Gene Symbol: DDX3
Description: DEAD-box helicase 3 X-linked
Alias: CAP-Rf, DBX, DDX14, DDX3, HLP2, MRX102, ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3, X-linked, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 3, X-linked, DEAD box protein 3, X-chromosomal, DEAD box, X isoform, DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, DEAD/H box-3, helicase-like protein 2
Species: human
Products:     DDX3

Top Publications

  1. Ishaq M, Hu J, Wu X, Fu Q, Yang Y, Liu Q, et al. Knockdown of cellular RNA helicase DDX3 by short hairpin RNAs suppresses HIV-1 viral replication without inducing apoptosis. Mol Biotechnol. 2008;39:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is an essential Rev co-factor in the CRM1-Rev-RRE complex that promotes the export of unspliced and single-spliced ..
  2. You L, Chen C, Yeh T, Tsai T, Mai R, Lin C, et al. Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with cellular putative RNA helicase. J Virol. 1999;73:2841-53 pubmed
    ..designated CAP-Rf, exhibits more than 95% amino acid sequence identity to other known RNA helicases including human DBX and DBY, mouse mDEAD3, and PL10, a family of proteins generally involved in translation, splicing, development, or ..
  3. Park S, Lee S, Kim Y, Song K. Assignment of a human putative RNA helicase gene, DDX3, to human X chromosome bands p11.3-->p11.23. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;81:178-9 pubmed
  4. Soulat D, Burckstummer T, Westermayer S, Goncalves A, Bauch A, Stefanovic A, et al. The DEAD-box helicase DDX3X is a critical component of the TANK-binding kinase 1-dependent innate immune response. EMBO J. 2008;27:2135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation-deficient mutants of DDX3X failed to synergize with TBK1 in their ability to stimulate the IFN promoter. Overall, our data imply that DDX3X is a critical effector of TBK1 that is necessary for type I IFN induction. ..
  5. Soto Rifo R, Ohlmann T. The role of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 in mRNA metabolism. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2013;4:369-85 pubmed publisher
    b>DDX3 belongs to the DEAD-box proteins, a large family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases that participate in all aspects of RNA metabolism...
  6. Dayton A. Within you, without you: HIV-1 Rev and RNA export. Retrovirology. 2004;1:35 pubmed
    ..This suggests the ubiquity of RNA helicases in RNA export from the nucleus, and has novel mechanistic implications. ..
  7. Kim Y, Lee S, Park S, Song K. Gene structure of the human DDX3 and chromosome mapping of its related sequences. Mol Cells. 2001;12:209-14 pubmed
    The human DDX3 gene (GenBank accession No. U50553) is the human homologue of the mouse Ddx3 gene and is a member of the gene family that contains DEAD motifs. Previously, we mapped the gene to the Xp11.3-11.23...
  8. Schröder M, Baran M, Bowie A. Viral targeting of DEAD box protein 3 reveals its role in TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation. EMBO J. 2008;27:2147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3) as a host target of K7...
  9. Lee C, Dias A, Jedrychowski M, Patel A, Hsu J, Reed R. Human DDX3 functions in translation and interacts with the translation initiation factor eIF3. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4708-18 pubmed publisher
    The conserved RNA helicase DDX3 is of major medical importance due to its involvement in numerous cancers, human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV...

More Information


  1. Lai M, Lee Y, Tarn W. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 associates with export messenger ribonucleoproteins as well as tip-associated protein and participates in translational control. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We screened for protein factors that associate with TAP and identified several candidates, including RNA helicase DDX3. We demonstrate that DDX3 directly interacts with TAP and that its association with TAP as well as mRNA ..
  2. Kalverda A, Thompson G, Vogel A, Schröder M, Bowie A, Khan A, et al. Poxvirus K7 protein adopts a Bcl-2 fold: biochemical mapping of its interactions with human DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to A52, K7 forms a complex with DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3, thereby suppressing DDX3-mediated ifnb promoter induction...
  3. Schröder M. Human DEAD-box protein 3 has multiple functions in gene regulation and cell cycle control and is a prime target for viral manipulation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:297-306 pubmed publisher
    The human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 has been implicated to play a role in the whole repertoire of processes regulating gene expression, including transcription, splicing, mRNA export and translation...
  4. Angus A, Dalrymple D, Boulant S, McGivern D, Clayton R, Scott M, et al. Requirement of cellular DDX3 for hepatitis C virus replication is unrelated to its interaction with the viral core protein. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:122-32 pubmed publisher
    The cellular DEAD-box protein DDX3 was recently shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Prior to that, we had reported that HCV core binds to DDX3 in yeast-two hybrid and transient transfection assays...
  5. Soto Rifo R, Rubilar P, Limousin T, de Breyne S, Decimo D, Ohlmann T. DEAD-box protein DDX3 associates with eIF4F to promote translation of selected mRNAs. EMBO J. 2012;31:3745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This is mediated by the DEAD-box helicase DDX3 which can directly bind to the 5' of the target mRNA where it clamps the entry of eIF4F through an eIF4G and Poly A-..
  6. Botlagunta M, Krishnamachary B, Vesuna F, Winnard P, Bol G, Patel A, et al. Expression of DDX3 is directly modulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in breast epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17563 pubmed publisher
    DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival...
  7. Sun M, Song L, Zhou T, Gillespie G, Jope R. The role of DDX3 in regulating Snail. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:438-47 pubmed publisher
    b>DDX3, a DEAD box protein family member, appears to promote the progression of some cancers, which may partly result from its impedance of death receptor-mediated apoptosis...
  8. Franca R, Belfiore A, Spadari S, Maga G. Human DEAD-box ATPase DDX3 shows a relaxed nucleoside substrate specificity. Proteins. 2007;67:1128-37 pubmed
    Human DDX3 (hDDX3) is a DEAD-box protein shown to possess RNA-unwinding and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities. The hDDX3 protein has been implicated in nuclear mRNA export, cell growth control, and cancer progression...
  9. Lai M, Chang W, Shieh S, Tarn W. DDX3 regulates cell growth through translational control of cyclin E1. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5444-53 pubmed publisher
    b>DDX3 belongs to the DEAD box family of RNA helicases, but the details of its biological function remain largely unclear. Here we show that knockdown of DDX3 expression impedes G(1)/S-phase transition of the cell cycle...
  10. Chang P, Chi C, Chau G, Li F, Tsai Y, Wu J, et al. DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase, is deregulated in hepatitis virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma and is involved in cell growth control. Oncogene. 2006;25:1991-2003 pubmed
    ..Our previous report shows that a DEAD box RNA helicase, DDX3, is targeted and regulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, which implicates the involvement of DDX3 in HCV-..
  11. Masuda S, Das R, Cheng H, Hurt E, Dorman N, Reed R. Recruitment of the human TREX complex to mRNA during splicing. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1512-7 pubmed
  12. Yedavalli V, Neuveut C, Chi Y, Kleiman L, Jeang K. Requirement of DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase for HIV-1 Rev-RRE export function. Cell. 2004;119:381-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we present evidence that Rev/CRM1 activity utilizes the ATP-dependent DEAD box RNA helicase, DDX3. We show that DDX3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, which binds CRM1 and localizes to nuclear membrane ..
  13. Maga G, Falchi F, Radi M, Botta L, Casaluce G, Bernardini M, et al. Toward the discovery of novel anti-HIV drugs. Second-generation inhibitors of the cellular ATPase DDX3 with improved anti-HIV activity: synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, cytotoxicity studies, and target validation. ChemMedChem. 2011;6:1371-89 pubmed publisher
    ..protocol applied to the first nonnucleoside inhibitor of the ATPase activity of human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 led to the design and synthesis of second-generation rhodanine derivatives with better inhibitory activity toward ..
  14. Garbelli A, Beermann S, Di Cicco G, Dietrich U, Maga G. A motif unique to the human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is important for nucleic acid binding, ATP hydrolysis, RNA/DNA unwinding and HIV-1 replication. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19810 pubmed publisher
    ..The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 has been shown to play important roles in tumor proliferation and viral infections...
  15. Li C, Ge L, Li P, Wang Y, Dai J, Sun M, et al. Cellular DDX3 regulates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by interacting with viral un-translated regions. Virology. 2014;449:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we demonstrated that cellular helicase DDX3 is involved in JEV replication. DDX3 knockdown inhibits JEV replication...
