Gene Symbol: DEFA3
Description: defensin alpha 3
Alias: DEF3, HNP-3, HNP3, HP-3, HP3, neutrophil defensin 3, defensin 3, neutrophil-specific, defensin, alpha 3, neutrophil-specific, neutrophil peptide 3
Species: human
Products:     DEFA3

Top Publications

  1. Furci L, Sironi F, Tolazzi M, Vassena L, Lusso P. Alpha-defensins block the early steps of HIV-1 infection: interference with the binding of gp120 to CD4. Blood. 2007;109:2928-35 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that alpha-defensins specifically block the initial phase of the HIV infectious cycle and modulate the expression of CD4, a critical receptor in the physiology of T-cell activation. ..
  2. Folkvord J, McCarter M, Ryder J, Meditz A, Forster J, Connick E. alpha-Defensins 1, 2, and 3 are expressed by granulocytes in lymphoid tissues of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42:529-36 pubmed
    ..The role of alpha-defensins in controlling HIV-1 replication merits further investigation. ..
  3. Ballana E, Gonzalez J, Bosch N, Estivill X. Inter-population variability of DEFA3 gene absence: correlation with haplotype structure and population variability. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:14 pubmed
    ..1 is one of the better-characterized CNVs, in which high copy number variability affecting the DEFA1 and DEFA3 genes has been reported...
  4. Ganz T, Selsted M, Szklarek D, Harwig S, Daher K, Bainton D, et al. Defensins. Natural peptide antibiotics of human neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:1427-35 pubmed
    ..The defensin system may operate in conjunction with or independently from oxygen-dependent microbicidal processes to enable human neutrophils to inactivate and destroy potential pathogens. ..
  5. Aldred P, Hollox E, Armour J. Copy number polymorphism and expression level variation of the human alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2045-52 pubmed
    ..defined unexpectedly extensive copy number variation at the human anti-microbial alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3, encoding human neutrophil peptides HNP-1, HNP-2 and HNP-3...
  6. Selsted M, Harwig S, Ganz T, Schilling J, Lehrer R. Primary structures of three human neutrophil defensins. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:1436-9 pubmed
    ..That similarly structured antimicrobial peptides are present in both rabbit and human leukocytes supports their purported role as cidal agents in phagocyte-mediated host defense. ..
  7. Okazaki T, Ota Y, Yuki N, Hayashida A, Shoda A, Nishikawa M, et al. Plasma levels of alpha-defensins 1-3 are an indicator of neutrophil activation in pregnant and post-partum women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007;33:645-50 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that there is a positive association between defensin levels and neutrophil activation in pregnant and post-partum women. ..
  8. Ericksen B, Wu Z, Lu W, Lehrer R. Antibacterial activity and specificity of the six human {alpha}-defensins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:269-75 pubmed
    ..aureus were HNP2 > HNP1 > HNP3 > HNP4. In contrast, their relative potencies against E. coli and E...
  9. Milanese M, Segat L, Arraes L, Garzino Demo A, Crovella S. Copy number variation of defensin genes and HIV infection in Brazilian children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50:331-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the copy number of one of these genes, DEFB104, was significantly lower in HIV-positive subjects than in HIV-exposed uninfected children, suggesting DEFB104 as a candidate HIV-protective gene. ..

More Information


  1. Mars W, Patmasiriwat P, Maity T, Huff V, Weil M, Saunders G. Inheritance of unequal numbers of the genes encoding the human neutrophil defensins HP-1 and HP-3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30371-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that individuals can inherit versions of chromosome 8 harboring either two or three copies of the genes that encode the HP-1, HP-2, and/or HP-3 peptides. ..
  2. Yang D, Chen Q, Chertov O, Oppenheim J. Human neutrophil defensins selectively chemoattract naive T and immature dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:9-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to their antimicrobial role, human neutrophil defensins also contribute to adaptive immunity by mobilizing T cells and dendritic cells. ..
