon C, Meilandt W, Domínguez S, Solanoy H, Lin H, Ngu H, et al. Loss of dual leucine zipper kinase signaling is protective in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is an essential regulator of the progressive neurodegeneration that occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ..