Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: DDX58
Description: DExD/H-box helicase 58
Alias: RIG-I, RIGI, RLR-1, SGMRT2, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58, DEAD box protein 58, DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide, RNA helicase RIG-I, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein, retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein
- Friedman C, O Donnell M, Legarda Addison D, Ng A, Cardenas W, Yount J, et al. The tumour suppressor CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated antiviral response. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:930-6 pubmed publisher..These findings show that CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral response. ..
- Liu H, Loo Y, Horner S, Zornetzer G, Katze M, Gale M. The mitochondrial targeting chaperone 14-3-3? regulates a RIG-I translocon that mediates membrane association and innate antiviral immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:528-37 pubmed publisher..Our results define 14-3-3? as a key component of a RIG-I translocon required for innate antiviral immunity. ..
- You F, Sun H, Zhou X, Sun W, Liang S, Zhai Z, et al. PCBP2 mediates degradation of the adaptor MAVS via the HECT ubiquitin ligase AIP4. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1300-8 pubmed publisher..The PCBP2-AIP4 axis defines a new signaling cascade for MAVS degradation and 'fine tuning' of antiviral innate immunity. ..
- Jiang X, Kinch L, Brautigam C, Chen X, Du F, Grishin N, et al. Ubiquitin-induced oligomerization of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 activates antiviral innate immune response. Immunity. 2012;36:959-73 pubmed publisher..These results suggest a unified mechanism of RIG-I and MDA5 activation and reveal a unique mechanism by which ubiquitin regulates cell signaling and immune response. ..
- Ikegame S, Takeda M, Ohno S, Nakatsu Y, Nakanishi Y, Yanagi Y. Both RIG-I and MDA5 RNA helicases contribute to the induction of alpha/beta interferon in measles virus-infected human cells. J Virol. 2010;84:372-9 pubmed publisher..Taken together, the present results indicate that RIG-I and MDA5 both contribute to the recognition of MV and that the V protein promotes MV growth at least partly by inhibiting the MDA5-mediated IFN responses. ..
- Chang T, Liao C, Lin Y. Flavivirus induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving RIG-I-dependent IRF-3 and PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:157-71 pubmed..Therefore, we suggest that JEV and DEN-2 initiate the host innate immune response through a molecular mechanism involving RIG-I/IRF-3 and PI3K/NF-kappaB signaling pathways. ..
- Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, et al. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2005;437:1167-72 pubmed..3 (TLR3) and the recently identified cytosolic RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I, also known as Ddx58) and Mda5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard)...
- Arimoto K, Takahashi H, Hishiki T, Konishi H, Fujita T, Shimotohno K. Negative regulation of the RIG-I signaling by the ubiquitin ligase RNF125. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7500-5 pubmed..Because RNF125 is enhanced by IFN, these functions constitute a negative regulatory loop circuit for IFN production. ..
- Lei X, Liu X, Ma Y, Sun Z, Yang Y, Jin Q, et al. The 3C protein of enterovirus 71 inhibits retinoid acid-inducible gene I-mediated interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and type I interferon responses. J Virol. 2010;84:8051-61 pubmed publisher..Together, these results suggest that inhibition of RIG-I-mediated type I IFN responses by the 3C protein may contribute to the pathogenesis of EV71 infection...
- Sirén J, Imaizumi T, Sarkar D, Pietilä T, Noah D, Lin R, et al. Retinoic acid inducible gene-I and mda-5 are involved in influenza A virus-induced expression of antiviral cytokines. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2013-20 pubmed..In conclusion, our results show that in epithelial cells influenza A virus-induced antiviral cytokine gene expression is triggered by RIG-I and mda-5, whose expression is positively regulated by IFN-alpha. ..
- Nakhaei P, Mesplede T, Solis M, Sun Q, Zhao T, Yang L, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Triad3A negatively regulates the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway by targeting TRAF3 for degradation. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000650 pubmed publisher..Thus, Triad3A represents a versatile E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates RIG-like receptor signaling by targeting TRAF3 for degradation following RNA virus infection. ..
- Gack M, Shin Y, Joo C, Urano T, Liang C, Sun L, et al. TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity. Nature. 2007;446:916-920 pubmedRetinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral ..
- Wei C, Ni C, Song T, Liu Y, Yang X, Zheng Z, et al. The hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts innate immunity by downregulating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. J Immunol. 2010;185:1158-68 pubmed publisher..By establishing a link between MAVS and HBX, this study suggests that HBV can target the RIG-I signaling by HBX-mediated MAVS downregulation, thereby attenuating the antiviral response of the innate immune system. ..
- Li K, Chen Z, Kato N, Gale M, Lemon S. Distinct poly(I-C) and virus-activated signaling pathways leading to interferon-beta production in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16739-47 pubmed..We conclude that hepatocytes contain two distinct antiviral signaling pathways leading to expression of type I IFNs, one dependent upon TLR3 and the other dependent on RIG-I, with little cross-talk between these pathways. ..
- Pothlichet J, Chignard M, Si Tahar M. Cutting edge: innate immune response triggered by influenza A virus is negatively regulated by SOCS1 and SOCS3 through a RIG-I/IFNAR1-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2008;180:2034-8 pubmed..Importantly, by using vectors overexpressing SOCS1 and SOCS3 we revealed that while both molecules inhibit antiviral responses, they differentially modulate inflammatory signaling pathways. ..
- Weber M, Gawanbacht A, Habjan M, Rang A, Borner C, Schmidt A, et al. Incoming RNA virus nucleocapsids containing a 5'-triphosphorylated genome activate RIG-I and antiviral signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:336-46 pubmed publisher..These results define cytoplasmic entry of nucleocapsids as the proximal RIG-I-sensitive step during infection and establish viral nucleocapsids with a 5'ppp dsRNA panhandle as a RIG-I activator. ..
- Hornung V, Ellegast J, Kim S, Brzózka K, Jung A, Kato H, et al. 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I. Science. 2006;314:994-7 pubmed
- Gack M, Kirchhofer A, Shin Y, Inn K, Liang C, Cui S, et al. Roles of RIG-I N-terminal tandem CARD and splice variant in TRIM25-mediated antiviral signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16743-8 pubmed publisher..This study not only elucidates the vital role of the intact tandem CARD for TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation but also identifies the RIG-I SV as an off-switch regulator of its own signaling pathway. ..
- Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Natsukawa T, Shinobu N, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, et al. The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:730-7 pubmed..Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes. ..
- Rajsbaum R, Albrecht R, Wang M, Maharaj N, Versteeg G, Nistal Villán E, et al. Species-specific inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and IFN induction by the influenza A virus NS1 protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003059 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, our results indicate that influenza NS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production...
- Saito T, Hirai R, Loo Y, Owen D, Johnson C, Sinha S, et al. Regulation of innate antiviral defenses through a shared repressor domain in RIG-I and LGP2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:582-7 pubmed..Modulation of RIG-I/LGP2 interaction dynamics may have therapeutic implications for immune regulation. ..
- Pothlichet J, Burtey A, Kubarenko A, Caignard G, Solhonne B, Tangy F, et al. Study of human RIG-I polymorphisms identifies two variants with an opposite impact on the antiviral immune response. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7582 pubmed publisher..This work also demonstrated that serine 183 is a residue that critically regulates RIG-I-induced antiviral signaling. ..
- Kitamura H, Matsuzaki Y, Kimura K, Nakano H, Imaizumi T, Satoh K, et al. Cytokine modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Dermatol Sci. 2007;45:127-34 pubmed..Our results suggest that RIG-I might operate not only as a RNA helicase but also as a mediator of the cytokine network in the inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis vulgaris. ..