  16. Pek J, Kai T. DEAD-box RNA helicase Belle/DDX3 and the RNA interference pathway promote mitotic chromosome segregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>DDX3 (human homolog of belle) and DICER function in promoting chromosome segregation and hCAP-H (human homolog of Barr) ..
  17. Shih J, Wang W, Tsai T, Kuo C, Li H, Wu Lee Y. Critical roles of RNA helicase DDX3 and its interactions with eIF4E/PABP1 in stress granule assembly and stress response. Biochem J. 2012;441:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA helicase DDX3 was reported to associate with SGs. However, its role in SG physiology remains undefined...
  18. Geissler R, Golbik R, Behrens S. The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 supports the assembly of functional 80S ribosomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4998-5011 pubmed publisher
    The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 has suggested functions in innate immunity, mRNA translocation and translation, and it participates in the propagation of assorted viruses...
  19. Miao X, Yang Z, Xiong L, Zou Q, Yuan Y, Li J, et al. Nectin-2 and DDX3 are biomarkers for metastasis and poor prognosis of squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas and adenocarcinoma of gallbladder. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:179-90 pubmed
    ..In this study, the protein expression of Nectin-2 and DDX3 in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas was measured using immunohistochemistry...
  20. Kasim V, Wu S, Taira K, Miyagishi M. Determination of the role of DDX3 a factor involved in mammalian RNAi pathway using an shRNA-expression library. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59445 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using a short hairpin RNA-expression library, we identified a DEAD-box helicase 3, DDX3, as an essential factor involved in RNAi pathway and revealed that DDX3 is colocalized with Ago2, an essential ..
  21. Yasuda Inoue M, Kuroki M, Ariumi Y. DDX3 RNA helicase is required for HIV-1 Tat function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:607-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export...
  22. Yasuda Inoue M, Kuroki M, Ariumi Y. Distinct DDX DEAD-box RNA helicases cooperate to modulate the HIV-1 Rev function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:803-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, host RNA helicase has been involved in HIV-1 replication. Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export...
  23. Oshiumi H, Sakai K, Matsumoto M, Seya T. DEAD/H BOX 3 (DDX3) helicase binds the RIG-I adaptor IPS-1 to up-regulate IFN-beta-inducing potential. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:940-8 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins coupling with human IPS-1 by yeast two-hybrid and identified another DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase, DDX3 (DEAD/H BOX 3). DDX3 can bind viral RNA to join it in the IPS-1 complex...
  24. Sun M, Song L, Li Y, Zhou T, Jope R. Identification of an antiapoptotic protein complex at death receptors. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1887-900 pubmed publisher
    ..an antiapoptotic protein complex associated with death receptors that contains glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), DDX3 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1)...
  25. Krishnan V, Zeichner S. Alterations in the expression of DEAD-box and other RNA binding proteins during HIV-1 replication. Retrovirology. 2004;1:42 pubmed
    Recent results showed that certain DEAD box protein RNA helicases, DDX3 and DDX1, play an important role in the HIV infection cycle by facilitating the export of long, singly spliced or unspliced HIV RNAs from the nucleus via the CRM1-Rev ..
  26. Ariumi Y, Kuroki M, Abe K, Dansako H, Ikeda M, Wakita T, et al. DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase is required for hepatitis C virus RNA replication. J Virol. 2007;81:13922-6 pubmed
    b>DDX3, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, binds to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. However, the role(s) of DDX3 in HCV replication is still not understood...
  27. Shih J, Tsai T, Chao C, Wu Lee Y. Candidate tumor suppressor DDX3 RNA helicase specifically represses cap-dependent translation by acting as an eIF4E inhibitory protein. Oncogene. 2008;27:700-14 pubmed
    b>DDX3 is a human RNA helicase with plethoric functions. Our previous studies have indicated that DDX3 is a transcriptional regulator and functions as a tumor suppressor...
  28. Högbom M, Collins R, van den Berg S, Jenvert R, Karlberg T, Kotenyova T, et al. Crystal structure of conserved domains 1 and 2 of the human DEAD-box helicase DDX3X in complex with the mononucleotide AMP. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:150-9 pubmed
    ..Here, the crystal structure of conserved domains 1 and 2 of DDX3X, including a DDX3-specific insertion that is not generally found in human DExD-box helicases, is presented...
