Gene Symbol: DEFA1
Description: defensin alpha 1
Alias: DEF1, DEFA2, HNP-1, HP-1, HP1, MRS, neutrophil defensin 1, defensin, alpha 1, myeloid-related sequence, defensin, alpha 2, myeloid-related sequence
Species: human
Products:     DEFA1

Top Publications

  1. Hill C, Yee J, Selsted M, Eisenberg D. Crystal structure of defensin HNP-3, an amphiphilic dimer: mechanisms of membrane permeabilization. Science. 1991;251:1481-5 pubmed
    ..19) reveals a dimeric beta sheet that has an architecture very different from other lytic peptides. The dimeric assembly suggests mechanisms by which defensins might bind to and permeabilize the lipid bilayer. ..
  2. Ganz T, Selsted M, Szklarek D, Harwig S, Daher K, Bainton D, et al. Defensins. Natural peptide antibiotics of human neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:1427-35 pubmed
    ..quot; HNP 1-3, a mixture of the three defensins, killed Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli ..
  3. Mars W, Patmasiriwat P, Maity T, Huff V, Weil M, Saunders G. Inheritance of unequal numbers of the genes encoding the human neutrophil defensins HP-1 and HP-3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30371-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that individuals can inherit versions of chromosome 8 harboring either two or three copies of the genes that encode the HP-1, HP-2, and/or HP-3 peptides. ..
  4. Yang D, Chen Q, Chertov O, Oppenheim J. Human neutrophil defensins selectively chemoattract naive T and immature dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:9-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to their antimicrobial role, human neutrophil defensins also contribute to adaptive immunity by mobilizing T cells and dendritic cells. ..
  5. Chang T, Francois F, Mosoian A, Klotman M. CAF-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 transcriptional inhibition is distinct from alpha-defensin-1 HIV inhibition. J Virol. 2003;77:6777-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that alpha-defensin-1 inhibits HIV-1 infection following viral entry but that alpha-defensins 1 to 3 are not responsible for the HIV-1 transcriptional inhibition by CAF. ..
  6. Ericksen B, Wu Z, Lu W, Lehrer R. Antibacterial activity and specificity of the six human {alpha}-defensins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:269-75 pubmed
    ..Its use has clarified the relative potencies of human alpha-defensins and raised intriguing questions about the in vivo function(s) of HD6. ..
  7. Wu Z, Cocchi F, Gentles D, Ericksen B, Lubkowski J, Devico A, et al. Human neutrophil alpha-defensin 4 inhibits HIV-1 infection in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:162-6 pubmed
    ..Our finding identifies an anti-HIV-1 property of HNP4 and may have implications in the development of new antiviral agents for AIDS therapy. ..
  8. Aldred P, Hollox E, Armour J. Copy number polymorphism and expression level variation of the human alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2045-52 pubmed
    We have defined unexpectedly extensive copy number variation at the human anti-microbial alpha-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3, encoding human neutrophil peptides HNP-1, HNP-2 and HNP-3...
  9. Furci L, Sironi F, Tolazzi M, Vassena L, Lusso P. Alpha-defensins block the early steps of HIV-1 infection: interference with the binding of gp120 to CD4. Blood. 2007;109:2928-35 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that alpha-defensins specifically block the initial phase of the HIV infectious cycle and modulate the expression of CD4, a critical receptor in the physiology of T-cell activation. ..

More Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang Y, Doherty T, Li J, Lu W, Barinka C, Lubkowski J, et al. Resonance assignment and three-dimensional structure determination of a human alpha-defensin, HNP-1, by solid-state NMR. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:408-22 pubmed publisher
  2. Winter J, Pantelis A, Allam J, Novak N, Reich R, Martini M, et al. High ?-defensin and S100A7 expression and missing DOC-1 down-regulation characterize irritation fibromas of the oral cavity and may counteract malignant transformation. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of S100A7, but missing down-regulation of the tumor-suppressor gene DOC-1, might exert protective effects and counteract malignant transformation of benign, proliferating lesions of the oral cavity. ..