- Besch R, Poeck H, Hohenauer T, Senft D, Hacker G, Berking C, et al. Proapoptotic signaling induced by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in type I interferon-independent apoptosis in human melanoma cells. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2399-411 pubmed publisher..Due to their immunostimulatory and proapoptotic activity, RIG-I and MDA-5 ligands have therapeutic potential due to their ability to overcome the characteristic resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis. ..
- Ablasser A, Bauernfeind F, Hartmann G, Latz E, Fitzgerald K, Hornung V. RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1065-72 pubmed publisher..This pathway was important in the sensing of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III and then triggered RIG-I activation. Thus, RNA polymerase III and RIG-I are pivotal in sensing viral DNA. ..
- Gack M, Albrecht R, Urano T, Inn K, Huang I, Carnero E, et al. Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:439-49 pubmed publisher..Our findings reveal a mechanism by which influenza virus inhibits host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating antiviral defenses. ..
- Schmidt A, Schwerd T, Hamm W, Hellmuth J, Cui S, Wenzel M, et al. 5'-triphosphate RNA requires base-paired structures to activate antiviral signaling via RIG-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12067-72 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings accurately define a minimal molecular pattern sufficient to activate RIG-I that can be found in viral genomes or transcripts. ..
- Bamming D, Horvath C. Regulation of signal transduction by enzymatically inactive antiviral RNA helicase proteins MDA5, RIG-I, and LGP2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9700-12 pubmed publisher..In addition, neither enzymatic activity nor RNA binding was required for negative regulation of antiviral signaling by LGP2, supporting an RNA-independent interference mechanism. ..
- Kowalinski E, Lunardi T, McCarthy A, Louber J, Brunel J, Grigorov B, et al. Structural basis for the activation of innate immune pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I by viral RNA. Cell. 2011;147:423-35 pubmed publisher..These findings significantly advance our molecular understanding of the activation of innate immune signaling helicases. ..
- Cheng G, Zhong J, Chisari F. Inhibition of dsRNA-induced signaling in hepatitis C virus-infected cells by NS3 protease-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8499-504 pubmed..The results also suggest that HCV blocks the synthetic dsRNA-induced signaling pathway at a point upstream of MAVS/IPS-1, and that it does so by an NS3-independent mechanism. ..
- Gao D, Yang Y, Wang R, Zhou X, Diao F, Li M, et al. REUL is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase and stimulator of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5760 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that REUL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase of RIG-I and specifically stimulates RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral activity. ..
- Chiu Y, Macmillan J, Chen Z. RNA polymerase III detects cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferons through the RIG-I pathway. Cell. 2009;138:576-91 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that RNA Pol-III is a cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune responses. ..
- Li S, Zheng H, Mao A, Zhong B, Li Y, Liu Y, et al. Regulation of virus-triggered signaling by OTUB1- and OTUB2-mediated deubiquitination of TRAF3 and TRAF6. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4291-7 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that OTUB1 and OTUB2 negatively regulate virus-triggered type I IFN induction and cellular antiviral response by deubiquitinating TRAF3 and -6. ..
- Feng M, Ding Z, Xu L, Kong L, Wang W, Jiao S, et al. Structural and biochemical studies of RIG-I antiviral signaling. Protein Cell. 2013;4:142-54 pubmed publisher..These findings suggested that phosphorylation of RIG inhibited downstream signaling by impairing RIG-I binding with polyubiquitin and its interaction with MAVS. ..
- Zhao C, Denison C, Huibregtse J, Gygi S, Krug R. Human ISG15 conjugation targets both IFN-induced and constitutively expressed proteins functioning in diverse cellular pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10200-5 pubmed..By targeting a wide array of constitutively expressed proteins, ISG15 conjugation greatly extends the repertoire of cellular functions that are affected by IFN-alpha/beta. ..
- Pichlmair A, Schulz O, Tan C, Näslund T, Liljestrom P, Weber F, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates. Science. 2006;314:997-1001 pubmed
- Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, Hatakeyama S, Seya T. Riplet/RNF135, a RING finger protein, ubiquitinates RIG-I to promote interferon-beta induction during the early phase of viral infection. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:807-17 pubmed publisher..We infer that a variety of RIG-I-ubiquitinating molecular complexes sustain RIG-I activation to modulate RNA virus replication in the cytoplasm. ..
