Gene Symbol: DCAF1
Description: DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 1
Alias: RIP, VPRBP, DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 1, HIV-1 Vpr-binding protein, Vpr (HIV-1) binding protein, Vpr-binding protein, protein VPRBP, serine/threonine-protein kinase VPRBP, vpr-interacting protein
Species: human
Products:     DCAF1

Top Publications

  1. Srivastava S, Swanson S, Manel N, Florens L, Washburn M, Skowronski J. Lentiviral Vpx accessory factor targets VprBP/DCAF1 substrate adaptor for cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to enable macrophage infection. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000059 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they identify VprBP/DCAF1 substrate receptor for Cullin 4 E3 ubiquitin ligase and its associated protein complex as immediate downstream ..
  2. Ahn J, Hao C, Yan J, Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wang C, et al. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory virulence factor Vpx loads the host cell restriction factor SAMHD1 onto the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4DCAF1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of HIV-2/SIVsm viruses, which targets SAMHD1 for proteasome-dependent degradation, by reprogramming cellular CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  3. Goujon C, Arfi V, Pertel T, Luban J, Lienard J, Rigal D, et al. Characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVSM/human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx function in human myeloid cells. J Virol. 2008;82:12335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..As a first insight into its function, we determined that SIV(SM)/HIV-2 and SIV(RCM) Vpx proteins interact with the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex recently described to associate with HIV-1 Vpr and HIV-2 Vpx...
  4. Laguette N, Brégnard C, Hue P, Basbous J, Yatim A, Larroque M, et al. Premature activation of the SLX4 complex by Vpr promotes G2/M arrest and escape from innate immune sensing. Cell. 2014;156:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of the structure-specific endonuclease (SSE) regulator SLX4 complex (SLX4com) by Vpr, a process that requires VPRBP-DDB1-CUL4 E3-ligase complex...
  5. Dehart J, Zimmerman E, Ardon O, Monteiro Filho C, Argañaraz E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr activates the G2 checkpoint through manipulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Virol J. 2007;4:57 pubmed
    ..We found that Vpr binds to the DCAF1 subunit of a cullin 4a/DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  6. Maudet C, Sourisce A, Dragin L, Lahouassa H, Rain J, Bouaziz S, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces the degradation of ZIP and sZIP, adaptors of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex, by hijacking DCAF1/VprBP. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77320 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) is thought to inactivate several host proteins through the hijacking of the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A ubiquitin ligase...
  7. Le Rouzic E, Belaïdouni N, Estrabaud E, Morel M, Rain J, Transy C, et al. HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:182-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that recruitment of DCAF1/VprBP by Vpr is essential for its cytostatic activity, which can be abolished either by single mutations of Vpr that ..
  8. Maudet C, Bertrand M, Le Rouzic E, Lahouassa H, Ayinde D, Nisole S, et al. Molecular insight into how HIV-1 Vpr protein impairs cell growth through two genetically distinct pathways. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23742-52 pubmed publisher
    Vpr, a small HIV auxiliary protein, hijacks the CUL4 ubiquitin ligase through DCAF1 to inactivate an unknown cellular target, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G(2) phase and cell death...
  9. Wen X, Duus K, Friedrich T, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to promote G2 cell cycle arrest by engaging a DDB1 and Cullin4A-containing ubiquitin ligase complex using VprBP/DCAF1 as an adaptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27046-57 pubmed
    ..mass spectroscopy, we found that HIV1 Vpr engages a DDB1- and cullin4A-containing ubiquitin-ligase complex through VprBP/DCAF1...

More Information


  1. Jacquot G, Le Rouzic E, Maidou Peindara P, Maizy M, Lefrere J, Daneluzzi V, et al. Characterization of the molecular determinants of primary HIV-1 Vpr proteins: impact of the Q65R and R77Q substitutions on Vpr functions. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7514 pubmed publisher
    ..and proapoptotic activities, although a LTNP allele, harboring the Q65R substitution, failed to bind the DCAF1 subunit of the Cul4a/DDB1 E3 ligase and was inactive...
  2. Morellet N, Roques B, Bouaziz S. Structure-function relationship of Vpr: biological implications. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:184-210 pubmed
    ..Cell cycle arrest has been correlated with the binding to DCAF1, a cullin 4A-associated factor and apoptosis may be facilitated by interaction with mitochondrial proteins, in a ..
