Gene Symbol: DDX58
Description: DExD/H-box helicase 58
Alias: RIG-I, RIGI, RLR-1, SGMRT2, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58, DEAD box protein 58, DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide, RNA helicase RIG-I, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein, retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein
Species: human
Products:     DDX58

Top Publications

  1. Takahasi K, Yoneyama M, Nishihori T, Hirai R, Kumeta H, Narita R, et al. Nonself RNA-sensing mechanism of RIG-I helicase and activation of antiviral immune responses. Mol Cell. 2008;29:428-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the bipartite structure of CTD regulates RIG-I on encountering viral RNA patterns. ..
  2. Mibayashi M, Martinez Sobrido L, Loo Y, Cardenas W, Gale M, Garcia Sastre A. Inhibition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated induction of beta interferon by the NS1 protein of influenza A virus. J Virol. 2007;81:514-24 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that, in addition to sequestering dsRNA, the NS1 of influenza A virus binds to RIG-I and inhibits downstream activation of IRF-3, preventing the transcriptional induction of IFN-beta. ..
  3. Arnaud N, Dabo S, Akazawa D, Fukasawa M, Shinkai Ouchi F, Hugon J, et al. Hepatitis C virus reveals a novel early control in acute immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002289 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response. ..
  4. Ishikawa H, Barber G. STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008;455:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as well as identifying a regulator of innate immune signalling, our results imply a potential role for the translocon in innate signalling pathways activated by select viruses as well as intracellular DNA. ..
  5. Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, Seya T. Ubiquitin-mediated modulation of the cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor RIG-I. J Biochem. 2012;151:5-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The splice variant of RIG-I encodes a protein that lacks the first CARD of RIG-I, and the variant RIG-I protein is not ubiquitinated by TRIM25. Therefore, ubiquitin is the key regulator of the cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor RIG-I. ..
  6. Melchjorsen J, Jensen S, Malmgaard L, Rasmussen S, Weber F, Bowie A, et al. Activation of innate defense against a paramyxovirus is mediated by RIG-I and TLR7 and TLR8 in a cell-type-specific manner. J Virol. 2005;79:12944-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, there appears to be a large degree of cell-type specificity in the mechanisms used by the host to recognize infecting viruses...
  7. Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, et al. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:981-8 pubmed
    ..Knockdown' of IPS-1 by small interfering RNA blocked interferon induction by virus infection. Thus, IPS-1 is an adaptor involved in RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated antiviral immune responses. ..
  8. Childs K, Randall R, Goodbourn S. Paramyxovirus V proteins interact with the RNA Helicase LGP2 to inhibit RIG-I-dependent interferon induction. J Virol. 2012;86:3411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This is significant, because it demonstrates a general mechanism for the targeting of the RIG-I pathway by paramyxoviruses...
  9. Kolakofsky D, Kowalinski E, Cusack S. A structure-based model of RIG-I activation. RNA. 2012;18:2118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of these structures provides considerable insight into how this innate immune pattern recognition receptor is activated upon detecting and binding a certain class of viral RNAs. ..

More Information


  1. Shigemoto T, Kageyama M, Hirai R, Zheng J, Yoneyama M, Fujita T. Identification of loss of function mutations in human genes encoding RIG-I and MDA5: implications for resistance to type I diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the structure-function relationship of RIG-I-like receptors as well as into human RIG-I-like receptor polymorphisms, antiviral innate immunity, and autoimmune diseases. ..
  2. Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Matsumoto K, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, Taira K, et al. Shared and unique functions of the DExD/H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:2851-8 pubmed
    ..These results highlight ingenious mechanisms for initiating antiviral innate immune responses and the action of virus-encoded inhibitors. ..
  3. Friedman C, O Donnell M, Legarda Addison D, Ng A, Cardenas W, Yount J, et al. The tumour suppressor CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated antiviral response. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:930-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral response. ..
  4. Binder M, Eberle F, Seitz S, Mücke N, Hüber C, Kiani N, et al. Molecular mechanism of signal perception and integration by the innate immune sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27278-87 pubmed publisher
  5. Pachler K, Vlasak R. Influenza C virus NS1 protein counteracts RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling. Virol J. 2011;8:48 pubmed publisher
  6. Liu H, Loo Y, Horner S, Zornetzer G, Katze M, Gale M. The mitochondrial targeting chaperone 14-3-3? regulates a RIG-I translocon that mediates membrane association and innate antiviral immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define 14-3-3? as a key component of a RIG-I translocon required for innate antiviral immunity. ..