  3. Zhao L, Ericksen B, Wu X, Zhan C, Yuan W, Li X, et al. Invariant gly residue is important for α-defensin folding, dimerization, and function: a case study of the human neutrophil α-defensin HNP1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18900-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further elucidate the factors governing the region of the β-bulge structure that includes Gly(17), illuminating why glycine is conserved in all mammalian α-defensins. ..
  4. Demirkhanyan L, Marin M, Padilla Parra S, Zhan C, Miyauchi K, Jean Baptiste M, et al. Multifaceted mechanisms of HIV-1 entry inhibition by human ?-defensin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28821-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of HNP-1 to block HIV-1 uptake without interfering with constitutive endocytosis suggests a novel mechanism for broad activity against this and other viruses that enter cells through endocytic pathways. ..
  5. Zhang X, Selsted M, Pardi A. NMR studies of defensin antimicrobial peptides. 1. Resonance assignment and secondary structure determination of rabbit NP-2 and human HNP-1. Biochemistry. 1992;31:11348-56 pubmed
  6. Selsted M, Harwig S, Ganz T, Schilling J, Lehrer R. Primary structures of three human neutrophil defensins. J Clin Invest. 1985;76:1436-9 pubmed
    ..That similarly structured antimicrobial peptides are present in both rabbit and human leukocytes supports their purported role as cidal agents in phagocyte-mediated host defense. ..
  7. Panyutich A, Hiemstra P, van Wetering S, Ganz T. Human neutrophil defensin and serpins form complexes and inactivate each other. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995;12:351-7 pubmed
    ..Complex interactions between serpins and defensin may have a role in regulating inflammatory processes. ..
  8. Fang X, Shu Q, Chen Q, Book M, Sahl H, Hoeft A, et al. Differential expression of alpha- and beta-defensins in human peripheral blood. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33:82-7 pubmed
    ..The inducible expression of beta-defensin-1 and -2 genes showed interindividual variability. ..
  9. Chang T, Vargas J, DelPortillo A, Klotman M. Dual role of alpha-defensin-1 in anti-HIV-1 innate immunity. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:765-73 pubmed
    ..Studying the complex function of alpha-defensin-1 in innate immunity against HIV has implications for prevention as well as therapeutics. ..
  10. Kim C, Gajendran N, Mittrücker H, Weiwad M, Song Y, Hurwitz R, et al. Human alpha-defensins neutralize anthrax lethal toxin and protect against its fatal consequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4830-5 pubmed
    ..HNP-1 rescued murine macrophages from B. anthracis-induced cytotoxicity, and in vivo treatment with HNP-1-3 protected mice against the fatal consequences of LeTx. ..
  11. Folkvord J, McCarter M, Ryder J, Meditz A, Forster J, Connick E. alpha-Defensins 1, 2, and 3 are expressed by granulocytes in lymphoid tissues of HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42:529-36 pubmed
    ..The role of alpha-defensins in controlling HIV-1 replication merits further investigation. ..
  12. Szyk A, Wu Z, Tucker K, Yang D, Lu W, Lubkowski J. Crystal structures of human alpha-defensins HNP4, HD5, and HD6. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2749-60 pubmed
    ..The strongest cationic properties and unique distribution of charged residues on the molecular surface of HD5 may be associated with its highest bactericidal activity among human alpha-defensins. ..
  13. Wei G, de Leeuw E, Pazgier M, Yuan W, Zou G, Wang J, et al. Through the looking glass, mechanistic insights from enantiomeric human defensins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and (b) that chiral molecular recognition is not a stringent prerequisite for other functions of these defensins, including their ability to inhibit lethal factor and bind gp120 of HIV-1. ..
  14. de Leeuw E, Li C, Zeng P, Li C, Diepeveen de Buin M, Lu W, et al. Functional interaction of human neutrophil peptide-1 with the cell wall precursor lipid II. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between defensins and lipid II suggests the inhibition of cell wall synthesis as a novel antibacterial mechanism of this important class of host defense peptides. ..