  3. Zhao L, Mukherjee S, Narayan O. Biochemical mechanism of HIV-I Vpr function. Specific interaction with a cellular protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15577-82 pubmed
    ..assay, the purified Vpr interacted specifically with a cellular protein designated as Vpr-interacting protein, or RIP. Mutational analysis suggested that this interaction required a domain rich in leucine/isoleucine residues and ..
  4. Casey L, Wen X, de Noronha C. The functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1.DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase. Cytokine. 2010;51:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase complex through the DCAF1 adaptor protein...
  5. Li W, You L, Cooper J, Schiavon G, Pepe Caprio A, Zhou L, et al. Merlin/NF2 suppresses tumorigenesis by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus. Cell. 2010;140:477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the closed, growth-inhibitory form of Merlin accumulates in the nucleus, binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1), and suppresses its activity. Depletion of DCAF1 blocks the promitogenic effect of inactivation of Merlin...
  6. Belzile J, Duisit G, Rougeau N, Mercier J, Finzi A, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e85 pubmed
    ..We found that damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), viral protein R binding protein (VPRBP), and cullin 4A (CUL4A)--components of a CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, DDB1-CUL4A(VPRBP)--were able to ..
  7. Huang C, Chiang S, Lin T, Chiou S, Chow K. HIV-1 Vpr triggers mitochondrial destruction by impairing Mfn2-mediated ER-mitochondria interaction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33657 pubmed publisher
    ..a loss in membrane potential (MMP) by posttranscriptionally reducing the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) via VprBP-DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin ligase complex, gradually weakening MOM, and increasing mitochondrial deformation...
  8. Andersen J, Le Rouzic E, Planelles V. HIV-1 Vpr: mechanisms of G2 arrest and apoptosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008;85:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Vpr, in particular, leads to cell cycle arrest in G(2), followed by apoptosis. Here we summarize our current understanding of Vpr biology with a focus on Vpr-induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis. ..
  9. Casey Klockow L, Sharifi H, Wen X, Flagg M, Furuya A, Nekorchuk M, et al. The HIV-1 protein Vpr targets the endoribonuclease Dicer for proteasomal degradation to boost macrophage infection. Virology. 2013;444:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Vpr acts through the CRL4(DCAF1) ubiquitin ligase complex to cause G2 arrest and trigger expression of NK ligands...
  10. Schwefel D, Groom H, Boucherit V, Christodoulou E, Walker P, Stoye J, et al. Structural basis of lentiviral subversion of a cellular protein degradation pathway. Nature. 2014;505:234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Vpx with the human E3 ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 and the carboxy-terminal region of human SAMHD1...
  11. Pertel T, Reinhard C, Luban J. Vpx rescues HIV-1 transduction of dendritic cells from the antiviral state established by type 1 interferon. Retrovirology. 2011;8:49 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity correlates with Vpx binding to DCAF1 (VPRBP) and association with the DDB1/RBX1/CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex...
  12. Gramberg T, Sunseri N, Landau N. Evidence for an activation domain at the amino terminus of simian immunodeficiency virus Vpx. J Virol. 2010;84:1387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..and mediate their effects in the target cell through an interaction with an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains DCAF1 and DDB1...
  13. Sharifi H, Furuya A, Jellinger R, Nekorchuk M, de Noronha C. Cullin4A and cullin4B are interchangeable for HIV Vpr and Vpx action through the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex. J Virol. 2014;88:6944-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our observations with primary immune cells provide insight into the cell biology of CUL4A and CUL4B that will help differentiate the functions of these similar proteins...
  14. Ayinde D, Maudet C, Transy C, Margottin Goguet F. Limelight on two HIV/SIV accessory proteins in macrophage infection: is Vpx overshadowing Vpr?. Retrovirology. 2010;7:35 pubmed publisher
  15. Kogan M, Rappaport J. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr: relevance in the pathogenesis of HIV and potential for therapeutic intervention. Retrovirology. 2011;8:25 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the pivotal functions of Vpr in virus infection, replication, and persistence of infection, this protein represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  16. Bergamaschi A, Ayinde D, David A, Le Rouzic E, Morel M, Collin G, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx protein usurps the CUL4A-DDB1 DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase to overcome a postentry block in macrophage infection. J Virol. 2009;83:4854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we underscore DCAF1 as a critical host effector of Vpx in its ability to mediate infection and long-term replication of HIV-2 in human ..
