Gene Symbol: DDB1
Description: damage specific DNA binding protein 1
Alias: DDBA, UV-DDB1, XAP1, XPCE, XPE, XPE-BF, DNA damage-binding protein 1, DDB p127 subunit, DNA damage-binding protein a, HBV X-associated protein 1, UV-DDB 1, UV-damaged DNA-binding factor, UV-damaged DNA-binding protein 1, XAP-1, XPE-binding factor, damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa, xeroderma pigmentosum group E-complementing protein
Species: human
Products:     DDB1

Top Publications

  1. Matsuda N, Azuma K, Saijo M, Iemura S, Hioki Y, Natsume T, et al. DDB2, the xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product, is directly ubiquitylated by Cullin 4A-based ubiquitin ligase complex. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:537-45 pubmed
    ..DDB2 together with DDB1 comprises a heterodimer called DDB complex, which is involved in damaged-DNA binding and nucleotide excision repair...
  2. Wen X, Duus K, Friedrich T, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a DDB1 and Cullin4A-containing ubiquitin ligase complex using VprBP/DCAF1 as an adaptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27046-57 pubmed
    ..Using co-immunoprecipitation and tandem mass spectroscopy, we found that HIV1 Vpr engages a DDB1- and cullin4A-containing ubiquitin-ligase complex through VprBP/DCAF1...
  3. Dehart J, Zimmerman E, Ardon O, Monteiro Filho C, Argañaraz E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr activates the G2 checkpoint through manipulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Virol J. 2007;4:57 pubmed
    ..We found that Vpr binds to the DCAF1 subunit of a cullin 4a/DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  4. Huang C, Chiang S, Lin T, Chiou S, Chow K. HIV-1 Vpr triggers mitochondrial destruction by impairing Mfn2-mediated ER-mitochondria interaction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33657 pubmed publisher
    ..a loss in membrane potential (MMP) by posttranscriptionally reducing the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) via VprBP-DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin ligase complex, gradually weakening MOM, and increasing mitochondrial deformation...
  5. McCall C, Miliani de Marval P, Chastain P, Jackson S, He Y, Kotake Y, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-binding protein VprBP, a WD40 protein associated with the DDB1-CUL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, is essential for DNA replication and embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5621-33 pubmed publisher
    Damaged DNA binding protein 1, DDB1, bridges an estimated 90 or more WD40 repeats (DDB1-binding WD40, or DWD proteins) to the CUL4-ROC1 catalytic core to constitute a potentially large number of E3 ligase complexes...
  6. Huang J, Chen J. VprBP targets Merlin to the Roc1-Cul4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex for degradation. Oncogene. 2008;27:4056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we provide evidence to show that Merlin is regulated in a Roc1-Cullin4A-DDB1-dependent manner...
  7. Casey Klockow L, Sharifi H, Wen X, Flagg M, Furuya A, Nekorchuk M, et al. The HIV-1 protein Vpr targets the endoribonuclease Dicer for proteasomal degradation to boost macrophage infection. Virology. 2013;444:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which Vpr complexes with human Dicer to boost its interaction with the CRL4(DCAF1) ubiquitin ligase complex and its subsequent degradation. ..
  8. Groisman R, Polanowska J, Kuraoka I, Sawada J, Saijo M, Drapkin R, et al. The ubiquitin ligase activity in the DDB2 and CSA complexes is differentially regulated by the COP9 signalosome in response to DNA damage. Cell. 2003;113:357-67 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that DDB2 and CSA are each integrated into nearly identical complexes via interaction with DDB1. Both complexes contain cullin 4A and Roc1 and display ubiquitin ligase activity...
  9. Fischer E, Scrima A, Böhm K, Matsumoto S, Lingaraju G, Faty M, et al. The molecular basis of CRL4DDB2/CSA ubiquitin ligase architecture, targeting, and activation. Cell. 2011;147:1024-39 pubmed publisher
    The DDB1-CUL4-RBX1 (CRL4) ubiquitin ligase family regulates a diverse set of cellular pathways through dedicated substrate receptors (DCAFs)...

More Information


  1. Wen X, Casey Klockow L, Nekorchuk M, Sharifi H, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to enhance constitutive DCAF1-dependent UNG2 turnover. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30939 pubmed publisher
    The HIV1 protein Vpr assembles with and acts through an ubiquitin ligase complex that includes DDB1 and cullin 4 (CRL4) to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and to promote degradation of both uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2) and single-strand ..
  2. Seki N, Hayashi A, Hattori A, Kozuma S, Sasaki M, Suzuki Y, et al. cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal assignment of a mouse gene, encoding a 127 kDa UV-damaged DNA binding protein which is defective in XPE cells. DNA Res. 1999;6:319-22 pubmed
    ..A cDNA for the 127 kDa UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (p127-Ddb1) was isolated from a mouse fetal brain full length-enriched cDNA library, and an open reading frame of 1140 amino ..
  3. Dualan R, Brody T, Keeney S, Nichols A, Admon A, Linn S. Chromosomal localization and cDNA cloning of the genes (DDB1 and DDB2) for the p127 and p48 subunits of a human damage-specific DNA binding protein. Genomics. 1995;29:62-9 pubmed
    ..Using a fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, the DDB p127 locus (DDB1) was assigned to the chromosomal location 11q12-q13, and the DDB p48 locus (DDB2) to 11p11-p12.
  4. Abbas T, Shibata E, Park J, Jha S, Karnani N, Dutta A. CRL4(Cdt2) regulates cell proliferation and histone gene expression by targeting PR-Set7/Set8 for degradation. Mol Cell. 2010;40:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a central role of CRL4(Cdt2)-dependent cell-cycle regulation of Set8 for the maintenance of a stable epigenetic state essential for cell viability. ..
  5. Bergamaschi A, Ayinde D, David A, Le Rouzic E, Morel M, Collin G, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx protein usurps the CUL4A-DDB1 DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase to overcome a postentry block in macrophage infection. J Virol. 2009;83:4854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Vpx assembles with the CUL4A-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase through DCAF1 recruitment...
  6. Li T, Robert E, van Breugel P, Strubin M, Zheng N. A promiscuous alpha-helical motif anchors viral hijackers and substrate receptors to the CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase machinery. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:105-11 pubmed publisher
    The cullin 4-DNA-damage-binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1) ubiquitin ligase machinery regulates diverse cellular functions and can be subverted by pathogenic viruses...
  7. Guerrero Santoro J, Kapetanaki M, Hsieh C, Gorbachinsky I, Levine A, Rapic Otrin V. The cullin 4B-based UV-damaged DNA-binding protein ligase binds to UV-damaged chromatin and ubiquitinates histone H2A. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..UV-DDB consists of DDB1 and DDB2, and it is a component of the cullin 4A (CUL4A)-based ubiquitin ligase, DDB1-CUL4A(DDB2)...
  8. Kapetanaki M, Guerrero Santoro J, Bisi D, Hsieh C, Rapic Otrin V, Levine A. The DDB1-CUL4ADDB2 ubiquitin ligase is deficient in xeroderma pigmentosum group E and targets histone H2A at UV-damaged DNA sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2588-93 pubmed
    ..UV-DDB comprises two subunits, products of the DDB1 and DDB2 genes, respectively. Mutations in the DDB2 gene account for the underlying defect in XP-E...
  9. Scrima A, Konícková R, Czyzewski B, Kawasaki Y, Jeffrey P, Groisman R, et al. Structural basis of UV DNA-damage recognition by the DDB1-DDB2 complex. Cell. 2008;135:1213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The DDB1-DDB2 complex serves in the initial detection of UV lesions in vivo...
  10. Leupin O, Bontron S, Schaeffer C, Strubin M. Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates viral genome replication via a DDB1-dependent pathway distinct from that leading to cell death. J Virol. 2005;79:4238-45 pubmed
    ..Previous work has demonstrated that HBx affects cell viability by a mechanism that requires its binding to DDB1, a highly conserved protein implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation...
  11. Ward J, Davis Z, DeHart J, Zimmerman E, Bosque A, Brunetta E, et al. HIV-1 Vpr triggers natural killer cell-mediated lysis of infected cells through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000613 pubmed publisher
    ..on the ability of Vpr to associate with a protein complex know as Cullin 4a (Cul4a)/damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and Cul4a-associated factor-1(DCAF-1) E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul4a(DCAF-1))...