  15. Pazgier M, Wei G, Ericksen B, Jung G, Wu Z, de Leeuw E, et al. Sometimes it takes two to tango: contributions of dimerization to functions of human α-defensin HNP1 peptide. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that dimerization contributes to some but not all of the many and varied activities of HNP1. ..
  16. Lehrer R, Jung G, Ruchala P, Wang W, Micewicz E, Waring A, et al. Human alpha-defensins inhibit hemolysis mediated by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4028-40 pubmed publisher
    ..An "ABCDE mechanism" that can account for the ability of HNP-1 to HNP-3 to inhibit so many different exotoxins is proposed. ..
  17. Blower R, Barksdale S, van Hoek M. Snake Cathelicidin NA-CATH and Smaller Helical Antimicrobial Peptides Are Effective against Burkholderia thailandensis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0003862 pubmed publisher
    ..thailandensis. ..
  18. Hazrati E, Galen B, Lu W, Wang W, Ouyang Y, Keller M, et al. Human alpha- and beta-defensins block multiple steps in herpes simplex virus infection. J Immunol. 2006;177:8658-66 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that HDs act at multiple steps in the HSV life cycle and support the development of defensins or defensin-like peptides as microbicides. ..
  19. Hu X, Deng J, Yu T, Chen S, Ge Y, Zhou Z, et al. ATF4 Deficiency Promotes Intestinal Inflammation in Mice by Reducing Uptake of Glutamine and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides. Gastroenterology. 2019;156:1098-1111 pubmed publisher
    ..Some mice were given injections of recombinant defensin α1 (DEFA1) and supplementation of l-alanyl-glutamine or glutamine in drinking water...
  20. Tonk M, Knorr E, Cabezas Cruz A, Valdés J, Kollewe C, Vilcinskas A. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;132:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens...
  21. Mrabet S, Ellouze F, Ellini S, Mrad M. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia]. Encephale. 2015;41:550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders...
  22. Silva M, Cau S, Lopes R, Manzato C, Neves K, Bruder Nascimento T, et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents vascular remodelling in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:533-45 pubmed publisher
    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), which are activated by mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, actively participate in mechanisms that affect the structure and function of blood vessels...
  23. Aubert P, Suárez Fariñas M, Mitsui H, Johnson Huang L, Harden J, Pierson K, et al. Homeostatic tissue responses in skin biopsies from NOMID patients with constitutive overproduction of IL-1β. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49408 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the upregulated genes IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-17A, CCL20, and the neutrophil defensins DEFA1 and DEFA3 were differentially regulated in LS tissues (compared to normal skin)...
  24. Foer D, Zhu M, Cardone R, Simpson C, Sullivan R, Nemiroff S, et al. Impact of gain-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28:2011-2017 pubmed publisher
    ..were similar in the affected individuals and controls when quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, the mean value for serum LDL was significantly lower (p = 0.04) in affected individuals...
  25. Khanafer N, Barbut F, Eckert C, Perraud M, Demont C, Luxemburger C, et al. Factors predictive of severe Clostridium difficile infection depend on the definition used. Anaerobe. 2016;37:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..with severe CDI defined according to four different severity definitions (Def): the 2010 SHEA/IDSA guidelines (Def1), the 2014 ESCMID guidelines (Def2), complicated CDI at the end of diarrhea (Def3), and our hospital-specific ..
  26. Ferreira C, Silber M, Chang T, Murnick J, Kirmse B. Cerebral Lipid Accumulation Detected by MRS in a Child with Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 Deficiency: A Case Report and Review of the Literature on Genetic Etiologies of Lipid Peaks on MRS. JIMD Rep. 2016;28:69-74 pubmed
  27. Graham C, Lewis S, Forbes J, Mead G, Hackett M, Hankey G, et al. The FOCUS, AFFINITY and EFFECTS trials studying the effect(s) of fluoxetine in patients with a recent stroke: statistical and health economic analysis plan for the trials and for the individual patient data meta-analysis. Trials. 2017;18:627 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary outcome measure is the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at six months...