  17. Delucia M, Mehrens J, Wu Y, Ahn J. HIV-2 and SIVmac accessory virulence factor Vpx down-regulates SAMHD1 enzyme catalysis prior to proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..via a virion-associated virulence accessory factor, Vpx (Vpr in some SIVs), which loads SAMHD1 onto CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for polyubiquitination, programming it for proteasome-dependent degradation...
  18. Ward J, Davis Z, DeHart J, Zimmerman E, Bosque A, Brunetta E, et al. HIV-1 Vpr triggers natural killer cell-mediated lysis of infected cells through activation of the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000613 pubmed publisher
    ..When T-cell blasts are infected with a vpr-deficient HIV-1, NK cells are impaired in killing the infected cells. Thus, HIV-1 Vpr actively triggers the expression of the ligands to the NK cell activation receptor. ..
  19. Belzile J, Richard J, Rougeau N, Xiao Y, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr induces the K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target cellular proteins to activate ATR and promote G2 arrest. J Virol. 2010;84:3320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We and others recently showed that Vpr performs this function by subverting the activity of the DDB1-CUL4A (VPRBP) E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  20. Mahalingam S, Ayyavoo V, Patel M, Kieber Emmons T, Kao G, Muschel R, et al. HIV-1 Vpr interacts with a human 34-kDa mov34 homologue, a cellular factor linked to the G2/M phase transition of the mammalian cell cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3419-24 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a candidate Vpr ligand, termed human Vpr interacting protein (hVIP/MOV34), by using a yeast two-hybrid assay...
  21. Wei W, Guo H, Han X, Liu X, Zhou X, Zhang W, et al. A novel DCAF1-binding motif required for Vpx-mediated degradation of nuclear SAMHD1 and Vpr-induced G2 arrest. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Vpx hijacks DCAF1-DDB1-Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase to promote viral replication...
  22. Gerard F, Yang R, Romani B, Poisson A, Belzile J, Rougeau N, et al. Defining the interactions and role of DCAF1/VPRBP in the DDB1-cullin4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex engaged by HIV-1 Vpr to induce a G2 cell cycle arrest. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89195 pubmed publisher
    ..phase by activating the ATR DNA damage/replication stress signalling pathway through engagement of the DDB1-CUL4A-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase via a direct binding to the substrate specificity receptor DCAF1...
  23. Ahn J, Novince Z, Concel J, Byeon C, Makhov A, Byeon I, et al. The Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4-DCAF1 complex dimerizes via a short helical region in DCAF1. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1359-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Such CRL4 substrate recognition modules are DDB1- and CUL4-associated factors (DCAFs). Here we show that, for DCAF1, oligomerization of the protein and the CRL4 complex occurs via a short helical region (residues 845-873) N-..
  24. Tan L, Ehrlich E, Yu X. DDB1 and Cul4A are required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest. J Virol. 2007;81:10822-30 pubmed
    ..The interaction of Vpr with DDB1 was inhibited when DCAF1 (VprBP) expression was reduced by short interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment...
  25. McCall C, Miliani de Marval P, Chastain P, Jackson S, He Y, Kotake Y, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr-binding protein VprBP, a WD40 protein associated with the DDB1-CUL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, is essential for DNA replication and embryonic development. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these DWD proteins is the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-binding protein VprBP, whose cellular function has yet to be characterized but has recently been found to mediate Vpr-induced G(2) ..
  26. Zhao R, Li G, Bukrinsky M. Vpr-host interactions during HIV-1 viral life cycle. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:216-29 pubmed publisher
  27. Ramanathan M, Curley E, Su M, Chambers J, Weiner D. Carboxyl terminus of hVIP/mov34 is critical for HIV-1-Vpr interaction and glucocorticoid-mediated signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47854-60 pubmed
    ..hVIP/mov34 (human Vpr Interacting Protein) is one of these identified Vpr ligands...