  12. Andrejeva J, Poole E, Young D, Goodbourn S, Randall R. The p127 subunit (DDB1) of the UV-DNA damage repair binding protein is essential for the targeted degradation of STAT1 by the V protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5. J Virol. 2002;76:11379-86 pubmed
    ..Here we present three main pieces of evidence which demonstrate that the p127 subunit (DDB1) of the UV damage-specific DNA binding protein (DDB) plays a central role in this degradation process...
  13. Le Rouzic E, Morel M, Ayinde D, Belaïdouni N, Letienne J, Transy C, et al. Assembly with the Cul4A-DDB1DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase protects HIV-1 Vpr from proteasomal degradation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21686-92 pubmed publisher
    ..virus type 1 Vpr protein, which promotes cell cycle arrest by recruiting the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, a finding now confirmed by several groups...
  14. Wittschieben B, Iwai S, Wood R. DDB1-DDB2 (xeroderma pigmentosum group E) protein complex recognizes a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, mismatches, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and compound lesions in DNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39982-9 pubmed
    The DDB protein complex, comprising the subunits DDB1 and DDB2, binds tightly to UV light-irradiated DNA. Mutations in DDB2 are responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum group E, a disorder with defects in nucleotide excision repair of DNA...
  15. Shiyanov P, Nag A, Raychaudhuri P. Cullin 4A associates with the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein DDB. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35309-12 pubmed
    ..The observation provides insights how CUL-4A, through an interaction with DDB, might be playing a role in the development of breast carcinomas. ..
  16. Le Rouzic E, Belaïdouni N, Estrabaud E, Morel M, Rain J, Transy C, et al. HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:182-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DCAF1 bridges Vpr to DDB1, a core subunit of Cul4 ubiquitin ligases...
  17. Hu J, Zacharek S, He Y, Lee H, Shumway S, Duronio R, et al. WD40 protein FBW5 promotes ubiquitination of tumor suppressor TSC2 by DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 ligase. Genes Dev. 2008;22:866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that TSC2 protein binds to FBW5, a DDB1-binding WD40 (DWD) protein, and is recruited by FBW5 to the DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  18. Katiyar S, Liu E, Knutzen C, Lang E, Lombardo C, Sankar S, et al. REDD1, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, is regulated by the CUL4A-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:866-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that REDD1 is subject to ubiquitin-mediated degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1-ROC1-beta-TRCP E3 ligase complex and through the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta...
  19. Chen X, Zhang Y, Douglas L, Zhou P. UV-damaged DNA-binding proteins are targets of CUL-4A-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:48175-82 pubmed
  20. Lu G, Middleton R, Sun H, Naniong M, Ott C, Mitsiades C, et al. The myeloma drug lenalidomide promotes the cereblon-dependent destruction of Ikaros proteins. Science. 2014;343:305-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Malim M, Emerman M. HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission. ..
  22. Fischer E, B hm K, Lydeard J, Yang H, Stadler M, Cavadini S, et al. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide. Nature. 2014;512:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..IMiDs target the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)) and promote the ubiquitination of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and ..
  23. Li J, Wang Q, Zhu Q, El Mahdy M, Wani G, Praetorius Ibba M, et al. DNA damage binding protein component DDB1 participates in nucleotide excision repair through DDB2 DNA-binding and cullin 4A ubiquitin ligase activity. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8590-7 pubmed
    ..However, the exact role of DDB1 in NER is unclear...
  24. Groisman R, Kuraoka I, Chevallier O, Gaye N, Magnaldo T, Tanaka K, et al. CSA-dependent degradation of CSB by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway establishes a link between complementation factors of the Cockayne syndrome. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1429-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of CSB degradation for post-TCR recovery of transcription and for the Cockayne syndrome. Our results unravel for the first time the functional relationship between CSA and CSB. ..
  25. Higa L, Banks D, Wu M, Kobayashi R, Sun H, Zhang H. L2DTL/CDT2 interacts with the CUL4/DDB1 complex and PCNA and regulates CDT1 proteolysis in response to DNA damage. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:1675-80 pubmed
    ..of Drosophila lethal(2) denticleless protein (L2DTL) or fission yeast CDT2, was found to associate with CUL4 and DDB1. L2DTL also interacts with replication licensing protein CDT1 in vivo...