  28. Rodríguez García M, Climent N, Oliva H, Casanova V, Franco R, Leon A, et al. Increased alpha-defensins 1-3 production by dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals is associated with slower disease progression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9436 pubmed publisher
  29. Pinheiro Lima Aires Gomes G, Custódia Silva E Souza A, Netto de Oliveira Leão Vasconcelos L, de Melo Costa D, Bisinoto Alves S, Carneiro Cunha Neves H, et al. Manual resuscitators in successive use in the same patient: reservoir of multi- and extensively resistant bacteria. J Hosp Infect. 2017;95:87-90 pubmed publisher
    To determine the bacterial load on manual resuscitators (MRs), swab samples of MR connectors from a Brazilian intensive care unit were collected at time zero, and after 24 and 48h use in the same patient...
  30. Sturiale C, La Rocca G, Puca A, Fernandez E, Visocchi M, Marchese E, et al. Minipterional Craniotomy for Treatment of Unruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms. A Single-Center Comparative Analysis with Standard Pterional Approach as Regard to Safety and Efficacy of Aneurysm Clipping and the Advantages of Reconstruction. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2017;124:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS), there were no significant differences in clinical outcome at discharge or follow-up between the two groups...
  31. Chavakis T, Cines D, Rhee J, Liang O, Schubert U, Hammes H, et al. Regulation of neovascularization by human neutrophil peptides (alpha-defensins): a link between inflammation and angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2004;18:1306-8 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insight into the role of inflammatory cells in angiogenesis and might provide a platform for developing a novel class of anti-angiogenesis drugs. ..
  32. Ryu B, Kawamata T, Wakai T, Shimizu M, Yagi S, Shimizu T. Reversible Cerebral Metabolism Changes Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in a Patient with Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Report. World Neurosurg. 2016;92:584.e1-584.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a patient with a DAVF whose proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) findings were associated with improvements in clinical status...
  33. Stockinger M, Trenkler J, von Oertzen T, Nussbaumer K, Sonnberger M, Schimetta W, et al. Effective cerebrovascular thrombectomy requires well-organized structures : Real world experiences of a regional stroke network between 2012-2015. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017;129:96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The main outcome measures were modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 0-2 at 90 days, all-cause mortality and stroke or thrombectomy-related mortality at discharge, as well as ..
  34. Yisma E, Eshetu N, Ly S, Dessalegn B. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 30-49 years in Gulele sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health. 2017;17:124 pubmed publisher
    ..Data on socio-demographic characteristics, menopausal status and an 11-item Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire...
  35. Zhang T, Duan Y, Ye J, Xu W, Shu N, Wang C, et al. Brain MRI Characteristics of Patients with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Their Associations with 2-Year Clinical Outcome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018;39:824-829 pubmed publisher
    ..The modified Rankin Scale score at 2-year follow-up was assessed, and the association between the mRS and onset brain MR imaging characteristics was evaluated...
  36. Hapuarachchi T, Moroz T, Bainbridge A, Price D, Cady E, Baer E, et al. Modelling blood flow and metabolism in the piglet brain during hypoxia-ischaemia: simulating pH changes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;789:331-337 pubmed publisher
    ..The model is able to simulate near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements obtained from HI experiments conducted in piglets...
  37. Chen A, Cunningham C. Single voxel localization for dynamic hyperpolarized (13)C MR spectroscopy. J Magn Reson. 2015;258:81-5 pubmed publisher
    The PRESS technique has been widely used to achieve voxel localization for in vivo(1)H MRS acquisitions...
  38. Rijpma A, van der Graaf M, Lansbergen M, Meulenbroek O, Çetinyürek Yavuz A, Sijben J, et al. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9:51 pubmed publisher
    ..with Souvenaid or an isocaloric control product, phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed to assess surrogate measures of phospholipid synthesis and breakdown (phosphomonoesters [PME] and ..
  39. Sako T, Hamaoka T, Higuchi H, Kurosawa Y, Katsumura T. Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:338-44 pubmed
    ..dynamic handgrip exercise, once for the NIRcws measurement and once for the (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurement as a standard measure...