  28. Richard J, Sindhu S, Pham T, Belzile J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing. Blood. 2010;115:1354-63 pubmed publisher
  29. Kaur M, Khan M, Kar A, Sharma A, Saxena S. CRL4-DDB1-VPRBP ubiquitin ligase mediates the stress triggered proteolysis of Mcm10. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7332-46 pubmed publisher
    ..By screening the known DDB1 interacting proteins, we discovered that VprBP is the substrate recognition subunit that targets Mcm10 for degradation...
  30. Wen X, Casey Klockow L, Nekorchuk M, Sharifi H, de Noronha C. The HIV1 protein Vpr acts to enhance constitutive DCAF1-dependent UNG2 turnover. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30939 pubmed publisher
    ..b>DCAF1, an adaptor protein, is required for Vpr-mediated G2 arrest through the ubiquitin ligase complex...
  31. Ahn J, Vu T, Novince Z, Guerrero Santoro J, Rapic Otrin V, Gronenborn A. HIV-1 Vpr loads uracil DNA glycosylase-2 onto DCAF1, a substrate recognition subunit of a cullin 4A-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase for proteasome-dependent degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular proteins including uracil DNA glycosylase-2 (UNG2) and a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase assembly (CRL4(DCAF1))...
  32. Huang J, Chen J. VprBP targets Merlin to the Roc1-Cul4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex for degradation. Oncogene. 2008;27:4056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Merlin is recruited to the E3 ligase complex through a direct interaction with the WD40-containing adaptor protein VprBP. Loading of Merlin to the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex resulted in its polyubiquitination, and consequently its ..
  33. Salsman J, Jagannathan M, Paladino P, Chan P, Dellaire G, Raught B, et al. Proteomic profiling of the human cytomegalovirus UL35 gene products reveals a role for UL35 in the DNA repair response. J Virol. 2012;86:806-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, UL35 (but not UL35a) was found to associate with three components of the Cul4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (DCAF1, DDB1, and DDA1) previously shown to be targeted by the HIV-1 Vpr protein...
  34. Borgne Sanchez A, Dupont S, Langonne A, Baux L, Lecoeur H, Chauvier D, et al. Targeted Vpr-derived peptides reach mitochondria to induce apoptosis of alphaVbeta3-expressing endothelial cells. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:422-35 pubmed
    ..Hence, this chimeric peptide constitutes the first example of a virus-derived mitochondriotoxic compound as a candidate to kill selectively tumor neo-endothelia. ..
  35. Zhang S, Feng Y, Narayan O, Zhao L. Cytoplasmic retention of HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr by protein-protein interaction with a novel human cytoplasmic protein VprBP. Gene. 2001;263:131-40 pubmed
    ..We now rename this cellular protein as Vpr-binding protein, or VprBP. In this report, we describe the cloning of the VprBP cDNA that encodes 1507 aa residues and is identical to the ..
  36. Hrecka K, Gierszewska M, Srivastava S, Kozaczkiewicz L, Swanson S, Florens L, et al. Lentiviral Vpr usurps Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase to modulate cell cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..with a protein complex comprising subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligase assembled on Cullin-4 scaffold (Cul4-DDB1[VprBP])...
  37. Malim M, Emerman M. HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:388-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Broadly speaking, the HIV-1 accessory proteins modify the local environment within infected cells to ensure viral persistence, replication, dissemination, and transmission. ..
  38. Wang X, Singh S, Jung H, Yang G, Jun S, Sastry K, et al. HIV-1 Vpr protein inhibits telomerase activity via the EDD-DDB1-VPRBP E3 ligase complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..As a molecular adaptor, Vpr enhanced the interaction between TERT and the VPRBP substrate receptor of the DYRK2-associated EDD-DDB1-VPRBP E3 ligase complex, resulting in increased ubiquitination ..