  7. You F, Sun H, Zhou X, Sun W, Liang S, Zhai Z, et al. PCBP2 mediates degradation of the adaptor MAVS via the HECT ubiquitin ligase AIP4. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCBP2-AIP4 axis defines a new signaling cascade for MAVS degradation and 'fine tuning' of antiviral innate immunity. ..
  8. Yoboua F, Martel A, Duval A, Mukawera E, Grandvaux N. Respiratory syncytial virus-mediated NF-kappa B p65 phosphorylation at serine 536 is dependent on RIG-I, TRAF6, and IKK beta. J Virol. 2010;84:7267-77 pubmed publisher
  9. Ikegame S, Takeda M, Ohno S, Nakatsu Y, Nakanishi Y, Yanagi Y. Both RIG-I and MDA5 RNA helicases contribute to the induction of alpha/beta interferon in measles virus-infected human cells. J Virol. 2010;84:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present results indicate that RIG-I and MDA5 both contribute to the recognition of MV and that the V protein promotes MV growth at least partly by inhibiting the MDA5-mediated IFN responses. ..
  10. Chang T, Liao C, Lin Y. Flavivirus induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving RIG-I-dependent IRF-3 and PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:157-71 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we suggest that JEV and DEN-2 initiate the host innate immune response through a molecular mechanism involving RIG-I/IRF-3 and PI3K/NF-kappaB signaling pathways. ..
  11. Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, et al. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2005;437:1167-72 pubmed
    ..3 (TLR3) and the recently identified cytosolic RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I, also known as Ddx58) and Mda5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard)...
  12. Jiang X, Kinch L, Brautigam C, Chen X, Du F, Grishin N, et al. Ubiquitin-induced oligomerization of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 activates antiviral innate immune response. Immunity. 2012;36:959-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a unified mechanism of RIG-I and MDA5 activation and reveal a unique mechanism by which ubiquitin regulates cell signaling and immune response. ..
  13. Arimoto K, Takahashi H, Hishiki T, Konishi H, Fujita T, Shimotohno K. Negative regulation of the RIG-I signaling by the ubiquitin ligase RNF125. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7500-5 pubmed
    ..Because RNF125 is enhanced by IFN, these functions constitute a negative regulatory loop circuit for IFN production. ..
  14. Lei X, Liu X, Ma Y, Sun Z, Yang Y, Jin Q, et al. The 3C protein of enterovirus 71 inhibits retinoid acid-inducible gene I-mediated interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and type I interferon responses. J Virol. 2010;84:8051-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that inhibition of RIG-I-mediated type I IFN responses by the 3C protein may contribute to the pathogenesis of EV71 infection...
  15. Nakhaei P, Mesplede T, Solis M, Sun Q, Zhao T, Yang L, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Triad3A negatively regulates the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway by targeting TRAF3 for degradation. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000650 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Triad3A represents a versatile E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates RIG-like receptor signaling by targeting TRAF3 for degradation following RNA virus infection. ..
  16. Sirén J, Imaizumi T, Sarkar D, Pietilä T, Noah D, Lin R, et al. Retinoic acid inducible gene-I and mda-5 are involved in influenza A virus-induced expression of antiviral cytokines. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2013-20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results show that in epithelial cells influenza A virus-induced antiviral cytokine gene expression is triggered by RIG-I and mda-5, whose expression is positively regulated by IFN-alpha. ..
  17. Gack M, Shin Y, Joo C, Urano T, Liang C, Sun L, et al. TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity. Nature. 2007;446:916-920 pubmed
    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral ..
  18. Wei C, Ni C, Song T, Liu Y, Yang X, Zheng Z, et al. The hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts innate immunity by downregulating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. J Immunol. 2010;185:1158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..By establishing a link between MAVS and HBX, this study suggests that HBV can target the RIG-I signaling by HBX-mediated MAVS downregulation, thereby attenuating the antiviral response of the innate immune system. ..
  19. Li K, Chen Z, Kato N, Gale M, Lemon S. Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16739-47 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hepatocytes contain two distinct antiviral signaling pathways leading to expression of type I IFNs, one dependent upon TLR3 and the other dependent on RIG-I, with little cross-talk between these pathways. ..
  20. Pothlichet J, Chignard M, Si Tahar M. Cutting edge: innate immune response triggered by influenza A virus is negatively regulated by SOCS1 and SOCS3 through a RIG-I/IFNAR1-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:2034-8 pubmed
    ..Importantly, by using vectors overexpressing SOCS1 and SOCS3 we revealed that while both molecules inhibit antiviral responses, they differentially modulate inflammatory signaling pathways. ..