  26. Ahn J, Vu T, Novince Z, Guerrero Santoro J, Rapic Otrin V, Gronenborn A. HIV-1 Vpr loads uracil DNA glycosylase-2 onto DCAF1, a substrate recognition subunit of a cullin 4A-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase for proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligase is composed of cullin 4A (CUL4A), RING H2 finger protein (RBX1), DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1), and a substrate recognition subunit, DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1)...
  27. Min K, Kwon M, Park H, Park Y, Yoon S, Yoon J. CAND1 enhances deneddylation of CUL1 by COP9 signalosome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:867-74 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that enhancement of CSN-mediated deneddylation by CAND1 may contribute to its function as a positive regulator of SCFs in vivo. ..
  28. Sugasawa K, Okuda Y, Saijo M, Nishi R, Matsuda N, Chu G, et al. UV-induced ubiquitylation of XPC protein mediated by UV-DDB-ubiquitin ligase complex. Cell. 2005;121:387-400 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that ubiquitylation plays a critical role in the transfer of the UV-induced lesion from UV-DDB to XPC. ..
  29. Salsman J, Jagannathan M, Paladino P, Chan P, Dellaire G, Raught B, et al. Proteomic profiling of the human cytomegalovirus UL35 gene products reveals a role for UL35 in the DNA repair response. J Virol. 2012;86:806-20 pubmed publisher
    ..but not UL35a) was found to associate with three components of the Cul4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (DCAF1, DDB1, and DDA1) previously shown to be targeted by the HIV-1 Vpr protein...
  30. Wertz I, O Rourke K, Zhang Z, Dornan D, Arnott D, Deshaies R, et al. Human De-etiolated-1 regulates c-Jun by assembling a CUL4A ubiquitin ligase. Science. 2004;303:1371-4 pubmed
    ..transcription factor c-Jun by assembling a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase containing DNA Damage Binding Protein-1 (DDB1), cullin 4A (CUL4A), Regulator of Cullins-1 (ROC1), and constitutively photomorphogenic-1...
  31. Nishitani H, Shiomi Y, Iida H, Michishita M, Takami T, Tsurimoto T. CDK inhibitor p21 is degraded by a proliferating cell nuclear antigen-coupled Cul4-DDB1Cdt2 pathway during S phase and after UV irradiation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29045-52 pubmed publisher
    Previous reports showed that chromatin-associated PCNA couples DNA replication with Cul4-DDB1(Cdt2)-dependent proteolysis of the licensing factor Cdt1...
  32. Casey L, Wen X, de Noronha C. The functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1.DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase. Cytokine. 2010;51:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on Vpr and its HIV2/SIV counterparts, Vpx and Vpr, which all engage the DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase complex through the DCAF1 adaptor protein...
  33. Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wu Y, Ahn J. HIV-2 and SIVmac accessory virulence factor Vpx down-regulates SAMHD1 enzyme catalysis prior to proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19116-26 pubmed publisher
  34. Tan L, Ehrlich E, Yu X. DDB1 and Cul4A are required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest. J Virol. 2007;81:10822-30 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have shown that HIV-1 Vpr interacts with damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) but not its partner DDB2...
  35. Ahn J, Hao C, Yan J, Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wang C, et al. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory virulence factor Vpx loads the host cell restriction factor SAMHD1 onto the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4DCAF1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the N terminus of Vpx, bound to DCAF1, recruits SAMHD1 via its C terminus to CRL4, in a species-specific manner for proteasomal degradation. ..
  36. Srivastava S, Swanson S, Manel N, Florens L, Washburn M, Skowronski J. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000059 pubmed publisher
    ..found that Vpx protein of the pathogenic SIVmac 239 strain associates with a ternary protein complex comprising DDB1 and VprBP subunits of Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and DDA1, which has been implicated in the regulation of ..