  3. Winter J, Pantelis A, Allam J, Novak N, Reich R, Martini M, et al. High ?-defensin and S100A7 expression and missing DOC-1 down-regulation characterize irritation fibromas of the oral cavity and may counteract malignant transformation. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of S100A7, but missing down-regulation of the tumor-suppressor gene DOC-1, might exert protective effects and counteract malignant transformation of benign, proliferating lesions of the oral cavity. ..
  4. Cai A, Qi S, Su Z, Shen H, Yang Y, He L, et al. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis by iTRAQ. Clin Transl Sci. 2015;8:579-83 pubmed publisher the biological process of cell killing, including up-regulated cathepsin G (CTSG), neutrophil defensin3 (DEFA3), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C (PTPRC), and down-regulated peroxiredoxin-1(PRDX1),which were ..
  5. Marteau J, Samara A, Dedoussis G, Pfister M, Visvikis Siest S. Candidate gene microarray analysis in peripheral blood cells for studying hypertension/obesity. Per Med. 2009;6:269-291 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes were ALOX5, APOA2, SELL, RGS2, CD14, FPR1, CAMP, DEFA3, DEFA4, CBS, CHRM1, ICAM1, NR1H2, SCNN1B and TGFB1...
  6. Rasmussen S, Bilgrau A, Schmitz A, Falgreen S, Bergkvist K, Tramm A, et al. Stable Phenotype Of B-Cell Subsets Following Cryopreservation and Thawing of Normal Human Lymphocytes Stored in a Tissue Biobank. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2014;: pubmed publisher
    ..only 16 out of 18708 genes were significantly up or down regulated, including FOSB, KLF4, RBP7, ANXA1 or CLC, DEFA3, respectively...
  7. Khanafer N, Barbut F, Eckert C, Perraud M, Demont C, Luxemburger C, et al. Factors predictive of severe Clostridium difficile infection depend on the definition used. Anaerobe. 2016;37:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the 2010 SHEA/IDSA guidelines (Def1), the 2014 ESCMID guidelines (Def2), complicated CDI at the end of diarrhea (Def3), and our hospital-specific guidelines (white blood cell (WBC) count ≥15 × 10(9)/L, serum ..
  8. Tonk M, Knorr E, Cabezas Cruz A, Valdés J, Kollewe C, Vilcinskas A. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;132:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens...
  9. de Araújo C, Lima A, Jansen A, Galvão C, Jurberg J, Costa J, et al. Genes encoding defensins of important Chagas disease vectors used for phylogenetic studies. Parasitol Res. 2015;114:4503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the dendrogram based on defensin encoding nucleotide, sequences the Triatoma Def3/4 genes were separated from the rest...
  10. Aubert P, Suárez Fariñas M, Mitsui H, Johnson Huang L, Harden J, Pierson K, et al. Homeostatic tissue responses in skin biopsies from NOMID patients with constitutive overproduction of IL-1β. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49408 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the upregulated genes IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-17A, CCL20, and the neutrophil defensins DEFA1 and DEFA3 were differentially regulated in LS tissues (compared to normal skin)...
  11. Winter J, Kraus D, Reckenbeil J, Probstmeier R. Oncogenic relevant defensins: expression pattern and proliferation characteristics of human tumor cell lines. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:7959-66 pubmed publisher member of the defensin family was expressed in each tumor cell line, whereby α-defensin (DEFA1), DEFA2, or DEFA3 transcripts could be ubiquitously detected...
  12. Ishizu A, Tomaru U, Masuda S, Sada K, Amano K, Harigai M, et al. Prediction of response to remission induction therapy by gene expression profiling of peripheral blood in Japanese patients with microscopic polyangiitis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:117 pubmed publisher
    ..nominated 16 genes (IRF7, IFIT1, IFIT5, OASL, CLC, GBP-1, PSMB9, HERC5, CCR1, CD36, MS4A4A, BIRC4BP, PLSCR1, DEFA1/DEFA3, DEFA4, and COL9A2) as predictors of response to remission induction therapy against MPA...
  13. Zhu L, Liu C, Chen P, Dai A, Li C, Xiao K, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is associated with low plasma concentrations of human neutrophil peptides 1-3. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:369-74 pubmed
    ..The concentration of HNP1-3 was negatively correlated with the duration of M. tuberculosis in sputum, while it was positively correlated with neutrophils. MDR-TB is associated with low plasma concentrations of HNP1-3. ..