  40. Glenthøj A, Cowland J, Heegaard N, Larsen M, Borregaard N. Serglycin participates in retention of ?-defensin in granules during myelopoiesis. Blood. 2011;118:4440-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Baracchini C, Farina F, Soso M, Viaro F, Favaretto S, Palmieri A, et al. Stentriever Thrombectomy Failure: A Challenge in Stroke Management. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..9%). A significantly better outcome was observed in group 3 (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score, 0-2) than in group 4 at 3 months (56.5% vs. 17.4%)...
  42. Li S, Zhang Y, Hong M. 3D (13)C-(13)C-(13)C correlation NMR for de novo distance determination of solid proteins and application to a human alpha-defensin. J Magn Reson. 2010;202:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The average energy of the minimum-energy ensemble is less than of 40kcal/mol. Thus, the 3D CCC experiment provides a reliable means of restraining the three-dimensional structure of insoluble proteins with unknown conformations. ..
  43. Kim G, Oh C, Kim J, Yoon W, Jeong Y, Kim Y, et al. Noninvasive biomarkers for acute hepatotoxicity induced by 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol: hyperpolarized 13C dynamic MR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Imaging. 2016;34:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperpolarized (13)C dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on rat liver following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate...
  44. Bas D, Ozdemir A, Colak E, Kebapci N. Higher Insulin Resistance Level is Associated with Worse Clinical Response in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis. Transl Stroke Res. 2016;7:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..005) and higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3rd month (p = 0.011)...
  45. Godlewska B, Masaki C, Sharpley A, Cowen P, Emir U. Brain glutamate in medication-free depressed patients: a proton MRS study at 7 Tesla. Psychol Med. 2017;:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the detection of glutamate in the living human brain and meta-analyses of previous MRS studies in ..
  46. Winter J, Kraus D, Reckenbeil J, Probstmeier R. Oncogenic relevant defensins: expression pattern and proliferation characteristics of human tumor cell lines. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:7959-66 pubmed publisher
    ..At least one member of the defensin family was expressed in each tumor cell line, whereby α-defensin (DEFA1), DEFA2, or DEFA3 transcripts could be ubiquitously detected...
  47. Nagashima H, Fujita A, Tanaka J, Kohta M, Sasayama T, Tanaka K, et al. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Findings in Patients with Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Three Case Reports. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:1050.e7-1050.e11 pubmed publisher
    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a potentially useful modality for evaluating brain metabolites in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF)...
  48. Sone D, Ikegaya N, Takahashi A, Sumida K, Ota M, Saito T, et al. Noninvasive detection of focal brain hyperthermia related to continuous epileptic activities using proton MR spectroscopy. Epilepsy Res. 2017;138:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..hyperthermia of the focus of epilepsy using noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) thermometry...
  49. Singh S, Khushu S, Kumar P, Goyal S, Bhatia T, Deshpande S. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia. Neuroradiology. 2018;60:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) procedures...
  50. Zerna C, Siepmann T, Barlinn K, Kepplinger J, Pallesen L, Puetz V, et al. Association of time on outcome after intravenous thrombolysis in the elderly in a telestroke network. J Telemed Telecare. 2016;22:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..sICH) by ECASS-2-criteria, survival at discharge and favourable outcome, defined as a modified Rankin scale (mRS) of 0-2 at discharge. Thirty-three percent of patients were older than 80 years (elderly)...
  51. Pan M, Zhang J. Correlation-based linear discriminant classification for gene expression data. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..the performance of each classifier using the simulated datasets or real datasets, and misclassification rates (MRs) were computed...
  52. Chouinard V, Kim S, Valeri L, Yüksel C, Ryan K, Chouinard G, et al. Brain bioenergetics and redox state measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in unaffected siblings of patients with psychotic disorders. Schizophr Res. 2017;187:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..metabolites (oxidized NAD+ and reduced NADH) using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in unaffected siblings, compared to first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls...
  53. Wang R, Fan Q, Zhang Z, Chen Y, Tong S, Li Y. White matter integrity correlates with choline level in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of obsessive compulsive disorder patients: A combined DTI-MRS study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2017;2017:3521-3524 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we performed a combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study in 15 OCD patients and 15 healthy controls to investigate the association between structural abnormality and ..