  21. Hornung V, Ellegast J, Kim S, Brzózka K, Jung A, Kato H, et al. 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I. Science. 2006;314:994-7 pubmed
  22. Weber M, Gawanbacht A, Habjan M, Rang A, Borner C, Schmidt A, et al. Incoming RNA virus nucleocapsids containing a 5'-triphosphorylated genome activate RIG-I and antiviral signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:336-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define cytoplasmic entry of nucleocapsids as the proximal RIG-I-sensitive step during infection and establish viral nucleocapsids with a 5'ppp dsRNA panhandle as a RIG-I activator. ..
  23. Gack M, Kirchhofer A, Shin Y, Inn K, Liang C, Cui S, et al. Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16743-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway. ..
  24. Wang Y, Ludwig J, Schuberth C, Goldeck M, Schlee M, Li H, et al. Structural and functional insights into 5'-ppp RNA pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor RIG-I. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:781-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Gee P, Chua P, Gevorkyan J, Klumpp K, Najera I, Swinney D, et al. Essential role of the N-terminal domain in the regulation of RIG-I ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9488-96 pubmed publisher
  26. Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Natsukawa T, Shinobu N, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, et al. The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:730-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes. ..
  27. Rajsbaum R, Albrecht R, Wang M, Maharaj N, Versteeg G, Nistal Villán E, et al. Species-specific inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and IFN induction by the influenza A virus NS1 protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003059 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that influenza NS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production...
  28. Saito T, Hirai R, Loo Y, Owen D, Johnson C, Sinha S, et al. Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:582-7 pubmed
    ..Modulation of RIG-I/LGP2 interaction dynamics may have therapeutic implications for immune regulation. ..
  29. Pothlichet J, Burtey A, Kubarenko A, Caignard G, Solhonne B, Tangy F, et al. Study of human RIG-I polymorphisms identifies two variants with an opposite impact on the antiviral immune response. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7582 pubmed publisher
    ..This work also demonstrated that serine 183 is a residue that critically regulates RIG-I-induced antiviral signaling. ..
  30. Kitamura H, Matsuzaki Y, Kimura K, Nakano H, Imaizumi T, Satoh K, et al. Cytokine modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci. 2007;45:127-34 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that RIG-I might operate not only as a RNA helicase but also as a mediator of the cytokine network in the inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis vulgaris. ..
  31. Ablasser A, Bauernfeind F, Hartmann G, Latz E, Fitzgerald K, Hornung V. RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway was important in the sensing of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III and then triggered RIG-I activation. Thus, RNA polymerase III and RIG-I are pivotal in sensing viral DNA. ..
  32. Besch R, Poeck H, Hohenauer T, Senft D, Hacker G, Berking C, et al. Proapoptotic signaling induced by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in type I interferon-independent apoptosis in human melanoma cells. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their immunostimulatory and proapoptotic activity, RIG-I and MDA-5 ligands have therapeutic potential due to their ability to overcome the characteristic resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis. ..
  33. Gack M, Albrecht R, Urano T, Inn K, Huang I, Carnero E, et al. Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a mechanism by which influenza virus inhibits host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating antiviral defenses. ..
  34. Luo D, Ding S, Vela A, Kohlway A, Lindenbach B, Pyle A. Structural insights into RNA recognition by RIG-I. Cell. 2011;147:409-22 pubmed publisher
  35. Schmidt A, Schwerd T, Hamm W, Hellmuth J, Cui S, Wenzel M, et al. 5'-triphosphate RNA requires base-paired structures to activate antiviral signaling via RIG-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings accurately define a minimal molecular pattern sufficient to activate RIG-I that can be found in viral genomes or transcripts. ..
  36. Ablasser A, Poeck H, Anz D, Berger M, Schlee M, Kim S, et al. Selection of molecular structure and delivery of RNA oligonucleotides to activate TLR7 versus TLR8 and to induce high amounts of IL-12p70 in primary human monocytes. J Immunol. 2009;182:6824-33 pubmed publisher
  37. Bamming D, Horvath C. Regulation of signal transduction by enzymatically inactive antiviral RNA helicase proteins MDA5, RIG-I, and LGP2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9700-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, neither enzymatic activity nor RNA binding was required for negative regulation of antiviral signaling by LGP2, supporting an RNA-independent interference mechanism. ..
  38. Kowalinski E, Lunardi T, McCarthy A, Louber J, Brunel J, Grigorov B, et al. Structural basis for the activation of innate immune pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I by viral RNA. Cell. 2011;147:423-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings significantly advance our molecular understanding of the activation of innate immune signaling helicases. ..
  39. Cheng G, Zhong J, Chisari F. Inhibition of dsRNA-induced signaling in hepatitis C virus-infected cells by NS3 protease-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8499-504 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that HCV blocks the synthetic dsRNA-induced signaling pathway at a point upstream of MAVS/IPS-1, and that it does so by an NS3-independent mechanism. ..