  29. Liu J, Henao Mejia J, Liu H, Zhao Y, He J. Translational regulation of HIV-1 replication by HIV-1 Rev cellular cofactors Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:308-21 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleus to the cytoplasm; it requires interaction with several cellular cofactors such as Sam68, eIF5A, hRIP, and DDX3. Meanwhile, some studies have also implicated Rev and some of its cofactors such as Sam68 in HIV-1 RNA translation...
  30. Owsianka A, Patel A. Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with a human DEAD box protein DDX3. Virology. 1999;257:330-40 pubmed
    ..one of which encoded the C-terminal 253 amino acids of a putative RNA helicase, a DEAD box protein designated DDX3. Bacterially expressed glutathione-S-transferase-DDX3 fusion protein specifically pulled down in vitro translated ..
  31. Mamiya N, Worman H. Hepatitis C virus core protein binds to a DEAD box RNA helicase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15751-6 pubmed
    ..screen of a human liver cell cDNA library with HCV core protein as bait and isolated the DEAD box protein DBX. DBX has significant amino acid sequence identity to mouse PL10, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase...
  32. Chao C, Chen C, Cheng P, Shih J, Tsou A, Lee Y. DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase with tumor growth-suppressive property and transcriptional regulation activity of the p21waf1/cip1 promoter, is a candidate tumor suppressor. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6579-88 pubmed
    b>DDX3 is a DEAD box RNA helicase with diverse biological functions...
  33. Gu L, Fullam A, BRENNAN R, Schröder M. Human DEAD box helicase 3 couples I?B kinase ? to interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2004-15 pubmed publisher
    The human DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3) has been implicated in different processes contributing to gene expression...
  34. Cruciat C, Dolde C, de Groot R, Ohkawara B, Reinhard C, Korswagen H, et al. RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-?-catenin signaling. Science. 2013;339:1436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to this notion, we have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 as a regulator of the Wnt-?-catenin network, where it acts as a regulatory subunit of CK1?: In a Wnt-dependent ..
  35. Botlagunta M, Vesuna F, Mironchik Y, Raman A, Lisok A, Winnard P, et al. Oncogenic role of DDX3 in breast cancer biogenesis. Oncogene. 2008;27:3912-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the differential genes expressed, we found consistent activation of DDX3, a member of the DEAD box RNA helicase family...
  36. Oda S, Schröder M, Khan A. Structural basis for targeting of human RNA helicase DDX3 by poxvirus protein K7. Structure. 2009;17:1528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike A52, K7 also forms a complex with RNA helicase DDX3 and antagonizes interferon-beta promoter induction...
  37. Russell L, Jones L, Enshaei A, Tonin S, Ryan S, Eswaran J, et al. Characterisation of the genomic landscape of CRLF2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017;56:363-372 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the functional relevance of many of these abnormalities are unknown, they likely activate additional pathways, which may represent novel therapeutic targets. ..
  38. Siqueira L, Hansen P. Sex differences in response of the bovine embryo to colony-stimulating factor 2. Reproduction. 2016;152:645-654 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CSF2 exerted divergent responses on gene expression and development of female and male embryos. These results are evidence of sexually dimorphic responses of the preimplantation embryo to this embryokine. ..
  39. Wang Z, Liu W, Song H, Wang H, Liu J, Zhao H, et al. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family...
  40. Jenny F, Basler K. Drosophila DDX3/Belle Exerts Its Function Outside of the Wnt/Wingless Signaling Pathway. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166862 pubmed publisher
    The helicases human DDX3 and Drosophila Belle (Bel) are part of a well-defined subfamily of the DEAD-box helicases. Individual subfamily-members perform a myriad of functions in nuclear and cytosolic RNA metabolism...
  41. Jiang L, Gu Z, Yan Z, Zhao X, Xie Y, Zhang Z, et al. Exome sequencing identifies somatic mutations of DDX3X in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Nat Genet. 2015;47:1061-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, patients with DDX3X mutations presented a poor prognosis. Our work thus contributes to the understanding of the disease mechanism of NKTCL. ..