  14. Paslakis G, Keuneke C, Groene H, Schroppel B, Schmid H, Schloendorff D. The putative role of human peritoneal adipocytes in the fight against bacteria: synthesis of the antimicrobial active peptide DEFA1-3. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2010;115:e96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..As defensins are natural antimicrobial peptides, we hypothesized that adipocytes as the major constituents of the omentum could play an important role in protecting against infection by generating defensin (DEFA1-3)...
  15. Valore E, Ganz T. Posttranslational processing of defensins in immature human myeloid cells. Blood. 1992;79:1538-44 pubmed
    ..Further studies will be required to determine the role of this processing pathway in subcellular targeting to azurophil granules and avoidance of autocytotoxicity. ..
  16. Saraheimo M, Forsblom C, Pettersson Fernholm K, Flyvbjerg A, Groop P, Frystyk J. Increased levels of alpha-defensin (-1, -2 and -3) in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:914-8 pubmed
    ..001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.001), but not with low-grade inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS; Serum alpha-defensin (-1, -2 and -3) concentrations are increased in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. ..
  17. Mothes H, Melle C, Ernst G, Kaufmann R, von Eggeling F, Settmacher U. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3--early markers in development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Dis Markers. 2008;25:123-9 pubmed
    ..However, the amount of HNP-expression was not found to be related to tumour stage, grading, and serological tumour markers. ..
  18. Hill C, Yee J, Selsted M, Eisenberg D. Crystal structure of defensin HNP-3, an amphiphilic dimer: mechanisms of membrane permeabilization. Science. 1991;251:1481-5 pubmed
    ..19) reveals a dimeric beta sheet that has an architecture very different from other lytic peptides. The dimeric assembly suggests mechanisms by which defensins might bind to and permeabilize the lipid bilayer. ..
  19. Linzmeier R, Michaelson D, Liu L, Ganz T. The structure of neutrophil defensin genes. FEBS Lett. 1993;326:299-300 pubmed
  20. Paulsen F, Pufe T, Conradi L, Varoga D, Tsokos M, Papendieck J, et al. Antimicrobial peptides are expressed and produced in healthy and inflamed human synovial membranes. J Pathol. 2002;198:369-77 pubmed
    ..However, caution is appropriate since defensins also promote fibrin formation and cell proliferation - key elements in joint infection. Clarification of the role of antimicrobial peptides in OA and RA will require further investigation. ..
  21. Gunes M, Gecit I, Pirincci N, Kemik A, Purisa S, Ceylan K, et al. Plasma human neutrophil proteins-1, -2, and -3 levels in patients with bladder cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013;139:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that HNPs 1-3 promote tumor invasion and are potential indicators of disease progression in patients with bladder cancer. ..
  22. Mumcu G, Cimilli H, Karacayli U, Inanc N, Türe Ozdemir F, Eksioglu Demiralp E, et al. Salivary levels of HNP 1-3 are related to oral ulcer activity in Behçet's disease. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52:1198-201 pubmed publisher
    ..000). A decrease in salivary HNP 1-3 levels might be a biological factor for predisposition to oral ulcers in patients with BD and oral infection in healthy patients. ..
  23. Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Edwin S, Rathnasabapathy C, Gomez R, et al. Antimicrobial peptides in amniotic fluid: defensins, calprotectin and bacterial/permeability-increasing protein in patients with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, intra-amniotic inflammation, preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003;13:2-21 pubmed
  24. Chen Q, Hakimi M, Wu S, Jin Y, Cheng B, Wang H, et al. Increased genomic copy number of DEFA1/DEFA3 is associated with susceptibility to severe sepsis in Chinese Han population. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:1428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes encoding human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (DEFA1/DEFA3) exhibit copy number variations...