  54. Ünlü G, Nielsen B, Ionita C. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2015;7:259-74 pubmed publisher
    ..plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey ..
  55. Zhang L, Yin G, Wang J, Jiao L, Chen D, Wan X, et al. [Retrospective study for the risk factors of the early complication after carotid endarterectomy]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2015;53:533-7 pubmed
    ..0%). Secondary complications occurred in 120 cases (23.6%). Univariate analysis showed modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≥ 3 on the incidence of early postoperative complication had significantly difference (χ² =20...
  56. Schmidt J, Chen C, Brand S, Zones S, Davis M. Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Behavior of a Large-Pore Zeolite with the IWV Framework. Chemistry. 2016;22:4022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ITQ-27 (IWV) has a two-dimensional pore system bounded by 12-membered rings (MRs) that lead to internal cross-sections containing 14 MRs...
  57. Zandieh A, Messe S, Cucchiara B, Mullen M, Kasner S. Prophylactic Use of Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;25:2159-66 pubmed publisher determine the impact of prophylactic AEDs on mortality and disability, defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) greater than 3 at 90 days following ICH. Of the 802 patients with ICH, 81 (10%) received prophylactic AEDs...
  58. Kawiorski M, Vicente A, Lourido D, Muriel A, Fandiño E, Méndez J, et al. Good Clinical and Radiological Correlation from Standard Perfusion Computed Tomography Accurately Identifies Salvageable Tissue in Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;25:1062-1069 pubmed publisher
    ..the difference between volumes of tissue at risk and PLV expressed as a percentage, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Patients (n = 34) meeting the inclusion criteria were included...
  59. Boehme A, Martin Schild S, Marshall R, Lazar R. Effect of aphasia on acute stroke outcomes. Neurology. 2016;87:2348-2354 pubmed
    ..scores, length of stay (LOS), complications (sepsis, deep vein thrombosis), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score...
  60. Naz F, Mirza W, Hashmani N. Combining Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosing Focal Brain Lesions in Children. Cureus. 2017;9:e1541 pubmed publisher
    ..pediatric patients in the 0-18 age group with focal brain lesions who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a biopsy or clinical diagnosis were included...
  61. Mikkelsen M, Singh K, Brealy J, Linden D, Evans C. Quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 1 H MRS volumes composed heterogeneously of grey and white matter. NMR Biomed. 2016;29:1644-1655 pubmed publisher
    The quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration using localised MRS suffers from partial volume effects related to differences in the intrinsic concentration of GABA in grey (GM) and white (WM) matter...
  62. Chabanova E, Fonvig C, Bøjsøe C, Holm J, Thomsen H. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content: Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents. Acad Radiol. 2017;24:982-987 pubmed publisher
    ..Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight. ..
  63. Armbrust M, Worthmann H, Dengler R, Schumacher H, Lichtinghagen R, Eschenfelder C, et al. Circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 predict Three-months Outcome after Ischemic Stroke. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017;125:485-491 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurological deficits were assessed via modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3 months post-stroke, resulting in favorable (mRS=0-2) or unfavorable (mRS=3-6) outcome...
  64. Escribese M, Rodríguez García M, Sperling R, Engel S, Gallart T, Moran T. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:118 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells. ..
  65. Selsted M, Harwig S. Determination of the disulfide array in the human defensin HNP-2. A covalently cyclized peptide. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:4003-7 pubmed
    ..Further, the covalent structure of HNP-2 was found to be cyclic as one disulfide links the amino- and carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. HNP-2 is the only polypeptide known to possess such a configuration. ..
  66. Smith S, Montain S, Matott R, Zientara G, Jolesz F, Fielding R. Effects of creatine supplementation on the energy cost of muscle contraction: a 31P-MRS study. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:116-23 pubmed
    ..DeltaATP/J and DeltaATP/N were greatest at the onset of the exercise protocol (P < 0.01). In summary, creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr concentration, which did not affect muscle ATP cost of contraction...