  42. Copsey A, Cooper S, Parker R, Lineham E, Lapworth C, Jallad D, et al. The helicase, DDX3X, interacts with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1) and caprin-1 at the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts and is required for efficient cell spreading. Biochem J. 2017;474:3109-3120 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, as depletion of DDX3X leads to decreased cell motility, this provides a functional link between DDX3X, caprin-1 and initiation factors at the leading edge of migrating cells to promote cell migration and spreading. ..
  43. Zhao L, Mao Y, Zhao Y, He Y. DDX3X promotes the biogenesis of a subset of miRNAs and the potential roles they played in cancer development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:32739 pubmed publisher
  44. Lai M, Wang S, Cheng L, Tarn W, Tsai S, Sun H. Human DDX3 interacts with the HIV-1 Tat protein to facilitate viral mRNA translation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68665 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we provide evidence to show that DDX3 regulates the translation of HIV-1 mRNAs...
  45. Arvaniti K, Papadioti A, Kinigopoulou M, Theodorou V, Skobridis K, Tsiotis G. Proteome Changes Induced by Imatinib and Novel Imatinib Derivatives in K562 Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Proteomes. 2014;2:363-381 pubmed publisher
    ..Both experiments pointed to changes in the expression of the ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X and of two mitochondrial coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing proteins. ..
  46. Chauhan A. Unperturbed posttranscriptional regulatory Rev protein function and HIV-1 replication in astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106910 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase) and TRBP (anti-PKR) in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function ..
  47. Wu D, Lin P, Cheng Y, Huang C, Wang L, Lee H. DDX3 enhances oncogenic KRAS‑induced tumor invasion in colorectal cancer via the β‑catenin/ZEB1 axis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:22687-99 pubmed publisher
    b>DDX3 plays a dual role in colorectal cancer; however, the role and underlying mechanism of DDX3 in colorectal tumorigenesis remains unclear...
  48. Koshio J, Kagamu H, Nozaki K, Saida Y, Tanaka T, Shoji S, et al. DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013;62:1619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..DDX3X is expressed in various human cancer cells, including lung, colon, and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that anti-DDX3X immunotherapy is a promising treatment option in efforts to eradicate CSC in the clinical setting. ..
  49. Hueng D, Tsai W, Chiou H, Feng S, Lin C, Li Y, et al. DDX3X Biomarker Correlates with Poor Survival in Human Gliomas. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:15578-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, DDX3X expression level positively correlates with WHO pathologic grading and poor survival outcome, indicating that DDX3X is a valuable biomarker in human gliomas. ..
  50. Eldomery M, Coban Akdemir Z, Harel T, Rosenfeld J, Gambin T, Stray Pedersen A, et al. Lessons learned from additional research analyses of unsolved clinical exome cases. Genome Med. 2017;9:26 pubmed publisher
    ..Implementing these approaches requires collaborative clinical molecular diagnostic and research efforts. ..
  51. Joseph N, Chen Y, Nasr A, Yeh I, Talevich E, Onodera C, et al. Genomic profiling of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma reveals recurrent alterations in epigenetic regulatory genes BAP1, SETD2, and DDX3X. Mod Pathol. 2017;30:246-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of epigenetic modifiers including BAP1, SETD2, and DDX3X in mesothelial tumorigenesis and suggest opportunities for targeted therapies. ..
  52. Dahlin A, Hollegaard M, Wibom C, Andersson U, Hougaard D, Deltour I, et al. CCND2, CTNNB1, DDX3X, GLI2, SMARCA4, MYC, MYCN, PTCH1, TP53, and MLL2 gene variants and risk of childhood medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol. 2015;125:75-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results do not support our hypothesis that common germline genetic variants in the ten studied genes are associated with the risk of developing medulloblastoma. ..
  53. Sharma D, Jankowsky E. The Ded1/DDX3 subfamily of DEAD-box RNA helicases. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;49:343-60 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotic organisms, the orthologs of the DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1p from yeast and DDX3 from human form a well-defined subfamily that is characterized by high sequence conservation in their helicase core and their N- and C- termini...
  54. Rodamilans B, Montoya G. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DDX3 RNA helicase domain. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007;63:283-6 pubmed
    b>DDX3 is a human RNA helicase that is involved in RNA processing and important human diseases...
  55. Kang J, Kwon Y, Ahn B. Modulation of the type I interferon pathways by culture-adaptive hepatitis C virus core mutants. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant core proteins bound less tightly than the parental type core to the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 and attenuated the TBK1-mediated activation of interferon-related promoters...