  37. Dehart J, Planelles V. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr links proteasomal degradation and checkpoint activation. J Virol. 2008;82:1066-72 pubmed
  38. Datta A, Bagchi S, Nag A, Shiyanov P, Adami G, Yoon T, et al. The p48 subunit of the damaged-DNA binding protein DDB associates with the CBP/p300 family of histone acetyltransferase. Mutat Res. 2001;486:89-97 pubmed
    ..The observation offers insights into both transcription and repair functions of DDB. ..
  39. Schröfelbauer B, Hakata Y, Landau N. HIV-1 Vpr function is mediated by interaction with the damage-specific DNA-binding protein DDB1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4130-5 pubmed
    ..we identified a predominant cellular protein that binds to Vpr as the damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1)...
  40. Rapic Otrin V, Navazza V, Nardo T, Botta E, McLenigan M, Bisi D, et al. True XP group E patients have a defective UV-damaged DNA binding protein complex and mutations in DDB2 which reveal the functional domains of its p48 product. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:1507-22 pubmed
    ..Besides confirming that the true XP-E phenotype is DDB(-), resulting from defects in a single gene, DDB2, our results identify the functional domains of the corresponding p48 protein. ..
  41. Kulaksiz G, Reardon J, Sancar A. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E protein (XPE/DDB2): purification of various complexes of XPE and analyses of their damaged DNA binding and putative DNA repair properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9784-92 pubmed
    ..The DDB2 protein exists in at least four forms in the cell: monomeric DDB2, DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer (UV-DDB), and as a protein associated with both the Cullin 4A (CUL4A) complex and the COP9 ..
  42. Senga T, Sivaprasad U, Zhu W, Park J, Arias E, Walter J, et al. PCNA is a cofactor for Cdt1 degradation by CUL4/DDB1-mediated N-terminal ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6246-52 pubmed
    ..The degradation involves N-terminal ubiquitination and requires Cul4 and Ddb1 proteins, components of an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in protein degradation after DNA damage...
  43. Belzile J, Duisit G, Rougeau N, Mercier J, Finzi A, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e85 pubmed
    ..We used tandem affinity purification to isolate native Vpr complexes. We found that damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), viral protein R binding protein (VPRBP), and cullin 4A (CUL4A)--components of a CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex,..
  44. Keeney S, Chang G, Linn S. Characterization of a human DNA damage binding protein implicated in xeroderma pigmentosum E. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:21293-300 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous reports, the DNA damage binding protein was shown to recognize cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in addition to a nonphotoreactivable lesion(s), most likely the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct. ..
  45. Schwefel D, Groom H, Boucherit V, Christodoulou E, Walker P, Stoye J, et al. Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway. Nature. 2014;505:234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure reported here provides a molecular description of how a lentiviral accessory protein is able to subvert the cell's normal protein degradation pathway to inactivate the cellular viral defence system. ..
  46. Martinez E, Palhan V, Tjernberg A, Lymar E, Gamper A, Kundu T, et al. Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6782-95 pubmed
    ..template in vitro and associates in HeLa cells with spliceosome-associated protein 130 (SAP130) and DDB1, two structurally related proteins...
  47. Bontron S, Lin Marq N, Strubin M. Hepatitis B virus X protein associated with UV-DDB1 induces cell death in the nucleus and is functionally antagonized by UV-DDB2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38847-54 pubmed
    ..These activities involve interaction of HBx with the DDB1 subunit of UV-damaged DNA-binding factor UV-DDB...
  48. Takedachi A, Saijo M, Tanaka K. DDB2 complex-mediated ubiquitylation around DNA damage is oppositely regulated by XPC and Ku and contributes to the recruitment of XPA. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2708-23 pubmed publisher
    UV-damaged-DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) is a heterodimer comprised of DDB1 and DDB2 and integrated in a complex that includes a ubiquitin ligase component, cullin 4A, and Roc1...
  49. Li T, Chen X, Garbutt K, Zhou P, Zheng N. Structure of DDB1 in complex with a paramyxovirus V protein: viral hijack of a propeller cluster in ubiquitin ligase. Cell. 2006;124:105-17 pubmed
    The DDB1-Cul4A ubiquitin ligase complex promotes protein ubiquitination in diverse cellular functions and is reprogrammed by the V proteins of paramyxoviruses to degrade STATs and block interferon signaling...