- Xu L, Wang Y, Han K, Li L, Zhai Z, Shu H. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;19:727-40 pubmed..These findings suggest that VISA is critically involved in both virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling. ..
- Civril F, Bennett M, Moldt M, Deimling T, Witte G, Schiesser S, et al. The RIG-I ATPase domain structure reveals insights into ATP-dependent antiviral signalling. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1127-34 pubmed publisher..Overall, our results indicate that the activation of RIG-I occurs through an RNA- and ATP-driven structural switch in the SF2 domain. ..
- Hirata Y, Broquet A, Menchén L, Kagnoff M. Activation of innate immune defense mechanisms by signaling through RIG-I/IPS-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:5425-32 pubmed..Virus replication and virus-induced cell death increased in IECs in which RIG-I was silenced, consistent with the importance of the RIG-I signaling pathway in IEC antiviral innate immune defense mechanisms. ..
- Rehwinkel J, Tan C, Goubau D, Schulz O, Pichlmair A, Bier K, et al. RIG-I detects viral genomic RNA during negative-strand RNA virus infection. Cell. 2010;140:397-408 pubmed publisher..Rather, single-stranded RNA viral genomes bearing 5'-triphosphates constitute the natural RIG-I agonists that trigger cell-intrinsic innate immune responses during infection. ..
- Jiang F, Ramanathan A, Miller M, Tang G, Gale M, Patel S, et al. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I. Nature. 2011;479:423-7 pubmed publisherRetinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs...
- Baum A, Sachidanandam R, Garcia Sastre A. Preference of RIG-I for short viral RNA molecules in infected cells revealed by next-generation sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16303-8 pubmed publisher..Our analysis for the first time identifies RIG-I PAMPs under natural infection conditions and implies that full-length genomes of single segmented RNA virus families are not bound by RIG-I during infection. ..
- Hagmann C, Herzner A, Abdullah Z, Zillinger T, Jakobs C, Schuberth C, et al. RIG-I detects triphosphorylated RNA of Listeria monocytogenes during infection in non-immune cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62872 pubmed publisher..Our results show that detection of Listeria RNA by RIG-I represents a non-redundant cytosolic immunorecognition pathway in non-immune cells lacking a functional STING dependent signaling pathway. ..
- Chen Z, Benureau Y, Rijnbrand R, Yi J, Wang T, Warter L, et al. GB virus B disrupts RIG-I signaling by NS3/4A-mediated cleavage of the adaptor protein MAVS. J Virol. 2007;81:964-76 pubmed publisher..These data provide further support for the use of GBV-B infection in small primates as an accurate surrogate model for deciphering virus-host interactions in hepacivirus pathogenesis...
- Ovsyannikova I, Haralambieva I, Dhiman N, O Byrne M, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. Polymorphisms in the vitamin A receptor and innate immunity genes influence the antibody response to rubella vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:207-13 pubmed publisher..016) after having been previously found to play a significant functional role. These findings further expand our immunogenetic understanding of mechanisms of rubella vaccine-induced immunity. ..
- Xia Z, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, et al. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009;461:114-9 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that unanchored polyubiquitin chains directly activate TAK1 and IKK, suggesting a new mechanism of protein kinase regulation. ..
- Sumpter R, Loo Y, Foy E, Li K, Yoneyama M, Fujita T, et al. Regulating intracellular antiviral defense and permissiveness to hepatitis C virus RNA replication through a cellular RNA helicase, RIG-I. J Virol. 2005;79:2689-99 pubmed..RIG-I is thus a pathogen receptor that regulates cellular permissiveness to HCV replication and, as an interferon-responsive gene, may play a key role in interferon-based therapies for the treatment of HCV infection. ..