  56. McLaren M, Marsh K, Cochrane A. Modulating HIV-1 RNA processing and utilization. Front Biosci. 2008;13:5693-707 pubmed
    ..The observations made underline the multiple fate decisions that must be made at each stage of the viral RNA metabolic pathway and highlight potential new avenues for controlling HIV-1 replication. ..
  57. Zeng D, Zhu S. Purification, characterization, antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel polysaccharides extracted from Bachu mushroom. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;107:1086-1092 pubmed publisher
    Two novel polysaccharide fractions (HLP1-1 and HLP2-1) were purified from crude polysaccharides of Helvella leucopus by using DEAE-52 column (2.6cm×20cm) and Sephadex G-150 column (1.6×60cm)...
  58. Peneder P, Wallner B, Vogl C. Exchange of genetic information between therian X and Y chromosome gametologs in old evolutionary strata. Ecol Evol. 2017;7:8478-8487 pubmed publisher
    ..Applying our test, we detected exchange of genetic information between all four X and Y gametologs after stratum formation...
  59. Wang Z, Shen G, Xie J, Li B, Gao Q. Rottlerin upregulates DDX3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1503-1509 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, rottlerin suppressed cell migration and invasion. Notably, we found that rottlerin upregulated DDX3 expression and subsequently downregulated Cyclin D1 expression and increased p21 level...
  60. Gu L, Fullam A, McCormack N, Höhn Y, Schröder M. DDX3 directly regulates TRAF3 ubiquitination and acts as a scaffold to co-ordinate assembly of signalling complexes downstream from MAVS. Biochem J. 2017;474:571-587 pubmed publisher
    The human DEAD-box helicase 3 (DDX3) has been shown to contribute to type I interferon (IFN) induction downstream from antiviral pattern recognition receptors...
  61. Li H, Mai R, Huang H, Chou C, Chang Y, Chang Y, et al. DDX3 Represses Stemness by Epigenetically Modulating Tumor-suppressive miRNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28637 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the functional role of DDX3 in regulation of hepatic CSCs was investigated...
  62. Ajamian L, Abel K, Rao S, Vyboh K, García de Gracia F, Soto Rifo R, et al. HIV-1 Recruits UPF1 but Excludes UPF2 to Promote Nucleocytoplasmic Export of the Genomic RNA. Biomolecules. 2015;5:2808-39 pubmed publisher
    ..viral RNPs during the late phase of HIV-1 replication: the first, in a nuclear export RNP that contains Rev, CRM1, DDX3 and the nucleoporin p62, and the second, which excludes these nuclear export markers but contains Gag in the ..
  63. Heerma van Voss M, Vesuna F, Trumpi K, Brilliant J, Berlinicke C, de Leng W, et al. Identification of the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3 as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:28312-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have identified a member of the RNA helicase family DDX3 (DDX3X) as a multilevel activator of Wnt signaling in cells without activating mutations in the Wnt-signaling ..
  64. Samal S, Routray S, Veeramachaneni G, Dash R, Botlagunta M. Ketorolac salt is a newly discovered DDX3 inhibitor to treat oral cancer. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9982 pubmed publisher
    b>DDX3 belongs to DEAD box RNA helicase family and is involved in the progression of several types of cancer...
  65. Bol G, Vesuna F, Xie M, Zeng J, Aziz K, Gandhi N, et al. Targeting DDX3 with a small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer therapy. EMBO Mol Med. 2015;7:648-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a RNA helicase, DDX3, which is overexpressed in many cancer types including lung cancer and is associated with lower survival in lung ..
  66. Mahboobi S, Javanpour A, Mofrad M. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0112969 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug ..
  67. Schröder P, Fernández Irigoyen J, Bigaud E, Serna A, Renández Alcoceba R, Lu S, et al. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III: Characterization of DDX3X as a target of S-adenosylmethionine. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2855-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. ..
  68. Sun C, Pager C, Luo G, Sarnow P, Cate J. Hepatitis C virus core-derived peptides inhibit genotype 1b viral genome replication via interaction with DDX3X. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the role of DDX3X in HCV infection involves aspects of the viral life cycle that vary in importance between HCV genotypes. ..