  39. Dehart J, Planelles V. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr links proteasomal degradation and checkpoint activation. J Virol. 2008;82:1066-72 pubmed
  40. Belzile J, Abrahamyan L, Gerard F, Rougeau N, Cohen E. Formation of mobile chromatin-associated nuclear foci containing HIV-1 Vpr and VPRBP is critical for the induction of G2 cell cycle arrest. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001080 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we and several other groups showed that Vpr performs this activity by recruiting the DDB1-CUL4A (VPRBP) E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  41. Wang X, Arceci A, Bird K, Mills C, Choudhury R, Kernan J, et al. VprBP/DCAF1 Regulates the Degradation and Nonproteolytic Activation of the Cell Cycle Transcription Factor FoxM1. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..We characterize here a cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase and its substrate receptor, VprBP/DCAF1 (CRL4VprBP), which we show regulate FoxM1 ubiquitylation and degradation...
  42. Romani B, Shaykh Baygloo N, Aghasadeghi M, Allahbakhshi E. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Enhances Proteasomal Degradation of MCM10 DNA Replication Factor through the Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Induce G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well documented that interaction of Vpr with the Cul4-DDB1[VprBP] E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for the induction of G2/M arrest...
  43. Li W, Cooper J, Zhou L, Yang C, Erdjument Bromage H, Zagzag D, et al. Merlin/NF2 loss-driven tumorigenesis linked to CRL4(DCAF1)-mediated inhibition of the hippo pathway kinases Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus. Cancer Cell. 2014;26:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..upstream components of the Hippo pathway at the plasma membrane or by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus...
  44. Collins D, Lubow J, Lukic Z, Mashiba M, Collins K. Vpr Promotes Macrophage-Dependent HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005054 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that Vpr and its cellular co-factor, DCAF1, are necessary for efficient cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 from macrophages to CD4+ T lymphocytes when there is ..
  45. Li Q, Li Y, Gu B, Fang L, Zhou P, Bao S, et al. Akt Phosphorylates Wnt Coactivator and Chromatin Effector Pygo2 at Serine 48 to Antagonize Its Ubiquitin/Proteasome-mediated Degradation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21553-67 pubmed publisher
  46. Nakagawa T, Lv L, Nakagawa M, Yu Y, Yu C, D Alessio A, et al. CRL4(VprBP) E3 ligase promotes monoubiquitylation and chromatin binding of TET dioxygenases. Mol Cell. 2015;57:247-260 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about how TET activity is regulated. Here we show that all three TET proteins bind to VprBP and are monoubiquitylated by the VprBP-DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4(VprBP)) on a highly conserved ..
  47. Wollscheid H, Biancospino M, He F, Magistrati E, Molteni E, Lupia M, et al. Diverse functions of myosin VI elucidated by an isoform-specific α-helix domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:300-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the α2-linker acts like a molecular switch that assigns myosin VI to distinct endocytic (myosin VI(long)) or migratory (myosin VI(short)) functional roles. ..
  48. Tamori Y, Bialucha C, Tian A, Kajita M, Huang Y, Norman M, et al. Involvement of Lgl and Mahjong/VprBP in cell competition. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000422 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as we are aware, this is the first report that cell competition can occur in a mammalian cell culture system. ..
  49. Yoshizawa T, Karim M, Sato Y, Senokuchi T, Miyata K, Fukuda T, et al. SIRT7 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cell Metab. 2014;19:712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical studies revealed that the DDB1-CUL4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1)/damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1)/cullin 4B (CUL4B) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex interacted with TR4, ..
  50. Yan H, Bi L, Wang Y, Zhang X, Hou Z, Wang Q, et al. Integrative analysis of multi-omics data reveals distinct impacts of DDB1-CUL4 associated factors in human lung adenocarcinomas. Sci Rep. 2017;7:333 pubmed publisher
    ..SKIP2, DTL, DCAF6, 7, 8, 13 and 17 are frequently gained whereas VPRBP, PHIP, DCAF10, 12 and 15 are frequently lost...
  51. Hakata Y, Miyazawa M, Landau N. Interactions with DCAF1 and DDB1 in the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase are required for Vpr-mediated G2 arrest. Virol J. 2014;11:108 pubmed publisher
    ..that contains damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), Cullin 4A (Cul4A), DDB1 and Cul4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1), and Rbx1...
  52. Kim K, Lee B, Kim J, Choi J, Kim J, Xiong Y, et al. Linker Histone H1.2 cooperates with Cul4A and PAF1 to drive H4K31 ubiquitylation-mediated transactivation. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1690-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These data define an expanded role for H1 in regulating gene transcription and illustrate its dependence on the elongation competence of RNAPII. ..