  67. Kim C, Slavinskaya Z, Merrill A, Kaufmann S. Human alpha-defensins neutralize toxins of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase family. Biochem J. 2006;399:225-9 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that toxin neutralization represents a novel biological function of HNPs in host defence. ..
  68. Turkoglu O, Emingil G, Kutukculer N, Atilla G. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptide 1-3 levels of patients with different periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2010;81:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptides 1 through 3 (HNP1-3) in patients with different periodontal diseases...
  69. Moon C, Sundaram T, Choi N, Jeong G. Working memory dysfunction associated with brain functional deficits and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;254:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 3T...
  70. Taghavi Moghadam S, Kwong C, Secrist J, Khan S, Clark A. The synthesis and biological evaluation of alkyl and benzyl naphthyridinium analogs of eupolauridine as potential antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016;24:6119-6130 pubmed publisher
    ..Several of them were also effective against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRS, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium) and the malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) to variable extents...
  71. Ren J, Sherry A, Malloy C. Efficient 31 P band inversion transfer approach for measuring creatine kinase activity, ATP synthesis, and molecular dynamics in the human brain at 7 T. Magn Reson Med. 2017;78:1657-1666 pubmed publisher
    To develop an efficient 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) method for measuring creatine kinase (CK) activity, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and motion dynamics in the human brain at 7 Tesla (T).
  72. Cao B, Stanley J, Passos I, Mwangi B, Selvaraj S, Zunta Soares G, et al. Elevated Choline-Containing Compound Levels in Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42:2252-2258 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphocholine (GPC+PC)) in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I)...
  73. Karampinos D, Ruschke S, Dieckmeyer M, Diefenbach M, Franz D, Gersing A, et al. Quantitative MRI and spectroscopy of bone marrow. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative bone marrow MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques have been also developed in order to quantify changes in bone marrow water-fat composition, cellularity ..
  74. Granas A, Stendal Bakken M, Ruths S, Taxis K. Deprescribing for frail older people - Learning from the case of Mrs. Hansen. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018;14:612-616 pubmed publisher
    ..It uses the case of Mrs. Hansen, an aged nursing home resident, to illustrate the facilitators and barriers of this process...
  75. Bongiorni G, Hockmuller M, Klein C, Antunes A. Decompressive craniotomy for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: mortality and outcome. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2017;75:424-428 pubmed publisher
    ..The mortality rate was defined during the hospitalization period. The modified outcome Rankin score (mRS) was measured 30 days after the procedure, for stratification of the quality of life...
  76. Gazioglu S, Eyüboğlu I, Yildirim A, Aydin C, Alioglu Z. Cerebral venous sinus Thrombosis: Clinical Features, Long-Term outcome and recanalization. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;45:248-251 pubmed publisher
    ..Modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores at six months and results of follow-up imaging of patients with at least six months follow-up were also ..
  77. Braadland P, Giskeødegård G, Sandsmark E, Bertilsson H, Euceda L, Hansen A, et al. Ex vivo metabolic fingerprinting identifies biomarkers predictive of prostate cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:1656-1664 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated whether tissue metabolites detectable by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) were associated with recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
  78. Shan Y, Jia Y, Zhong S, Li X, Zhao H, Chen J, et al. Correlations between working memory impairment and neurometabolites of prefrontal cortex and lenticular nucleus in patients with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2018;227:236-242 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to find out the mechanism by using neuropsychological tests and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). 31 MDD patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our study...
  79. Damodaren N, Van Eeuwen T, Zamel J, Lin Shiao E, Kalisman N, Murakami K. Def1 interacts with TFIIH and modulates RNA polymerase II transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:13230-13235 pubmed publisher
    ..Yeast Elongin (Ela1-Elc1), along with Def1, is known to facilitate ubiquitylation and degradation of RNA polymerase II (pol II) in response to multiple ..
  80. Moreno Perez O, Giner L, Reus S, Boix V, Alfayate R, Frances R, et al. Impact of circulating bacterial DNA in long-term glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic patients with HIV infection: cohort study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;37:313-318 pubmed publisher
    ..continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment], hepatic steatosis (hepatic triglyceride content - 1H-MRS), visceral fat / subcutaneous ratio and inflammatory markers. Fifty-four men (age 43.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI 24...