  25. Rodríguez García M, Climent N, Oliva H, Casanova V, Franco R, Leon A, et al. Increased alpha-defensins 1-3 production by dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals is associated with slower disease progression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9436 pubmed publisher
  26. Turkoglu O, Emingil G, Kutukculer N, Atilla G. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptide 1-3 levels of patients with different periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2010;81:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptides 1 through 3 (HNP1-3) in patients with different periodontal diseases...
  27. Droin N, Jacquel A, Hendra J, Racoeur C, Truntzer C, Pecqueur D, et al. Alpha-defensins secreted by dysplastic granulocytes inhibit the differentiation of monocytes in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood. 2010;115:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these observations suggest that a population of immature dysplastic granulocytes contributes to the CMML phenotype through production of alpha-defensins HNP1-3 that suppress the differentiation capabilities of monocytes. ..
  28. Xu J, Holzman C, ARVIDSON C, Chung H, Goepfert A. Midpregnancy vaginal fluid defensins, bacterial vaginosis, and risk of preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, elevated human neutrophil peptide 1-3 levels may be a marker for particular high-risk vaginal milieus that are not distinguished by the current bacterial vaginosis Nugent scoring system. ..
  29. Ai Z, Li M, Liu W, Foo J, Mansouri O, Yin P, et al. Low ?-defensin gene copy number increases the risk for IgA nephropathy and renal dysfunction. Sci Transl Med. 2016;8:345ra88 pubmed publisher
    ..99 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR), 0.88], DEFA3 (P = 6.55 × 10(-5); OR, 0.82), and a noncoding deletion variant (211bp) (P = 3.50 × 10(-16); OR, 0...
  30. Wu Z, Cocchi F, Gentles D, Ericksen B, Lubkowski J, Devico A, et al. Human neutrophil alpha-defensin 4 inhibits HIV-1 infection in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:162-6 pubmed
    ..Our finding identifies an anti-HIV-1 property of HNP4 and may have implications in the development of new antiviral agents for AIDS therapy. ..
  31. Daher K, Lehrer R, Ganz T, Kronenberg M. Isolation and characterization of human defensin cDNA clones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7327-31 pubmed
    ..These results define important aspects of the mechanism of synthesis and the tissue-specific expression of a major group of neutrophil granule proteins. ..
  32. Piccoli M, D Angelo E, Crotti S, Sensi F, Urbani L, Maghin E, et al. Decellularized colorectal cancer matrix as bioactive microenvironment for in vitro 3D cancer research. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..a decreased angiogenic potential in decellularized CRC compared with healthy tissue, caused by direct effect of DEFA3. We demonstrated that following a 5 days of recellularization with HT-29 cell line, the 3D tumor matrices induced ..
  33. Ballana E, Mercader J, Fischel Ghodsian N, Estivill X. MRPS18CP2 alleles and DEFA3 absence as putative chromosome 8p23.1 modifiers of hearing loss due to mtDNA mutation A1555G in the 12S rRNA gene. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:81 pubmed
    ..1 region (DEFA3 gene absence, CLDN23 gene and MRPS18CP2 pseudogene) in a group of 213 A1555G carriers...
  34. Furuta Y, Oridate N, Takeichi N, Fukuda S, Sawa H. Alpha-defensin overexpression in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012;121:419-25 pubmed
  35. Cheng C, Chang J, Chen L, Ho A, Huang K, Lee S, et al. Human neutrophil peptides 1-3 as gastric cancer tissue markers measured by MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry: implications for infiltrated neutrophils as a tumor target. Dis Markers. 2012;32:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding capacity of HNPs-1 with GC cells implies that tracking molecules conjugated with HNPs-1 could be applied as a specific probe for GC diagnoses. ..
  36. Escribese M, Rodríguez García M, Sperling R, Engel S, Gallart T, Moran T. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:118 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells. ..
  37. Selsted M, Harwig S. Determination of the disulfide array in the human defensin HNP-2. A covalently cyclized peptide. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:4003-7 pubmed
    ..Further, the covalent structure of HNP-2 was found to be cyclic as one disulfide links the amino- and carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. HNP-2 is the only polypeptide known to possess such a configuration. ..