  53. Wu Y, Zhou X, Barnes C, Delucia M, Cohen A, Gronenborn A, et al. The DDB1-DCAF1-Vpr-UNG2 crystal structure reveals how HIV-1 Vpr steers human UNG2 toward destruction. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:933-940 pubmed publisher
    ..Vpr's biological activities are closely linked to the interaction with human DCAF1, a cellular substrate receptor of the Cullin4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) of the host ubiquitin-proteasome-..
  54. Sadewasser A, Paki K, Eichelbaum K, Bogdanow B, Saenger S, Budt M, et al. Quantitative Proteomic Approach Identifies Vpr Binding Protein as Novel Host Factor Supporting Influenza A Virus Infections in Human Cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2017;16:728-742 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi-mediated knockdown of these differentially regulated host factors identified Vpr binding protein (VprBP) as proviral host factor because its downregulation inhibited efficient propagation of seasonal IAV ..
  55. Laulajainen M, Muranen T, Nyman T, Carpen O, Grönholm M. Multistep phosphorylation by oncogenic kinases enhances the degradation of the NF2 tumor suppressor merlin. Neoplasia. 2011;13:643-52 pubmed
    ..directs merlin for proteasome-mediated degradation and affects merlin binding to the E3 ligase component DCAF1. Our data indicate that sequential phosphorylation of merlin C- and N-terminus by different oncogenic kinases ..
  56. Yuan T, Yao W, Huang F, Sun B, Yang R. The human antiviral factor TRIM11 is under the regulation of HIV-1 Vpr. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e104269 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased TRIM11 protein levels, while high levels increased them, and these regulations were independent of the VprBP-associated proteasome machinery...
  57. DePaula Silva A, Cassiday P, Chumley J, Bosque A, Monteiro Filho C, Mahon C, et al. Determinants for degradation of SAMHD1, Mus81 and induction of G2 arrest in HIV-1 Vpr and SIVagm Vpr. Virology. 2015;477:10-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed that HIV-1 Vpr induces degradation of Mus81 although, surprisingly, degradation is independent and genetically separable from Vpr׳s ability to induce G2 arrest. ..
  58. Zhang X, Aida Y. HIV-1 Vpr: a novel role in regulating RNA splicing. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:163-8 pubmed
    ..This review discusses our current knowledge of how RNA splicing regulation is accomplished by Vpr-host factor interactions. ..
  59. Romani B, Baygloo N, Hamidi Fard M, Aghasadeghi M, Allahbakhshi E. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Proteasomal Degradation of Chromatin-associated Class I HDACs to Overcome Latent Infection of Macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:2696-711 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Vpr binds and depletes chromatin-associated class I HDACs through a VprBP-dependent mechanism, with HDAC3 as the most affected class I HDAC...
  60. Guenzel C, Hérate C, Benichou S. HIV-1 Vpr-a still "enigmatic multitasker". Front Microbiol. 2014;5:127 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will summarize the main reported functions of HIV-1 Vpr and their significance in the context of the viral life cycle. ..
  61. Li Y, Wei Z, Zhang J, Yang Z, Zhang M. Structural basis of the binding of Merlin FERM domain to the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:14674-81 pubmed publisher
    ..the Merlin FERM domain in complex with its binding domain derived from the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor DCAF1 (also known as VPRBP)...
  62. Arhel N, Kirchhoff F. Host proteins involved in HIV infection: new therapeutic targets. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the host factors that promote or restrict HIV-1 replication may thus lead to the development of novel therapeutics against HIV/AIDS. ..
  63. Romani B, Cohen E. Lentivirus Vpr and Vpx accessory proteins usurp the cullin4-DDB1 (DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Both proteins usurp the CRL4A (DCAF1) E3 ligase to fulfil their functions...
  64. Malim M. HIV: Ringside views. Nature. 2014;505:167-8 pubmed publisher
  65. Yan Y, Li C, Sun B, Yang R. DCAF1 is involved in HCV replication through regulation of miR-122. Arch Virol. 2018;163:977-985 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that Vpr-mediated regulation of HCV replication depends on the host protein DDB1-Cul4 associate factor 1 (DCAF1), implying that DCAF1 might be involved in the replication of HCV...