  81. Takashima H, Takebayashi T, Ogon I, Yoshimoto M, Morita T, Imamura R, et al. Analysis of intra and extramyocellular lipids in the multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain using MR spectroscopy. Br J Radiol. 2018;91:20170536 pubmed publisher
    ..intra- (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) concentration in the multifidus muscle (Mm) using MR spectroscopy (MRS) in patients with low back pain (LBP), and to evaluate the correlation between those lipid concentrations and age, ..
  82. Bas D, Ozdemir A. The effect of metabolic syndrome and obesity on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with systemic thrombolysis. J Neurol Sci. 2017;383:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..736) and 3rd month mRS scores (p=0.145). Hemorrhagic transformation and mortality rates were not affected with MetS or obesity...
  83. Aarbiou J, Verhoosel R, van Wetering S, de Boer W, van Krieken J, Litvinov S, et al. Neutrophil defensins enhance lung epithelial wound closure and mucin gene expression in vitro. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:193-201 pubmed
    ..Neutrophil defensin-enhanced wound repair appears to require epidermal growth factor receptor activation and downstream signaling pathways. ..
  84. Andrianov G, Nozdrachev A, Ryzhova I. The role of defensins in the excitability of the peripheral vestibular system in the frog: evidence for the presence of communication between the immune and nervous systems. Hear Res. 2007;230:1-8 pubmed
    ..The results obtained support the evidence for the recruitment of defensins in communication between the immune and nervous systems, and on the potential of sensory receptors to participate in the inflammatory response. ..
  85. Salvatore M, Garcia Sastre A, Ruchala P, Lehrer R, Chang T, Klotman M. alpha-Defensin inhibits influenza virus replication by cell-mediated mechanism(s). J Infect Dis. 2007;196:835-43 pubmed
    ..Our data expand the previously known activity of alpha -defensins against influenza virus. Characterizing the mechanism of action of alpha -defensins may lead to the identification of new strategies for prevention and therapy. ..
  86. Lundqvist K, Sørensen O, Schmidtchen A. Increased levels of human neutrophil alpha-defensins in chronic venous leg ulcers. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;51:131-4 pubmed publisher
  87. Petenkova A, Kovalenko R, Yusupova E, Nozdrachev A. Nitric oxide regulates the chemoattractant activity of defensin HNP-1 in the blood. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2015;460:62-4 pubmed publisher
  88. Terpstra M, Cheong I, Lyu T, Deelchand D, Emir U, Bednařík P, et al. Test-retest reproducibility of neurochemical profiles with short-echo, single-voxel MR spectroscopy at 3T and 7T. Magn Reson Med. 2016;76:1083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of neurochemical concentrations obtained with a highly optimized, short-echo, single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) pulse sequence at 3T and 7T using state-of-the-art hardware...
  89. Rincon S, Blitstein M, Caruso P, González R, Thibert R, Ratai E. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Patients With Seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2016;58:57-66 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to determine if it is useful to routinely add magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of seizure in the pediatric patient...
  90. Wang F, Qiao L, Lv X, Trivett A, Yang R, Oppenheim J, et al. Alarmin human ? defensin HNP1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells by triggering NF-?B and IRF1 signaling pathways. Cytokine. 2016;83:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HNP1 can activate human pDCs using NF-?B and IRF signaling pathways, and HNP-induced IFN production may participate in the inflammatory pathogenesis in certain authoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  91. Groenendaal F, de Vries L. Fifty years of brain imaging in neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia. Pediatr Res. 2017;81:150-155 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has led to the concept of secondary energy failure in infants with HIE, but has not been widely used...
  92. Moura L, Schwamm E, Moura Junior V, Seitz M, Hsu J, Cole A, et al. Feasibility of the collection of patient-reported outcomes in an ambulatory neurology clinic. Neurology. 2016;87:2435-2442 pubmed
    ..assessments in the waiting room and whether these assessments would be associated with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-10) scores...