  38. Tollin M, Bergman P, Svenberg T, Jornvall H, Gudmundsson G, Agerberth B. Antimicrobial peptides in the first line defence of human colon mucosa. Peptides. 2003;24:523-30 pubmed
    ..Combined, these results indicate that the colon mucosa is protected by a complex mixture of polypeptides, able to kill invading microbes and working in synergy as a barrier against bacterial invasion. ..
  39. Pillai V, Bao J, Zander C, McDaniel J, Chetty P, Seeholzer S, et al. Human neutrophil peptides inhibit cleavage of von Willebrand factor by ADAMTS13: a potential link of inflammation to TTP. Blood. 2016;128:110-9 pubmed publisher tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) reveals statistically significant increases of HNP1, HNP2, and HNP3 in patient samples (all P values <.001)...
  40. Lundqvist K, Sørensen O, Schmidtchen A. Increased levels of human neutrophil alpha-defensins in chronic venous leg ulcers. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;51:131-4 pubmed publisher
  41. Aarbiou J, Verhoosel R, van Wetering S, de Boer W, van Krieken J, Litvinov S, et al. Neutrophil defensins enhance lung epithelial wound closure and mucin gene expression in vitro. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:193-201 pubmed
    ..Neutrophil defensin-enhanced wound repair appears to require epidermal growth factor receptor activation and downstream signaling pathways. ..
  42. Maneerat Y, Prasongsukarn K, Benjathummarak S, Dechkhajorn W. PPBP and DEFA1/DEFA3 genes in hyperlipidaemia as feasible synergistic inflammatory biomarkers for coronary heart disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:80 pubmed publisher
    ..defensin (DEFA1/DEFA3), pro-platelet basic protein (PPBP), and beta and alpha2 hemoglobin mRNA expression was significantly increased in ..
  43. Froy O, Sthoeger Z. Defensins in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given their immunomodulatory role, alpha-defensin secretion might activate the adaptive immune system leading to the stimulation of the immune system, as is manifested in SLE. ..
  44. Konishi K, Gibson K, Lindell K, Richards T, Zhang Y, Dhir R, et al. Gene expression profiles of acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant increase in alpha-defensins in the peripheral blood and lungs may suggest their use as biomarkers for this disorder. ..
  45. Bokarewa M, Jin T, Tarkowski A. Intraarticular release and accumulation of defensins and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:1719-24 pubmed
    ..Significant correlation between joint erosion and local occurrence of BPI and HNP suggests participation of these molecules in regulation of the destructive course of RA. ..
  46. Wiedemann L, Francis G, Lamb R, Burns J, Winnie J, MacKenzie E, et al. Differentiation stage-specific expression of a gene during granulopoiesis. Leukemia. 1989;3:227-34 pubmed
    ..Our results explain why high levels of pCG14 RNA are characteristic of chronic granulocytic leukemia peripheral blood leukocytes. ..
  47. Qi Y, Zhou X, Cheng F, Zhang H. Elevated Plasma ?-Defensins (HNP1-3) Levels Correlated with IgA1 Glycosylation and Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy. Dis Markers. 2016;2016:8123138 pubmed publisher
    ..The data implied that patients with IgAN had higher plasma ?-defensins levels and high ?-defensins correlated with IgA galactose deficiency, further suggesting a pathogenic role of ?-defensins in IgAN. ..
  48. Date Y, Nakazato M, Shiomi K, Toshimori H, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, et al. Localization of human neutrophil peptide (HNP) and its messenger RNA in neutrophil series. Ann Hematol. 1994;69:73-7 pubmed
    ..HNPs 1-3 are restricted to cells of neutrophil lineage and seem to function as microbicidal agents in the neutrophil-mediated defense system. ..
  49. Milewski Ł, Dziunycz P, Barcz E, Radomski D, Roszkowski P, Korczak Kowalska G, et al. Increased levels of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2, and 3 in peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis: association with neutrophils, T cells and IL-8. J Reprod Immunol. 2011;91:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that HNP 1-3 and neutrophils might play a role in immunopathogenesis of endometriosis and may be worth evaluating as targets for anti-endometriosis therapy. ..