- Su Z, Sarkar D, Emdad L, Barral P, Fisher P. Central role of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in controlling retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) expression. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:502-10 pubmed..IRF-1 is a tumor suppressor and the expression profile of RIG-I together with its regulation by IRF-1 and the presence of a caspase-recruitment domain in RIG-I suggest that RIG-I might also possess tumor suppressor properties. ..
- Gack M, Nistal Villán E, Inn K, Garcia Sastre A, Jung J. Phosphorylation-mediated negative regulation of RIG-I antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010;84:3220-9 pubmed publisher..While Thr-170 phosphorylation keeps RIG-I latent, Lys-172 ubiquitination enables RIG-I to form a stable complex with MAVS, thereby inducing IFN signal transduction. ..
- Seth R, Sun L, Ea C, Chen Z. Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3. Cell. 2005;122:669-82 pubmed..The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity...
- ..Understanding the processes of RLR signaling and response will provide insights to guide RLR-targeted therapeutics for antiviral and immune-modifying applications. ..
- Marr N, Wang T, Kam S, Hu Y, Sharma A, Lam A, et al. Attenuation of respiratory syncytial virus-induced and RIG-I-dependent type I IFN responses in human neonates and very young children. J Immunol. 2014;192:948-57 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that human pDCs are less functional in early life, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility of infants and young children to severe RSV disease. ..
- Vela A, Fedorova O, Ding S, Pyle A. The thermodynamic basis for viral RNA detection by the RIG-I innate immune sensor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42564-73 pubmed publisher..Covalent linkage between the domains enhances RNA ligand specificity while reducing overall binding affinity, thereby providing a mechanism for discriminating virus from host RNA. ..
- Ferrage F, Dutta K, Nistal Villán E, Patel J, Sanchez Aparicio M, De Ioannes P, et al. Structure and dynamics of the second CARD of human RIG-I provide mechanistic insights into regulation of RIG-I activation. Structure. 2012;20:2048-61 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our data suggests a close interplay between phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and activation of human RIG-I, all mediated by CARD2. ..
- Cui S, Eisenächer K, Kirchhofer A, Brzózka K, Lammens A, Lammens K, et al. The C-terminal regulatory domain is the RNA 5'-triphosphate sensor of RIG-I. Mol Cell. 2008;29:169-79 pubmed publisher..Structure-guided mutagenesis identifies a positively charged groove as likely 5'-triphosphate-binding site of RIG-I. This groove is distinct in MDA5 and LGP2, raising the possibility that RD confers ligand specificity. ..
- Peisley A, Wu B, Xu H, Chen Z, Hur S. Structural basis for ubiquitin-mediated antiviral signal activation by RIG-I. Nature. 2014;509:110-4 pubmed publisher..Our work provides unique insights into the novel types of ubiquitin-mediated signal-activation mechanism, and previously unexpected synergism between the covalent and non-covalent ubiquitin interaction modes. ..
- Kageyama M, Takahasi K, Narita R, Hirai R, Yoneyama M, Kato H, et al. 55 Amino acid linker between helicase and carboxyl terminal domains of RIG-I functions as a critical repression domain and determines inter-domain conformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:75-81 pubmed publisher..These findings shed light on the structural regulation of RIG-I function. ..
- Loo Y, Owen D, Li K, Erickson A, Johnson C, Fish P, et al. Viral and therapeutic control of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1 during hepatitis C virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6001-6 pubmed..HCV protease inhibitors effectively prevent IPS-1 proteolysis, suggesting they may be capable of restoring this innate host response in clinical practice. ..
- Guo Z, Chen L, Zeng H, Gomez J, Plowden J, Fujita T, et al. NS1 protein of influenza A virus inhibits the function of intracytoplasmic pathogen sensor, RIG-I. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:263-9 pubmed..These results provide further information on the mechanism by which IAV NS1 antagonizes the host antiviral response. ..
- Nasirudeen A, Wong H, Thien P, Xu S, Lam K, Liu D. RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e926 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the intracellular RNA virus sensors (RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3) are activated upon DV infection and are essential for host defense against the virus. ..