  50. Bondar T, Kalinina A, Khair L, Kopanja D, Nag A, Bagchi S, et al. Cul4A and DDB1 associate with Skp2 to target p27Kip1 for proteolysis involving the COP9 signalosome. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2531-9 pubmed
    b>DDB1, a subunit of the damaged-DNA binding protein DDB, has been shown to function also as an adaptor for Cul4A, a member of the cullin family of E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  51. Hrecka K, Gierszewska M, Srivastava S, Kozaczkiewicz L, Swanson S, Florens L, et al. Lentiviral Vpr usurps Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase to modulate cell cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..associate with a protein complex comprising subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligase assembled on Cullin-4 scaffold (Cul4-DDB1[VprBP])...
  52. Pick E, Lau O, Tsuge T, Menon S, Tong Y, Dohmae N, et al. Mammalian DET1 regulates Cul4A activity and forms stable complexes with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4708-19 pubmed
    ..regulator of plant light responses, and it is a component of the Arabidopsis thaliana CDD complex containing DDB1 and COP10 ubiquitin E2 variant...
  53. He Y, McCall C, Hu J, Zeng Y, Xiong Y. DDB1 functions as a linker to recruit receptor WD40 proteins to CUL4-ROC1 ubiquitin ligases. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2949-54 pubmed
    ..We identified a protein motif, the DWD box (DDB1-binding WD40 protein), and demonstrated the binding of 15 DWD proteins with DDB1-CUL4A...
  54. Fousteri M, Vermeulen W, Van Zeeland A, Mullenders L. Cockayne syndrome A and B proteins differentially regulate recruitment of chromatin remodeling and repair factors to stalled RNA polymerase II in vivo. Mol Cell. 2006;23:471-82 pubmed
    ..as a coupling factor to attract histone acetyltransferase p300, nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins, and CSA-DDB1 E3-ubiquitin ligase complex with the COP9 signalosome...
  55. Wang H, Zhai L, Xu J, Joo H, Jackson S, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. Histone H3 and H4 ubiquitylation by the CUL4-DDB-ROC1 ubiquitin ligase facilitates cellular response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2006;22:383-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies uncover CUL4-DDB-ROC1 as a histone ubiquitin ligase and demonstrate that histone H3 and H4 ubiquitylation participates in the cellular response to DNA damage. ..
  56. Hu J, McCall C, Ohta T, Xiong Y. Targeted ubiquitination of CDT1 by the DDB1-CUL4A-ROC1 ligase in response to DNA damage. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1003-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that human UV-damaged DNA-binding protein DDB1 associates stoichiometrically with CUL4A in vivo, and binds to an amino-terminal region in CUL4A in a manner ..
  57. Chu G, Chang E. Xeroderma pigmentosum group E cells lack a nuclear factor that binds to damaged DNA. Science. 1988;242:564-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the factor appears to participate in a versatile DNA repair pathway at the stage of binding and recognition. ..
  58. Laguette N, Brégnard C, Hue P, Basbous J, Yatim A, Larroque M, et al. Premature activation of the SLX4 complex by Vpr promotes G2/M arrest and escape from innate immune sensing. Cell. 2014;156:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of the structure-specific endonuclease (SSE) regulator SLX4 complex (SLX4com) by Vpr, a process that requires VPRBP-DDB1-CUL4 E3-ligase complex...
  59. Nichols A, Ong P, Linn S. Mutations specific to the xeroderma pigmentosum group E Ddb- phenotype. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24317-20 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that p48 is required for DNA binding activity, but at the same time necessitate further definition of the genetic basis of XP group E. ..
  60. Kaur M, Khan M, Kar A, Sharma A, Saxena S. CRL4-DDB1-VPRBP ubiquitin ligase mediates the stress triggered proteolysis of Mcm10. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7332-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Mcm10 associates with E3 ubiquitin ligase comprising DNA damage-binding protein, DDB1, cullin, Cul4 and ring finger protein, Roc1...
  61. Abbas T, Sivaprasad U, Terai K, Amador V, Pagano M, Dutta A. PCNA-dependent regulation of p21 ubiquitylation and degradation via the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase complex. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Human cells that are depleted of Cul4, DDB1 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein-1), or the DCAF Cdt2, are deficient in the UV-induced ubiquitylation and ..