  50. Lehrer R, Lichtenstein A, Ganz T. Defensins: antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides of mammalian cells. Annu Rev Immunol. 1993;11:105-28 pubmed
    ..Defensins are a newly delineated family of effector molecules whose contribution to host defense, inflammation, and cytotoxicity may be considerable for humans, even though it is unlikely to be revealed by experimentation with mice. ..
  51. Li Y, Lin C, Shi D, Zeng S, Li W. Upregulated expression of human alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 in hypercholesteremia and its relationship with serum lipid levels. Hum Immunol. 2014;75:1104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the expression of alpha-defensins 1, 2 and 3 genes is involved in dyslipidemia in patients with hypercholesteremia. ..
  52. Linzmeier R, Michaelson D, Liu L, Ganz T. The structure of neutrophil defensin genes. FEBS Lett. 1993;321:267-73 pubmed
    ..The diverse genomic organization of defensin genes may contribute to their cell-specific expression. ..
  53. Németh B, Varkonyi T, Somogyvari F, Lengyel C, Fehértemplomi K, Nyiraty S, et al. Relevance of ?-defensins (HNP1-3) and defensin ?-1 in diabetes. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:9128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between DEFA1/DEFA3 gene copy number polymorphism and diabetes as well as between the promoter polymorphisms of DEFB1 and diabetes ..
  54. Winter J, Pantelis A, Kraus D, Reckenbeil J, Reich R, Jepsen S, et al. Human ?-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:465 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin's tumour. ..
  55. Wallace A, He J, Burkett K, Ruan J, Connett J, Anthonisen N, et al. Contribution of alpha- and beta-defensins to lung function decline and infection in smokers: an association study. Respir Res. 2006;7:76 pubmed
  56. Morel E, Alvarez L, Cabanas R, Fiandor A, Diaz R, Escamochero S, et al. Expression of ?-defensin 1-3 in T cells from severe cutaneous drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Allergy. 2011;66:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of innate immune molecules such as ?-defensins 1-3 in T cells from patients with SJS/TEN may be involved in the etiopathology of these life-threatening diseases induced by medications. ..
  57. Davison G, Allgrove J, Gleeson M. Salivary antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and alpha-defensins HNP1-3), antimicrobial and IgA responses to prolonged exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;106:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is required to determine the significance of such changes on the overall 'defence' capacity of saliva and how this influences the overall risk for infection. ..
  58. Joly S, Maze C, McCray P, Guthmiller J. Human beta-defensins 2 and 3 demonstrate strain-selective activity against oral microorganisms. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1024-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the significant variability between strains underlies the importance of testing multiple strains when evaluating activities of antimicrobial peptides. ..
  59. Beiter K, Wartha F, Hurwitz R, Normark S, Zychlinsky A, Henriques Normark B. The capsule sensitizes Streptococcus pneumoniae to alpha-defensins human neutrophil proteins 1 to 3. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3710-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, alpha-defensins in the phagolysosome of neutrophils possibly contribute to intracellular killing after antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis of encapsulated pneumococci. ..
  60. Giesemann T, Guttenberg G, Aktories K. Human alpha-defensins inhibit Clostridium difficile toxin B. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:2049-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that toxin B interacts with high affinity with alpha-defensins and suggest that defensins may provide a defense mechanism against some types of clostridial glucosylating cytotoxins. ..
  61. Chavakis T, Cines D, Rhee J, Liang O, Schubert U, Hammes H, et al. Regulation of neovascularization by human neutrophil peptides (alpha-defensins): a link between inflammation and angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2004;18:1306-8 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insight into the role of inflammatory cells in angiogenesis and might provide a platform for developing a novel class of anti-angiogenesis drugs. ..
  62. Zou H, Harrington J, Sugumar A, Klatt K, Smyrk T, Ahlquist D. Detection of colorectal disease by stool defensin assay: an exploratory study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:865-8 pubmed
    ..Alpha-defensins 1-3 levels are nonspecifically elevated in stools from patients with colorectal neoplasia and likely originate from white blood cells. Alpha-defensins 1-3 in stool might serve as markers of inflammatory bowel conditions. ..