- Atencia R, Bustamante F, Valdivieso A, Arrieta A, Riñón M, Prada A, et al. Differential expression of viral PAMP receptors mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:136 pubmed
- Marq J, Kolakofsky D, Garcin D. Unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotides, as found in arenavirus double-stranded RNA panhandles, are not recognized by RIG-I. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18208-16 pubmed publisher..The presence of this unpaired 5' ppp-nucleotide is thus another way that some viruses appear to use to avoid detection by cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors...
- Solis M, Nakhaei P, Jalalirad M, Lacoste J, Douville R, Arguello M, et al. RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling is inhibited in HIV-1 infection by a protease-mediated sequestration of RIG-I. J Virol. 2011;85:1224-36 pubmed publisher..This study reveals a novel PR-dependent mechanism employed by HIV-1 to counteract the early IFN response to viral RNA in infected cells. ..
- Lin R, Yang L, Nakhaei P, Sun Q, Sharif Askari E, Julkunen I, et al. Negative regulation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-induced antiviral state by the ubiquitin-editing protein A20. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2095-103 pubmed..These results suggest that the virus-inducible, NF-kappaB-dependent activation of A20 functions as a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated induction of the antiviral state. ..
- Hu J, Nistal Villán E, Voho A, Ganee A, Kumar M, Ding Y, et al. A common polymorphism in the caspase recruitment domain of RIG-I modifies the innate immune response of human dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:424-32 pubmed publisher..to the induction of the IFNbeta gene, IFNB1, through the activation of the RNA helicase RIG-I, which is encoded by DDX58. Expression levels of IFNB1 and DDX58 in infected DCs showed positive correlations at the population and the ..
- Barral P, Sarkar D, Su Z, Barber G, DeSalle R, Racaniello V, et al. Functions of the cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA-5: key regulators of innate immunity. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;124:219-34 pubmed publisher..We also consider the function of these cytoplasmic sensors in apoptosis, development and differentiation, and diabetes. ..
- Cui J, Song Y, Li Y, Zhu Q, Tan P, Qin Y, et al. USP3 inhibits type I interferon signaling by deubiquitinating RIG-I-like receptors. Cell Res. 2014;24:400-16 pubmed publisher..Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of USP3 in RIG-I activation and provide insights into the mechanisms by which USP3 inhibits RIG-I signaling and antiviral immunity. ..
- Zeng W, Sun L, Jiang X, Chen X, Hou F, Adhikari A, et al. Reconstitution of the RIG-I pathway reveals a signaling role of unanchored polyubiquitin chains in innate immunity. Cell. 2010;141:315-30 pubmed publisher..Our results delineate the mechanism of RIG-I activation, identify CARD domains as a ubiquitin sensor, and demonstrate that unanchored K63-polyubiquitin chains are signaling molecules in antiviral innate immunity...
- Barral P, Sarkar D, Fisher P, Racaniello V. RIG-I is cleaved during picornavirus infection. Virology. 2009;391:171-6 pubmed publisher..Rather, the viral proteinase 3C(pro) cleaves RIG-I, both in vitro and in cells. Cleavage of RIG-I during picornavirus infection may constitute another mechanism for attenuating the innate response to viral infection. ..
- Hrincius E, Dierkes R, Anhlan D, Wixler V, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by influenza virus vRNA via the pathogen pattern receptor Rig-I to promote efficient type I interferon production. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1907-19 pubmed publisher..These data identify PI3K as factor that is activated as part of the Rig-I mediated anti-pathogen response to enhance expression of type I interferons. ..
- Dixit E, Kagan J. Intracellular pathogen detection by RIG-I-like receptors. Adv Immunol. 2013;117:99-125 pubmed publisher..RLR signaling requires the adapter protein MAVS to induce type I interferon, interferon-stimulated genes, and proinflammatory cytokines. This review focuses on the molecular and cell biological requirements for RLR signal transduction. ..