  40. Gao D, Yang Y, Wang R, Zhou X, Diao F, Li M, et al. REUL is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase and stimulator of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5760 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that REUL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of RIG-I and specifically stimulates RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral activity. ..
  41. Chiu Y, Macmillan J, Chen Z. RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons through the RIG-I pathway. Cell. 2009;138:576-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RNA Pol-III is a cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune responses. ..
  42. Feng M, Ding Z, Xu L, Kong L, Wang W, Jiao S, et al. Structural and biochemical studies of RIG-I antiviral signaling. Protein Cell. 2013;4:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that phosphorylation of RIG inhibited downstream signaling by impairing RIG-I binding with polyubiquitin and its interaction with MAVS. ..
  43. Li S, Zheng H, Mao A, Zhong B, Li Y, Liu Y, et al. Regulation of virus-triggered signaling by OTUB1- and OTUB2-mediated deubiquitination of TRAF3 and TRAF6. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that OTUB1 and OTUB2 negatively regulate virus-triggered type I IFN induction and cellular antiviral response by deubiquitinating TRAF3 and -6. ..
  44. Zhao C, Denison C, Huibregtse J, Gygi S, Krug R. Human ISG15 conjugation targets both IFN-induced and constitutively expressed proteins functioning in diverse cellular pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10200-5 pubmed
    ..By targeting a wide array of constitutively expressed proteins, ISG15 conjugation greatly extends the repertoire of cellular functions that are affected by IFN-alpha/beta. ..
  45. Pichlmair A, Schulz O, Tan C, Näslund T, Liljestrom P, Weber F, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates. Science. 2006;314:997-1001 pubmed
  46. Civril F, Bennett M, Moldt M, Deimling T, Witte G, Schiesser S, et al. The RIG-I ATPase domain structure reveals insights into ATP-dependent antiviral signalling. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that the activation of RIG-I occurs through an RNA- and ATP-driven structural switch in the SF2 domain. ..
  47. Xu L, Wang Y, Han K, Li L, Zhai Z, Shu H. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;19:727-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that VISA is critically involved in both virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling. ..
  48. Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, Hatakeyama S, Seya T. Riplet/RNF135, a RING finger protein, ubiquitinates RIG-I to promote interferon-beta induction during the early phase of viral infection. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We infer that a variety of RIG-I-ubiquitinating molecular complexes sustain RIG-I activation to modulate RNA virus replication in the cytoplasm. ..
  49. Rehwinkel J, Tan C, Goubau D, Schulz O, Pichlmair A, Bier K, et al. RIG-I detects viral genomic RNA during negative-strand RNA virus infection. Cell. 2010;140:397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, single-stranded RNA viral genomes bearing 5'-triphosphates constitute the natural RIG-I agonists that trigger cell-intrinsic innate immune responses during infection. ..
  50. Hirata Y, Broquet A, Menchén L, Kagnoff M. Activation of innate immune defense mechanisms by signaling through RIG-I/IPS-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:5425-32 pubmed
    ..Virus replication and virus-induced cell death increased in IECs in which RIG-I was silenced, consistent with the importance of the RIG-I signaling pathway in IEC antiviral innate immune defense mechanisms. ..
  51. Jiang F, Ramanathan A, Miller M, Tang G, Gale M, Patel S, et al. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I. Nature. 2011;479:423-7 pubmed publisher
    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs...
  52. Baum A, Sachidanandam R, Garcia Sastre A. Preference of RIG-I for short viral RNA molecules in infected cells revealed by next-generation sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis for the first time identifies RIG-I PAMPs under natural infection conditions and implies that full-length genomes of single segmented RNA virus families are not bound by RIG-I during infection. ..
  53. Hagmann C, Herzner A, Abdullah Z, Zillinger T, Jakobs C, Schuberth C, et al. RIG-I detects triphosphorylated RNA of Listeria monocytogenes during infection in non-immune cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62872 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that detection of Listeria RNA by RIG-I represents a non-redundant cytosolic immunorecognition pathway in non-immune cells lacking a functional STING dependent signaling pathway. ..
  54. Chen Z, Benureau Y, Rijnbrand R, Yi J, Wang T, Warter L, et al. GB virus B disrupts RIG-I signaling by NS3/4A-mediated cleavage of the adaptor protein MAVS. J Virol. 2007;81:964-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further support for the use of GBV-B infection in small primates as an accurate surrogate model for deciphering virus-host interactions in hepacivirus pathogenesis...