  62. Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M. Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 binding properties to mediate distinct activities. J Virol. 2003;77:6274-83 pubmed
    The UV-damaged DNA-binding activity protein (UV-DDB) consists of two subunits, DDB1 and DDB2, and functions in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. The DDB1 subunit is a target for the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)...
  63. Alekseev S, Luijsterburg M, Pines A, Geverts B, Mari P, Giglia Mari G, et al. Cellular concentrations of DDB2 regulate dynamic binding of DDB1 at UV-induced DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..genome NER (GG-NER), we constructed cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1). DDB1 is a core subunit of a number of cullin 4-RING ubiquitin ligase complexes...
  64. Precious B, Childs K, Fitzpatrick Swallow V, Goodbourn S, Randall R. Simian virus 5 V protein acts as an adaptor, linking DDB1 to STAT2, to facilitate the ubiquitination of STAT1. J Virol. 2005;79:13434-41 pubmed
    ..system, that while the SV5 V protein fails to bind to STAT1 directly, it binds directly and independently to both DDB1 and STAT2, two cellular proteins known to be essential for SV5-mediated degradation of STAT1...
  65. Lovejoy C, Lock K, Yenamandra A, Cortez D. DDB1 maintains genome integrity through regulation of Cdt1. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7977-90 pubmed
    b>DDB1, a component of a Cul4A ubiquitin ligase complex, promotes nucleotide excision repair (NER) and regulates DNA replication. We have investigated the role of human DDB1 in maintaining genome stability...
  66. Jiang Y, Wang X, Bao S, Guo R, Johnson D, Shen X, et al. INO80 chromatin remodeling complex promotes the removal of UV lesions by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role of INO80 in creating DNA accessibility for the NER pathway and provide direct evidence that repair of UV lesions and perhaps most bulky adduct lesions requires chromatin reconfiguration. ..
  67. Zhang X, Aida Y. HIV-1 Vpr: a novel role in regulating RNA splicing. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:163-8 pubmed
    ..This review discusses our current knowledge of how RNA splicing regulation is accomplished by Vpr-host factor interactions. ..
  68. Ito T, Ando H, Suzuki T, Ogura T, Hotta K, Imamura Y, et al. Identification of a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Science. 2010;327:1345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..CRBN forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and Cul4A that is important for limb outgrowth and expression of the fibroblast growth factor Fgf8 in zebrafish ..
  69. Li W, You L, Cooper J, Schiavon G, Pepe Caprio A, Zhou L, et al. Merlin/NF2 suppresses tumorigenesis by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus. Cell. 2010;140:477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Merlin suppresses tumorigenesis by translocating to the nucleus to inhibit CRL4(DCAF1). ..
  70. Richard J, Sindhu S, Pham T, Belzile J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing. Blood. 2010;115:1354-63 pubmed publisher
  71. Jackson S, Xiong Y. CRL4s: the CUL4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. Trends Biochem Sci. 2009;34:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..CUL4, one of three founding cullins conserved from yeast to humans, uses a large beta-propeller protein, DDB1, as a linker to interact with a subset of WD40 proteins that serve as substrate receptors, forming as many as 90 E3 ..
  72. Rapic Otrin V, McLenigan M, Bisi D, Gonzalez M, Levine A. Sequential binding of UV DNA damage binding factor and degradation of the p48 subunit as early events after UV irradiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2588-98 pubmed
    ..The data support a functional connection between UV-DDB binding activity, proteasomal degradation of p48 and chromatin remodeling during early steps of NER. ..
  73. Belzile J, Richard J, Rougeau N, Xiao Y, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr induces the K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target cellular proteins to activate ATR and promote G2 arrest. J Virol. 2010;84:3320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We and others recently showed that Vpr performs this function by subverting the activity of the DDB1-CUL4A (VPRBP) E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  74. Leung Pineda V, Huh J, Piwnica Worms H. DDB1 targets Chk1 to the Cul4 E3 ligase complex in normal cycling cells and in cells experiencing replication stress. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2630-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Chk1 is currently being targeted in anticancer regimens. Here, we identify damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) as a novel Chk1-interacting protein...