  55. Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, Dhiman N, O Byrne M, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. Polymorphisms in the vitamin A receptor and innate immunity genes influence the antibody response to rubella vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..016) after having been previously found to play a significant functional role. These findings further expand our immunogenetic understanding of mechanisms of rubella vaccine-induced immunity. ..
  56. Morosky S, Zhu J, Mukherjee A, Sarkar S, Coyne C. Retinoic acid-induced gene-I (RIG-I) associates with nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) to negatively regulate inflammatory signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28574-83 pubmed publisher
  57. Xia Z, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, et al. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009;461:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that unanchored polyubiquitin chains directly activate TAK1 and IKK, suggesting a new mechanism of protein kinase regulation. ..
  58. Sumpter R, Loo Y, Foy E, Li K, Yoneyama M, Fujita T, et al. Regulating intracellular antiviral defense and permissiveness to hepatitis C virus RNA replication through a cellular RNA helicase, RIG-I. J Virol. 2005;79:2689-99 pubmed
    ..RIG-I is thus a pathogen receptor that regulates cellular permissiveness to HCV replication and, as an interferon-responsive gene, may play a key role in interferon-based therapies for the treatment of HCV infection. ..
  59. Su Z, Sarkar D, Emdad L, Barral P, Fisher P. Central role of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in controlling retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) expression. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:502-10 pubmed
    ..IRF-1 is a tumor suppressor and the expression profile of RIG-I together with its regulation by IRF-1 and the presence of a caspase-recruitment domain in RIG-I suggest that RIG-I might also possess tumor suppressor properties. ..
  60. Gack M, Nistal Villán E, Inn K, Garcia Sastre A, Jung J. Phosphorylation-mediated negative regulation of RIG-I antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010;84:3220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While Thr-170 phosphorylation keeps RIG-I latent, Lys-172 ubiquitination enables RIG-I to form a stable complex with MAVS, thereby inducing IFN signal transduction. ..
  61. Seth R, Sun L, Ea C, Chen Z. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell. 2005;122:669-82 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity...
  62. Loo Y, Gale M. Immune signaling by RIG-I-like receptors. Immunity. 2011;34:680-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the processes of RLR signaling and response will provide insights to guide RLR-targeted therapeutics for antiviral and immune-modifying applications. ..
  63. Marr N, Wang T, Kam S, Hu Y, Sharma A, Lam A, et al. Attenuation of respiratory syncytial virus-induced and RIG-I-dependent type I IFN responses in human neonates and very young children. J Immunol. 2014;192:948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that human pDCs are less functional in early life, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility of infants and young children to severe RSV disease. ..
  64. Vela A, Fedorova O, Ding S, Pyle A. The thermodynamic basis for viral RNA detection by the RIG-I innate immune sensor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Covalent linkage between the domains enhances RNA ligand specificity while reducing overall binding affinity, thereby providing a mechanism for discriminating virus from host RNA. ..
  65. Ferrage F, Dutta K, Nistal Villán E, Patel J, Sanchez Aparicio M, De Ioannes P, et al. Structure and dynamics of the second CARD of human RIG-I provide mechanistic insights into regulation of RIG-I activation. Structure. 2012;20:2048-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggests a close interplay between phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and activation of human RIG-I, all mediated by CARD2. ..
  66. Peisley A, Wu B, Xu H, Chen Z, Hur S. Structural basis for ubiquitin-mediated antiviral signal activation by RIG-I. Nature. 2014;509:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides unique insights into the novel types of ubiquitin-mediated signal-activation mechanism, and previously unexpected synergism between the covalent and non-covalent ubiquitin interaction modes. ..
  67. Cui S, Eisenächer K, Kirchhofer A, Brzózka K, Lammens A, Lammens K, et al. The C-terminal regulatory domain is the RNA 5'-triphosphate sensor of RIG-I. Mol Cell. 2008;29:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-guided mutagenesis identifies a positively charged groove as likely 5'-triphosphate-binding site of RIG-I. This groove is distinct in MDA5 and LGP2, raising the possibility that RD confers ligand specificity. ..
  68. Kageyama M, Takahasi K, Narita R, Hirai R, Yoneyama M, Kato H, et al. 55 Amino acid linker between helicase and carboxyl terminal domains of RIG-I functions as a critical repression domain and determines inter-domain conformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed light on the structural regulation of RIG-I function. ..
  69. Loo Y, Owen D, Li K, Erickson A, Johnson C, Fish P, et al. Viral and therapeutic control of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1 during hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6001-6 pubmed
    ..HCV protease inhibitors effectively prevent IPS-1 proteolysis, suggesting they may be capable of restoring this innate host response in clinical practice. ..
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